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Book 249 Miscellaneous Pages pg 1-857GEUR GIA DEC AT CTt� C 0 D. E. Hu�hes #1 H. "�'�. Niartin Land Lot 189 Land Uist 15 comp 12-15-47 P & A lst 1610 Lt�; sh; Trs ltg spar g;lauc ck Top ck �• top Creta 1680-90 Cr�am color ck (not mass) (Globotrunca arca; Lituola) ss1730-GO Top Taylor sh w�lt vig sty ss 1800-20 (Inoc p.; terebratulina sp.) 1800- 2`750 sr & spar ck(sty ss only to 1900 Top Eutaw(F�r�' equiv? ) ) 2'750-60 f� �lauc ly ss (mass) dotted line top no name �?��.�2940 m-c� ly glauc ss 1_�se clear, pink & red gvl T`o red sh noted Poss Mid Tuacaloosa 3190-3200 G-1 �-� sh; lig sh Top Low Cret Cong 3450-60 clear, lt ,yellow, pink, lt lavender; abun; trs RB DSR ��� 3700 ........ ECHULS C0. Hunt Oil #4 Superior Pines Proclucts Lot 219, Land Div 13 c otnp 1948, P & �, lst 2580 fg �:lauc ly ss Top ls 2630 ��h-lt c�an li w/spar gyp or an��iy incls lst obsv Inoc P(Prob top AC((from log)) 2670-80 G-ltg ck-argil ck ��x����.a�� ( Inoc P; `I'erebratulina sp ) No anhy Base Austin ck-top ss(Eutaw) (c)32'7'7 fg �;lauc ss; g st� mica sh Top con� ss 3612 lt� m-cg con� ss w�clear, lt yel, reci qtz gvl spar RB Top Prob Palerhmoie 3900-03 Sm<�.11 clear amber gn & red gvl;Also weathered i�;n pebbs, trs pale gn & clear fg� sty ss & qtz ss Also dkred sh & mott sh; DSR 3912 GEORGIA ;;2- GLYNN C 0. E. B. LaRue et al #1 R. H. Niassey Lat 31 d.eg 6� 45" N Long 81 deg 31� 45" W comp Dec 1953 � P&�. lst 0(zero) Loose m-cg ang-sub-ang sd(loose) 320-580 loose sd w�beds ltg-tan-wh sdy li Top li: 580 Lt tan-cream color shelly li (Bryozoa. sp) (abun Leps. sp) lst 700 (i�iiogypsina sp)lst 900 - (Camerina sp) lst lOhO shelly 1i-1060 Top wh dolo foss li 1060 (Coskinolina s�) lst 1280 dolols 1060-2000 foss-shelly Top dolo gran li-ly dolo 2000 DSR 2198 Florida -2- Jackson Co. I.P. & Fred La Rue �l Spenc�.;r S e c 30 T�4 T:� �i 81fJ comp 1-4-53 P 8c A 1940-2060 wh-� claystone; spar lig sh Toz� Cret ck 296Ci-90 lt� ck (�;lebbtrunaca) Top Tayl�r G sh; ck(Pl�nulin� taylorensis Stensioina amer., Inoc prisims B ck 2950 to g sh top Glauc f� ss 3020 Top LoP� Cret �;vl w%red becs r�d g ��c yellow wxy Top loose sd 3890 ss & RB DSR 4120 ...... Santa Rosa Co C lifornia Co �l Santa T'Jlaria Unit Sec 33 T 6 N R 26V'J comp 3-10-53 P & A 3110-3200 lt.� sh �Top Cret ck ��00-10 (Guembtlina striata) Globotrunca�.a;Lituola) Top Ta ylor-S�,lma Ck(n:�l� v. dec. Sten amer. ) (Terebratulina) Base Selma cl�-top glauc ss �: sh 4650-60 Top luiiddle Tuscaloosa 5390-5400 G f'lky �� spar mi.ca sh �lauc ss lotivar nali this part DSR 6040 .....e.. S.�nt� �josa The Texas Co �1 Dti�J Bailey SeC 1 4N 29U�J e-omp 11-7-54 P & A lst 5080 in lt� ck(Selma) Base ck top �;lauc ss 5320-40 '1'op Low Tuscaloosa ss 6420-30 gl�uc ss �;-dkg mica sh To� Lower Cret 6920-30 clear, a-��ber 8- pink qtz gvl Trs red sh DS� 7020 FLOI�ILA ESCAPJIBIA CUUNTY Neilson-u�tAlker #1 McDavid Vaneer Sec 35 T 6N R 30Vd comp:8-1U-50 P8cA 3440-3500 g-bn bldr ehips Top ch�lk & to� Cretaceous 3500-30 ck ltg (at top Globotruncana sp. & to 4990 blk sh 4990-5013 Top Eagle ��ord(Low�;r Eutaw)Sanostone ((color ss not given)) fg st,y mica sli glauc w/lig section ss & g lig sh Top Lower 'I'uscaloose ss 6220-40 f-m� por glauc ss ly; Dkg sh Top def Lotiver Cretaceous 6540-50 Small cl�ar � amber qtz peb((gvl)) Tr ltgn por sty ss . DSR 6600 gvl. Escambia Co Sun,yland Contracting Co #1 Mc1�lillan Co-Tvi. L. Eubanks Sec 3 T 4N R 32'�l comp 5-22-52 P & A 4030-4180 g sit sh Top chalk 4180-4210 lt�;(cret micro) Top glauc ss 5G60-90 vf-fg glauc mica ss Top Lower Tuscaloosa 6720-50 f-vfg �lauc ss ly DSR 7006 .......... Gadsden Co E R Smith #1 Dr. C. K. Wall Sec 19 T 2N R 6 W co p 5-12-55 p 8� a 2410-60 li im uphole no cret ioss Top Selma ck 2460-'70 (cr.et micro) ltg ly sh; trs ck Top Ta.,ylor-Selma ck 2490-2500 (ta,y micro)g sh ltg ck B ck top g flky-splty sh 3210-20 top f� glauc l� ss; g mica sh Top Lower Cret�ceous 3910-2Q Clear,lt yellow, amber & pink gvl trs m-cg ss DSR 4025 Lituolas) 5013-20(c) Florida -3- VJ�lton Co D E L Byers l�1 J. R. Sealey sec 12 T 2S R 18W comp 1-13-48 P & h lst 2960 in ltg sh Midway Top Lretaceous ck3230-60 uVh-1tg ck(Globo runcan arca) Top Seltna ck(Taylor) Inoc P. Base ck-top f�'utavv(�agl� Ford) 4130-60 Lt� � mica. �1auc ss G-dk� sh Yrob top i�Iic!.dle Tuscalooea 4610-40 G sh; Trs bnis'_�� spek sh; Trs f�; �*laucss Prob Tor� Lower `I'uscaloosa 4910-40 iV1-c�; slipor ly glauc ss; G mica sh Prob top Low Cret 5240-70 lik red f mic ah; Redish-�h fg ly mica ss Rec1 & rc;d-dk�;n mott sh DSR ;i475 ..... .. }��ash1_n�ton Co Byers �l Alfred Brot'_�ers Sec 31 T 2N R 13 W comp 5-10-48 P & A 2520-2g00 lt� li�; sh Top Cret ck 2820 Top Selma ck2900 Inoc p; Terebratulinas) B ck top Glauc ss 3660-90 1'oss top Tdliddlo Tuscaloosa 4890-4320 G-ltg; illiy-splty sh(Tr g speckl��d sh) sh &�lauc ss Prob top Low `luscaloosa ss 4370-4400 m-i� ss Yrob top Low Cret 4560-80 m-cg: np ly ss S ar clear, lt, yellow, amber & red �;vl ss � ((sr�)) no RB mentioned. DSR 4�26 � GETTIrTG ACaT;AI?iT�,ti a'dITE I:I��':�.�AI..S b�r �'T�or�*P I �tchworth rn�] ish �'onsialtinP ?'inpralo�-ist T,�c^r���.v-ui_11 �oo� �'omaany, 7nc. T r �T • (ci19:�4•bv �'T rn�7 i s�. 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P�ann ( 2F6� (Co'�'np TTalJev) Top Co+,+�on T7a]' eY � �i �'17-�747 p�n r�dst lst mer+,'�n cn-maroon mr'st 97?n q?6p Too C�' hUn h11�� sh, ss h. l.r =s-sr�v ls (c19�s7-6� top rS� ;" b?rn ss k s��� ls 1�,277-10,?�5 TTon�r Cre+�areov� Too �e�an �ao �k Raea Perer �.an TOP 4vs+�n ok Raee AC-ton ��om is jpClr'r �;rp�tT.r(',nil$ Ton '"r�.n�.t•• "'OA PXV SS T�p Str�v S+rincer Top Anh.r 7,n Ton ?'ass AnhV ngse ?'ae,s Anhv Ton 7 otv n.nhv Str Top J�^�As R9SP. J9.?'�P,S ?'OP. ?Bf't}, Ton Trevis Pk mop !'v 7SR i n (;�r p.a?.�ii. =uh-C -}979 -9�74 _?pn9 -�OG1 -i7?4 _h �q,� -F�17 _F64g -5E'9�3 -61 F,9 -6??9 -56�:� _.r.�7a -6^F?4 -7029 -9�14 _�pAg T'naPr Cretar.enus l�t in T'pn�r Ta�.-7or Ton Pecnn �an ek . Aq^� P�.-to- Iavt�'ev `"lolfe C,:t,r 'ron Rlossnm se Ton Auet�n Se�+ion �' n Irn�fer rrPtqce�us mon Com9nrhean ls(unconflo+�) mop Niamichi sh Top ^�odland ls T�p Pqlurv ss Ton T'�ner �len T�ose ls mop Strav 9nhv Str Ton 4nh�r ?pr�e Too Prt3ss AnhV ?�ase T°ass �nhv Ton Ja*riPs ( srhl i 9ase �T�mAs " ?'on Pet+it ls Ton '"ra.ris neak ^.S? in TP ?3nn_7?Fn ?2�n_pn?n ?6FC-7060 ;��nn_zqF� ,i;i 3n- ;i 24 p ?4 2g_ 34;i� h4:in_4�6� 4490-4500 �1E4�-agFO 2� �(1-4� 6Q F70E-F710 �na�_gnsn 679�-6795 �r,rn_6Fcr, 7n1? 7] �6 7,'?3g-7240 �46�-74FF 74PF-7n�0 a��cG cot�;TY Rnm�r I.acV ] `�]ann;p4n cl)rVt ( �7d 1 IIpn^r Oretaceous Top T_T�varro chelk Top Pecen Gap cY. Base PeEan �ap ck Top Austin ck T?flSP, 4U�'F1II C�' - ton EP-svh-r„ se, Ton '.`looc�b=ne ss TO[1 T?P.f� n�E!�S I�ovrer �re+.qa�oixs 2797-?A2f- �4t'G-?511 :i6!!fi-:�635 �}a�ti_� F15 476�-4793 F007-F�37 �o��-soee Tnn �omanc�h�an shale mo� romqnche�n ls Top ?'iAmich�. s�ele m�p r,�nct�an� ls Ton Trin�+,.t(Px*�)sh ^op T?nver �lee �ose 7-imest.o�e Top Ar.hvc�rii-e �nne R'Op T,�ft89140 �*1]1V Aasr T`.=_s=. Ar.h��clrite TOn J^^'P,S ].S Rase Jamos ls Top Pe++it ls Top TrnR_s Peak ss DSR in Trnvis Pk. 57F?_F7P� 5g�n-5910 �osti-�oQF 7126-71FP 7¢gn_7h9A 762�-7CF7 9697-°705 1��157-7.O,lA£? 10,610-1�,620 11 � Ei60-1 l � F70 11,E60-17,F70 12,320-12,zap 12,F29-12,530 12,G7�-17„680 AI�D���RS01�7 COU?'1TY TTumt� 1 e '�l Freeman Si2rv: J. Iit+le (562) (Tr��is P�aY) , �_: � �1�' a � . �; �.' 1s .�,� � , _ ,:. � �' .'�7 r�: � : ,.r.�`v.`,�i�t�iea�ti: ' �:' �*ID�dRSOn� COi?T.;TY ??ur�b l e rtl ?'er,hes Oil T'nit n ?�i r'g of P'eches ('J."'."'oci�?1 TTDpe7' ('r[;tgcaOUS Ton TTnvarro shr�le T�p Pe��vn ^an �ha7� ProbT�ase Per,an �ap '^on A��s+;n ��alk �&SP �llFf]TI O�'-'fOD T'ar�eFnrrl ss mon '"roodbine s� m�n n�� *;eas T1SA in '��Fa redbe's ?FF�-?�'PO ?a B'�- ?47(1 :�77�_?F00 4�1�_4n7n f c14FF,7-�1.Fn:i a� a�67 (c1467F-47?4 at 4EQti a�rz_4�75? �4nn_Gq�n T;_+holoe�ic�. T'�+es Snrv: T'. Cubier (3aRl (�V�od} � ne ) ], T'o derin�te mi.dd7e I.ow,'^a�rinr Rn. ss, hu+ sve�esterl ?. Paele Pord ss nt base Austin ck 1' triol- w�oil but non-noroua ?. 9hont ?n_;�p ft �ood o�l sand vp^ermost nart of ?'7b 7 m�les north of Lufkin ttpner �re+aceons mon TTavarro shale(marl��) '^on ?Tavarro chalY Top PPBar �an ohalk Aase �ecan !;ap chalk Ton Austin chalk 1,ower Creteceovs To� ('O'^0.T±CY7B&^ lime=tone nSR �n Co+� ls 4G62-4692 ti��G_�nl(1 n990-5f)20 F�?7-5;�5� F777-�EC�7 61 oCl- 6110 6190-620n �li<GELIi;A COII?iTY TTni�n Producir.� 'tl Aolton � Surv: Vincent T�ichFlli (216) ('?ashita) ►---•�—..— � � I .. ;. .. �. __.I . ... . � I , � - 1~ �. � � �q I I - --- I" � ; _� i I --- ___ 1-v- -_; .. . N I�1 ��` � I V I�` ' . M � \ � � N I � `f � � i �, �' \ \ � � � � �� 1 � i� � --, _.� _. � � ��si: `- l� \ , M � � � ? C ., ,.� c � � a . . �C� i'; �,:'Y � � '� ' i� rfi � i �, Q �� I r � 4 � �� I `';i t � 's I �� c n S � � _ ��--L� � , � I L? � � � � ' ! � �; �� � , � ,� � � Q v �'� , ._ � :� � .v . � � � . , . _..— _ . I �l � k� _I_ .. .. _ � _ .. . _ u . ._ �-'___._� .. ._� ' /A �\ ' . 't�_„__ �-�_' i= ,� � sct RCL c, rcru ,�Tzo:r A??D 5^_Fi�1^1IGR��,E'HIC UTIIT ',1111�"rS T,t�st of !'o77o�v�n? from"Snnth Ark S+rnt �r/t}nnh on �1�7e.r Coas+el Pla;ns A�ds" bp'9arren A.Weeks 1�, BACGN LIMESTOIvE qqp�, Rull Vn] ?2, A'ol �(Av�, 193P)no9F3-9P3 ].?4ayne T�. Jones "Aacan I imes+ore, T;est Texas", AAPG Ru] ].,Vol 29, ?To. 6, ( )pp R3g-R45 ?, From Aisco-er�r well, P?ew Fope Field, Franklin Countv, Texes: Tide Weter d- Seaboard, ��1 9. J. Aacon, Franklin CovntY, Texas 3. Li*�Ps+one ,an�'erlvin�; mas=ive anhvclrite anci nbove low^r anh,•�r;t.e strinPer end/or uill sandv zone 4. Grades laterallV into anhv�rite or base *sa�sit�e anh,ydrite, which rase rises �vhere Bacon limestone nresent F. At�thor su��ests drop�ine "massive anhy." and vsine "Ferrv Lake" formation wh;�h wo��]r� inc�lueie Har,on as basql ma*n�er �he+-e present p, FEi�RY LAKE ANFIYD??ITE 1. R. ':'V. Imla,y: '�Lower Cret. k,Tvrassic Format;.ons of S. ArYans4s an� T�±eir Oil and Gas Possihilities", 9rkanses Geol. SUrve,y Inform. Cirmalar 12 (1940a1 p. 6. �. SP.IACSOV'�R IIT.^r�STG^� 1. First used bv D. R. Rin�hem "nevelo•�m^nts in Ark.-Lovi.-Tez�s Area, 1936- �7", Rull AAPG, �rol 27., No. 8(Aur� 1Q'�71 no 1�6?-7? 2. receive� neme !'rom thF pool v^rler wh�rh i.t was firs+. �enetrated' '�. Firs+ Lnown from Iion (1i1 RefR, Co's nTo, g_A Eays, drille�? in Sec 9, T. 165, R 1`Vf, Arkansas. n, EAGLS h":ILLS 1. ATeme� �rom Amereda Petr. Co. ?To. 1�;ao�le n�; ] ls, Sec 11-125-16'^P, just north of sma�l lu�ber toi=m on Raele 1:'ills �n !JVflC�71�:9 County, Arkansas. 2. In ehove well: 1,1�0 £eFt of red shale and eandstone. �. Fart.her s�i�th, l�ter, sal+ enco�antere�t et. ahou+ same olace ir_ section and foi�nd to he ianderlain hv similar red shales. �, BIICh2iER 1. TZP,?P.I'PP,(3 to as svch hecause of its presence as q typical section imsediatel,y ebove the ??e�molds oolite in the Auckr_er Pool oF Colvmbia County, Arkansas F, REYIdOLDS OOLITIC ZGP�E(Smackover) 1. From the Phil]ips Petr. Co.�s T7B. 1 J. n, Reynolds, Sec ^7,-155-15,K, the disco**er�,� vrell in the Snov�� Fri11 area and firs+ well to nroduce from this zone. (9ryansas?1 r„ COTTOP� VAi�LEY 1. ProposP�] as name for rac�e Formerlv cal7ed Iwre� Tra+-is Peak and l��in?� direotlp helow non-merine mravis Peak ?. Inrlvdes �mvn of eends, shale and lines+one ���hiah were �e77ed Lawer 4?srine Reds in Ti. Lovisiana 3. Firs+ �roductzon £ro�� this forme+�on(sic) wAs ie Co+ton �Ta12ey f_eld, l"fehster Fit., La. � � � I� � I i i I � I � I I I I I � � , I�,, I � ` � 1 I , � �, SOUTi�f I/Zi'���¢%VS�S i ST/�<JT�'C_. /�iF'�/L__II�_3S' 1. �---�- - - � � I I � � ' I I I I b� �YaN,Y�'�'/ _�- �!% e/CS I �_ � � i-� I . i - • -�- i �.�v ��^�-�L/I !%o%J� y�l � _ _ i � I �_ 1_.. 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I� I �.. . :I �. '. '_ � � �� I I i I I Q � -� � • ToKJb Fal�ocal isesd �. � I � ', . w/a6Un Va�C a5�� � �'J� �I ��— �� I � i � � vl f Lpse i i ��-- ,,. i i 9 q i i ' � II �' .. ------M- .. . . . . � — J �I�� I I i o '.�,W '. Q �i ' ;_ o v B/NG�(✓(�.yfr.c{�-✓) I T.y _. _ � � i 9.f7oG..C> dig�:rf fo var.'glf.tl , sr, w/benfi o: a��v/ i- �! � �' J ca'o I I�� I � , I� I I. I � i � � i I I� i � ?+unta'1ei Ca�nnnth� � � ed�me�ifs I ,I � � � i i I , ... : � f _ - �— - - -1--1-- : � � � � - �- - - -- --- ---- �-� - - f 1 I� I � �!�T lf� � � � i i, � i j; i;�- _f��--�---_� _I� i;�' -?- H. JOPv'ES SANDSTOIiE(Cotton �Talle,y) L In Sohuler pool, iTnion CountV, Arkansas, first fovnd nroduction in the send 2, mhe 10� ft send zone l�es on the eraded in h&sal few feet I, TRAVIS PEAF{ named for the ooerator who �evnolds zone. Scattered nebbles ]. Aas oome to inrlude basal Trin9+.. sert�on of red be�;s tivhich ere not foss. J, PIP1� ISLAI�TD (Lower �,len ?ose) 1. Prodvct9ve in the Pine Islan� area in Cadao Ph., La. w9th demes limestone at top and Pe++3t limestone et base R. Pr,TTIT (mPntionedl but sovrce not riven L. JAP�iES(I,ovrer Glen Ro=e) 1. From Arkansas Fvel Oil Co., pTo. 1 James, Sec 14-20N-1E, Tini.on Ph.,Ia., in which zrea it is predominantlp calcareous sand rather then sand,y-lime Iu1. ROD�SSA 1. Series of intertedded limestone, shale and sandstone, between James limestone end massive anhvdrite 2. Includes productive zones in �odessa pool of Ark-La-Tez corner area N, TOKIO 1. D;o shnvJn 2. (?rom ]itholo�Y aiven in the paner, could be Rlossom sandetone(1:�entioned as nresent in Tokio�s thickest sar}9on in Laf'ave+.te Count,y) end possiblV Facle For� or 9ustin she�le??� p, BROtil�dSTOgYh1(rot p�iven) P. 0"1.9I`T Ca77e� h} C. H. Dane "Oil Aearine Format�ons of Southwes+ern ArYnnsas", T75 Dent, Interior r`emo ?or Press P823(1926) Oricinel�y inoluded in Arownstovrn of A. C. �Teach "Geoloay ana IIn�erRroimd '^Tater ?tesonrces of TT, Iou, and Arl�.", Ti5 Geol Survey Prof, paper 46(19�61 Ren]ared bV Annane chalk basinw?rd toward Iouisiana PTear ontc�rop, consists of ce]�erPovs �rsv shale enP vrav marl tvith much ar�+ end �lauronite. Aase :_s mnrl�ed bv a verv Rlauconitic sand bed wi+,h sma3] blark novecnlite nebhles in manv pLeces Ovtcron sand called Ruckranp�e hy Dane(ei�ove) is nresent ea Graves produoin� sand at Smacvover This formation also inclvdes the bTeakin and Primm nroducine; sands of Smackover �,. ANP?ONA (not ei.ven) 1. ThicYAns south and west, seemi_n�ly at exnanse of Ozan 2. Predominantl,y whi+P massive chalk havino s+reati•s of trrey calc marl more nrnnonnned towerd basa vr�ere thev Rrade bo'h laterally anc� vertically -�- ;nt�o oz�n �. The hasal strin�ers of wh�t.e cha7k iasve]��.� cnn+9in some diss, medium-�rains Oi PZRllC R71� FlT'B COmmnnl�r eqn�l�� R. n�n��aoox 1. Seme naner as Snra+oRe(C. ?i. Den�l ?. T7�{- readilv dis+ineuishec� from Annone �+elow and Sare+nRa srove :;, f;rades rrom �+loe-�rav calc, shale to merl to reletively nvre erey chalk 4. D'ore chalk,y in extreme S',"r oart of 9rkansas S. SARATOGA 1. Or�rinellv olaced in P'arlrrook of R.T.Hil] "Neozoic Gebiopyo uf S',7 Ark", Ar1�. Geo] Surv A.nnual Renort for 1P68, T7o1 2(1888) (ie-up^Ar vrh r,helk member) 2. Suoser�uentiv called SaratoRa by J. C,. Aranner "The Cement b�nterials o£ S14 Ark", Trqns. Am. Inst. I,4in. Rne., Vol 27, p lE9£�(vear not shov,m) 3. Given statvs of def. formation by C.E.Dane "IInp. Cret. Form. of S'"I ARk", Ark. Geol. Si�rv. Aull No. 1(I.ittle Rocl�, 1929) 4. Dane: lys unconformebly on T"arlbrook marl. Not readily reco�nized in sub-svr£aoe T, NACATOCH(not r�ivenl 1. Thickest to 6'A and Here too nart sandy celc P79uc lime�tone(sicl v�ith etUs coarse �^er�ivm ssnd 2. Dane reoorts lies unconform on Saratoa�a. Arai.r. not reedily reco�nizahlp in SU!�-3t1T?�8.00 U. ARFtADELPHIA P+?ARL L oriminally used h•r Hi]1 to anolv to upner nart of Tiecatoch outcropnine near Ar�-adelnhie in Clarv Conntv 2, F9r�+ apnlieci to *rav Cret, rearls sho^e +he T?acatoch bv Veatrh, ercordine� to Dane. 9.C. Veatch, "Geol and TTnderRrotmd ^Itr Resm�rce= �f N. La. and S, Ark" T75 Gaol Snrv Prof Paner 46(1906) -n- Fi�ll Ser+ion as piven in the artiole(!1APG, V 22 TTo 8, Aue. 193"1"Sou+h.Ark.Strat...." I. PalBozoic A. Carboniferous 1. Penn. and nossibly TTiss. 2. TTn�il recentl��, thick hsrd beds of eravel throu�hovt Aemns+ead and rTevada covnties tho�iRht to ]a�� directly on thr� old "Paleozoio Siarflace" 3. The �ravel �.tself �f+en +ermer3 "top of the Paleozoi�s" h. Deener drillzn� indicsted that thzs eravel is basal Tra**is Peak(mrinit,y), overlappin� forma+ions from Co+ton �7a17ey d�wn into the Paleozoic F. Thus the onlv vno�n si�bsur''ece beds of defin�te Pnleo a�e in t.his re�ion are the h^rA hlect� sletv �arbonacern,s shqles �,vith their assoc. tieht qtz san�s ar.d �ere a�c� +here fos< �r�,ybbrown lirie,s+one s+reaks IL �'. Permian�?) A. ��aele T4i71s r�rma+i�n 1. IIo�?in an� hasal norti�n: rer3 ehales Z, Genere7lv harder than +he .�ovnPer red sheles of +he area S. Con+a9n onlv a small emonnt of �reen:sh crAv sh�les 4. Few s+reaUs of 7�ri^ht. rec� arm;l] sard an�] *nore or IP,SS n��#ular st,t-s of red arRill dol, vrhich resemr�'e +he muds+.�nes of the reci Permian beds of weate�•n Oklahdma 5. Pos� �hat the unner ner} of the red he-�s mredes t.o salt nnsirnverd, nnd juc+ as noss that the selt w�zs denoited in a senarate basin snbsequent to den of the red berls 6. A bPd of cleer, crystalline, anhpdrite known in two locations 7. The salt at ton of the �^ormst;on ti•ahere nenetrAted relatively nure crvst. sqlt with 3 FBM seems or nartinps of white �yc�sum 8. Salt aenerated from averlyinr� SmacUover ]imestone by h0 ft n7ns or m_nus section of re�i ar�ill sand and se.ndy shale 9. PIo conclom material or other evidence of unconrormi.ty no+ed, break from marine limesi-one to red beds is errupt and �raV denote a hiatua 77I. NTesozoic ( �� Pre-Comanrh= a. R�eat*er faims c�ll.ected to �late sup�aes+� Mesozoic b, Ascendine� order: Sma��ro�rer limestone, Avckner formation, and Co+ton ?ralley formation �, Smackover Iimestone Formation i. T?o direct evidence of unennform at base; abrim+, c��nme +o non-mAri.ne Fa?le Tv�i]ls mav ranresent a deoos�+�onal time-break 2. Zn northern nart of area rer« e�iden+ly suf"ered from +runra+ion nrior }o ��}+�n 'rallev denosition and aPain dvrine� pre-Gulf hiatus 3. Pinches out norhthw�rd in vi�inity of m 125; �"7, E d� S as yet t�ndetermined, hnt fo»nd as far west in AT?k as m 1FS, R 261'l, in nRiller County; es fer east as m 17S R 9 tiY in Ashle�� Count.�, as far south Fs T 1P5, R 17 V! in IInion Coimt,y 4. Iower: �rav to bro�m, dense, cr��to-rr}rs+,al]ine, bnnded in many nlaces wi+h oarbonaceons areillaceous oartines 5, IInner; softer than lower �art, ton vart comnosed of oolitie norous bnf±' 7;mes+one(Re�mold�s Oolite) 6. Reaainder of upner nart: more or less chalk,y white lime=tone v�zth varrin� a^�m,nts of diss dnlomite rhomhs. In oleres eno+her s+rPak o!' oolites hqve heen fonnd nbove the dense ]i�^eetane 7. ThicYens sou+hward and hasimvard -5- F 'C. Riickner Formation 1. (lverlv� fim���-o�er qpnarentiv canformahlv 2. 4nhv�ri+e and reA shale 8, con+ack, defini+e, 1-ut does n�+ seem +o ir.dirnte a+ime-hreak in sedimentstion a. 4bsen'- in some Dlaces �ue to lo�el eros9-onal +rvncq+ion F. Ahsent northenst of m 16S ? 14 'N nroheblY due to reeional nre-�otton �tal)ey trun�a+ion 6. "lest end so�.�+h lim�+s nn+ �-noi+m 7. Some e.v�dence tha+. +nis form +h;cl-ens hasinward in nothhern Ia. wi+h an�v T'En� PCP.(� }�V T�A�'�!'IF, [11' S�ifll-mQT'1T16 SP.(37?'8?l+S R, ilpner part: red shale with s��a *��rv finel�� Rri++y streaks 9. A`i�'dle: Seme re� shale with nndules �f whi+e +o nink finely cr..st (rrPnular) �nh,y�tri+e in�reasina wi+�+. cle�{-h en� heeo*ninr interha�;rle�; red sh anci anh,y 1�, qe=e3.; r"ore or le=s so].id �v�i+e-ninU anhv �^Ifith stYs en�? nartinr�s of red sh Some stks of dol and in n]ares the enh�� is maseive end dol. 17. sredes +hroue�h +hin rzre�i] dol stks ir.+o the ?e��nolds oolite helow �. Cot+-on Vallev Formnti.on 1. O�erlapned taward the north by "Tra�*is Peak" 2. Thins ranidly in northerl�� direc+ion in short dist�nce due to den thinninP end nro� �liae to some nre-Travis Peak trunration 3. S�nareted by �m�onformities frcm ro+h fox^na{�ions n}•ove an<i helow 4. The merine nhase in Louisiana annarertly extends for some dtstancP south, and in�that area, the unconformities, if nresent are not noticeable 5. Consists of heds of sands end red, end aoap,y to telk shales(eie). 6, In +he Phi�lins Petr �L7-� rdna T,�orean, discovery �vell o£ Schuler Pool has ��een fm�nd the anly foss m=.+erial noted 9.n this rorrnation in Ark +,o date(193R1: Torq]ly Rra.�ish brcrvm P}auron9t�c, slirhtiv !'oss shale. 3Caxzaxa�ad 7. Ugrer-p�r�C �'�ne sand, s�l+st�ne, an�3 �arier�ate�l +al�-like shales (2) Comanrhe R�ries P_. Tri.+�ity Grnu� R. Tr&vls PeaU formetion 1. Trunc^ted f?Uripa nre-Gulf time so th9+ it ninrhes out northeastward 2. Pinrltes ont. nnrthward h�. depoe9t�on but transaresses iap +he time se�+;on to ta��e +he n�ace of nnrt of +he r,len ?nsa heds snd renresen+ed at the ou+crop i.n T 7 end F S bv �ravel and sard, relrn^r +he Diervs limea+ona �ed of the �,len Ttose 3. BasaL• Interhed rea 5?lq1P.S 9nd med-fine to roarse t�reined tivhite sends nrith here and there nodiales of fi*�elv e�ren +o Bense tivhite dol. Pred sand �nd verY 1�asa1 nerts ron+ain diss very coarse ereins of qtz and novaculite end a few snell peb��les 4. IIodip: I ar�elV eravel o£ •rari-oolor nova�ulite an�l quari;�ite pebh and correleted +ransPressively �nri+h the Pike �ravel on the surf�ce 5. Abooe this zone there is re�? s�a)es vrith manp stks u�hite sand with some no�ules of' whi+,e dol. Prodvctive in the r,hemnacnolle(??ainbrnv City) and TTrhana Poo�s. Champaanolle ?one nronosed name. 6. IIpner: red shale with stks whi+e silt and sand. Grades into and in n�rt eqiaivalent to Glen Bose rormation qbove h. Glen Rose sub-p�rovn 1. The more or less foss marine sediments maUin� up the m�ddle Trinit,y �ronp 2. r,redes int,o non-fnss red heAs both ahova end re7cror, so tha+ the lower �ar+s of +he G7en Rose are the +;mP equ�valents of the Tratris PeaU up-�liP 3. Anhydrite zone in midc;le�? of this sub-erouA of importenne stratiPraphic�ll,y � in that it is en essily recopnized consistent marver for sub-sur?sce vrork 4. Pnrt helow the anh��dri+e usually ce]2e�t the Iower =1en Rose 5. Varies considerablY in thickness as it grades into non-marine not too far northward 6. Pinches out nartheastwerd b,y +runcation 7. Pine Is].and a) I,owest memUer: Pine Island 1) James limestone at top 2) P�ttit limestone at hase 31 Interbe�3ded erav s�ale, li end =s hetween them b) pet+it not well c�eveloned in S.9rkansas es it is in La. c) James is the mo<+ exteneively develoned red of IG?t in S.Ark A, nodessa s) Sec+;�n k�etween Jemes en� T"�s� An'�Y�?ri+e bi In+erhe�i�?ed li, sh enc? fi.ne san�s c) Zones in ascendinR or�ler (after zones "anA ]e*�sPs") 1) Yovn�: li ool to no� in Ia, no+ we7i dev in S. Ark n;nahin� ovt �nd Pra�inr intd �n+erbeded p�ray s��,ale R• li, and to red shgle Fer+her uv clin 2) DePs: san�i.� yone, ]en+ict�lar an� ius+ eho-e +he vnun� hut doPs not extand far into Prlrans�s 31 �=]oYd: ]ir�ee+.,or.e. con+e�ns ooli+es ie pleces, At Ro!3ess4 P�o] is limestnne with a sendy zone , Unrnm as the P.�itchell sand, is vrodurtive on the Ark si.�e of +he non7; TTnner half �*rades into s�•ale not fer nor+heestwerd; Lower half rle���oni+ic end �%ar9-colored 4) Hil3: � zone retwoen �trb, two strineers of anhvdrite t�elaw the mas= anhy; T.owe±-most gnhydrite lies immediately above the �lovd Interbed�led �rav shales and limestone streal-s and in�ivi�izal sanrl ]enses in places c. Anht�r�rite 1. �*7hite f�ne7�� rrvst anhv 2. Stvs and n�zrtines of mrav shales and ].imestnnes 3. Thins undi� d. Pnner ('>1en pose formation 1. �.r��� t� r�»77 1�roim shales 9nd merls 2�, Thiil g}lrs Of 11 3. Fere an�i +here stbs of fine �and 4. 'r4vo th;n anhv strinrers ninch ov+ nndip n�rthvres+werd F. Practi�a7lv the entire f�rm r�rA�ie� to red sha7es �f +he Palvx.r form northward e. Peluxy form 7. Predom non-foss ofimn�i=�nr upne• ner+ of Trinity c�rovo and mredinr� abrun{-1y ;nto Fre�ericirsri�re arovn ebove -�- A, 1"fashi+.a 9r_d Fre�3PrirlrshurP �,rn��AS n, *,rer�� l;t+le inforrt!ati.on of suhs�rr''ace AV97IA�B ;_.r S. .4rk r• !=P.1�r05P,T1�'P.;1 hV ��}� F+ nf r7S �N"'7tP, C,379�.k"V S1 1R S�,N �OT'TP,7' OF S�A1'.B c. Pronar7y m�s+ �f +his ]i�es+�ne z�ne renrese?�+s the Rrederic�rs�iara. (31 �»]f Series A. Lrnver Gr�up a. Bin�en form(�e=tricted) 1. 7n+erh�d Rrav to ��arieaeted s�a]es and *'ine-ooerse sandstnnes con+99nin,m �ore or less eltered vol�ani.c materi.el 7. T�'xao+ correl�t�o^ vvitti� Aesciibed ontcron of snlf Serie� no+ cert�in :�. In aenera], seem to he nnrre�eted tvith tha} -,9r} �� +},e outcrno �^�rinh Dene de=cribes as T�oodhine 4. Or� �*�nall�� ixsed by tTeatah as Ain�en comnri sinP tre ahove Qn the o��erlyin� forri 5. Present on]v in S;^f pert oi' S. .4rk 6. ?'hiokens weGtwerd 7, Rasel varierated shale m�ber(�ften r�lled "Tokio rec?s" or °Ttpner Cre+�ceons reds" F. ?Vesizva.rci has gn upner me^+her of finel�r �rittv P�9llC �;re�� sh 9. ('vrrlain an� o��erlanned ?�v the hasal a^hy send an�l PrqVf.� of the mptJ;o fnT'mA+ion b, moki.o form L The as�v sen�7s oriR�n=i'�� �nc7v?e� Ps +he unn.=r �Art of TTeqtch's "T�inr�en" ee.nds - p„ Thrnn�hon+�*�ost of sov+�hern Ark � �. TTndip charac;+erize� �v san�? os med-r�arse Rr?ins vr +h a+ ma+rix of white �rolc�ni� ash h, niss �h�rt en� �tz r'vl at hase .'',; Tn most nlace li?p;te nre=Fnt ir +he san�s 6. Thic.Uens for short dis�anr,e hel�w oia+,cron, then th�ns a^P ]oses ash�• crarr�c+er 7. AtthirVes+, part in I,afa*•e+i��e Cc+i,n{-.v renrPsen+e�3 h•• }�e� �f R��.iac 6fl77d�FilOceOm 59P.�� R, '�elovr t.�is 7er�el�r �ra�� ��avr shale v,�th ?rit+v st.Ys an� lia stUs and a thin strk of ashv sanc?s ast b�se c. "Rrovmstown" form(�?estric+edi 1, �*re�� Rlvur, �*r�t+v shele zone ebove +he liani+i� ehales of the Tol�io snci he]ow +he neb`�le hegrine z��e thnumht to be hasa] Ozan most ususllv referred t� as "Frovmstown" 2. RFcomes less marlv an�l more sandv dovanc�in d. Oz.an ]. Seee deaorin ear]iPr in these nntes R, 1,Riddle (;rovo a. Annons form 7. In nRrt �ra�?ine into or rPn7ac�nP the Ozgn en�i �r nert o�rc�r]�*in? the �zan ?, TTa �','s+;nn� break he+ween +r;s an�i overlvinP D,7qrl�rn�k mnrl h. T:`arl�rook marl !'�rm. 1• �TP,r'!"1Cft1 11?!1t9 np'F ��rpll �i0?1T1P.� -F- ?. h�ore cha].kp in extreme S1N nart of s+ste(9rkl 3, r?ot alwa,ys readilv distiim �taishec� from SaratoRa ab�ve and Annona h�low c, Saratop�a chalk for^ati.on 1. TTnver white member of the chslk erou� ?. Pn�ierlies practir,r�l]v all of the Coastal Plain of Ark. ?,, lNhite to e�ra,V hardchalk and *�arlv chalk 4, Ordineril,y contains much fine elauc throuehout lenTth C. IIpner 4roun a. TlacAtoch formation 1. Precio�^;r.=nt�v send 2, IonR tha ^ost imAortant horizon in southern Ark einoe it w�as the main oil-ees nrorlurer �. Thins north-east. b. Arkadelnhia marl for^at,ion ]. 2. 3. Alne-ara..� calc sh�]e an�l marl TTarzes little t�r�� the nrea Or�linarilv *�ore es]c near ton and t�ere �re stlrs of white chalk in tmner nsrt in plares. Tentirvlar and not characteristio of am� area Some ver)* fi.ne-Rrained mrit an�l r�lauc o�rur lo�ally in h�sel 50 ft -�- CLm^',i3nL4IdD ( IL : IELD� OKI �FIOP+`A ^ef: Ira �rari, �.T. hri. 0,:.1 T�'i�lds, ,•ol TTj� p3ni A�P� C 0`.`A^:C?iT'sAP� ((LUiJ�3 C?'STACL�'6CS�� P.un1- !'reek �}n; 9f1-1�0': liR�+ ��•qv si7+n sh�le ?'iemi chi sh; 1f?-1 F' :^,rav sh �ooc�lnnd ]._mestnne: ?�-�''': ,vh c1. J ls ^r;ni+v cd; 47E': fine--1eci e�ra�nPra sd yv�s�us rec' ff ne2e �rn r,h �as^1 8!1-90' cnn�7ome�-a+e: 7.qrm� rdd qts r�rains ln-se��• c�mer+.e�' o!�stlr v�r� �*a+t�d sh ((no tmr,onfnrm 19n� shomnl� LOl'JT�?; PET.T.NS`fL�TAPSIAT� � � SprinRer Pm; 1800' on ore^+ �f P.r+i�]i.r..e; ?3C'�' on f7ank.. Ta�•�*el�• �a�U E*r3�� sh ��,�l�n+icvlsr s�is in ]ower nart o�' sec+,_�n ..unrnnformitv.... TaiISSISSII'i'If�d p?� ,n�rkez un@onfor^.itv BPPE� I:�iIS� . � rane,� sh; 4?.0': brovmish black shsl� 2'IDDLE T..`ISS . Sycemor�, ls; 2�6n+: vpper 4�5 is ?5�;ht L-ro�nm ralc, miceo�ous, s_liceo�is 5']t51'OnP,• A narsis+ent l;��i;+ ?,.n...r� �9�nse ls 201 th�ck OCrnrS FO-BO�9�70EB �9F.P. O� �'7R. Rec+inn �=7ocr th;s memhar „+.;�i^t, oe]c, misur sil+�tone ,^rhir.h s!-ovrs ens, n 5+ ?�;� o!' t�r��n snale m�rks �nse c+f �'�rma+;or LP��ES� 'llII6S . Noodforc� sh3lef(th•o�ness om�t+ed hn1- nolivnn sho�vs �bovt 240�11 har�, rlgrl- hr��vn sh n�n+a;n� ^�� be�'s �f �Ark brn��m r,h�rt .. tm r on f or^ii t.v. ... D"r."JO,�IAP1 �nle7l t-nrn^rn imr�n�'n.�=+,• s?unton ^.-roup: '���' Aoi.s d'Arr ls; 1��':(I:ow. ^Pv�n�.an: T?rl�'er',err� nmel T'oner 5' ;?rn.r white snirvl sr F.• r*l q»� ch.=rt. ''1en+.}��ered & hiRhly frac+ured - ?i�]anr,e s��r,+��on onarsei(?�?l� r.ln ��a��-wh9+e rlaur, 14 stkd w� beAs nf R�a�� R•. translu�ent. r.he�t Hnraean sh; 145�;(Irn�r. netror�3n: TiP��ePl,erG* A�*e) Freen to rrav, �rannlar, areil ls. . . t]nqOP_�'OT`!'li'',V. . . . S I I,L?r I?1`d �T�nrvbouse sn(T'i.d. Silnr�nn) 10 � b±-�-rerl fn xl 1 s 15� rrn-crp er�nvlsr ar�il ls Chimnevhi77. ls 1F+ fn xl-ds h�aff' �rinoirlal 7s(1n,..�r, nrg�.. Sili�rasn: TTiaeren) 10� fn xl r*-r;v, p]auc 1� Iorv. �;lvri^n: a.l''�ar.) F' oolitin ls(Iow. ��]„r;an: �n1�i�n) GRDOVICIAri((n� uncnrform sho�•,n�l S�rl�an sh; �80' :(iTp���r (lr�ov� rian: T?iclvnond l T'nr.Ar 1PM: PrF�n ar_r� non-s�n��.�, ((sh'+^�11 Iower l�n':�7;,•�,+�]., �?o]om;+ir },rovm e�'�a�a. na�a] 1(1� *�nre �n7�,.,;+=� �Tinla ]9n�sbone rer�?sle memher; •'�': rnq,-s� xl, r�ra�r +o �vh 7s(Tin�er �rc�oei�i�.n: �ichmondl '1.02$7,�i20L; ?'�xt F20�: ((no nvme�?�or membar os T�ioln ls)1: f-^�ase xl le rnr.*e�n;nn se�-n�ni be�'s nF hrn chPr+.. 1rn�rPr 1S0' dif.^erPn+i^+F� frn� r�s+ r,,, �+., �,,..i. v,rrn+�n r,olor. (TToner beds �;n�;nat3an: ?tid. �rd�vi���n. '"r�nton ma�r be nresen+) � �1T?OSOri �3rom.i�3e 6�0�:(1�ivPr T:i��, �r�ioviniqn: Trr-,n�on F• R�srt� ^ivrr Ar*e) TTOA�r 780�: cons�sts mainly ls in�=rh��Aea �v,�su^�r�iin�+e em�s � _ �_ `1 of crPen sh R- s�?tr ls. 4'�P� of mr�en sh mccccnr. 10' thirk ocrvr� ] 20' bel otv `;op o° sorm; P�rr �+.en+. sd 1F0' do�,'n (fe� calc sdl rorrer Aromi�le; .';F(!'(Tvlip �reek of qrbuckles) (Shallo�veF+, prodvoine zone) lst Rro��`�1e: 11n� '?0-40T: 3 s�n�.;+.onPs sePnra+rd hV P'.rn .^,h� �:a s_?n� �,.,h-3n� T?elgr.ce sert;�n; ;n+erhe�lded �*rn sh }.� re]c �^lane e�5�`.:;'��r.e $ tir�ht calc sd un�'er?�-'ne nrodvc�nr� znnee , Rasal 10': coer�� xl, Tra��-�.�h-ls . . 2nd Rrom'de: 4v� ].�s' 9�-10�' f-nr, s»b-nnF to rrt,� s�i ^rains n:/s,, � �,� ,,�„;.�n t� m�t c31 sd A� arn sh i F;ne t;.mht caic sd un���r7iee ^rod. a.nne e�ove Aase] 1(1': �:? l�nfr ls :irA ^ro^;�e 1�5�(aror� on ton s+r�a�'-vrel 2 sds 1n vnper 60� f-mt� i;��h+. s�i`�-ane� +o r�lA sd 0.�Frs9s�ant fi� '�ect of i^rh-t�rnv cnyrcF sr? 1� o���,�s .tiF_^.0� fr�m ton ?�-?F' rrh s�? �+ b¢se � Tqcl ish fnrme�i.on; FO^' (I n•;•^r Ordovi ri an: �haz.r-r �noir ('ro�vn Pt n�e) T?�,nrr 400'; �';^� xl, lim'�t brrnm 1G �na r.narse v] ..•'� ls ;n�er''+ed��er? � l.��g{�,i.�, nf Zrnr•r !'irin-i`�71P. F; C7-�..c.+ -�.h TIAt1C S5. flas.^,1 10'1+: _„ ss anr? main ^ro�. zor.e. ^'�sn sh st�, �us� eho�*e mid']e d;•.i�?.�� �t 'n+,o 2 znnc�s ton of �,onemPnera]7v +i�h+�R• ba�ren Uasa] 20-:?0� o" this zone oor m�; sr3 T'ert �one(('�e]oiv +nn sh s+k)l: r�nP••*�llv tieht P� nor stl-s Oil �reek fo�-^�.ation(io�a�er �rdovic.ian(Chaz�- ",�e) 'Tpner Oil �ree!r; 4GF�: ^�ne-coare� r.l mo�`]�a "o"s;.l.iferoi.is �.c� cn7�n glir�t, ZV Er7�r inf-,n..l-�E..7.]E.r1 ,-r•p �� 7.;� nji r..�„i. ,�.� vRxx;�:�Csa�r���i; 185i T��PPm- 94-100� o� v,�' calr, ss(^�,e n•, ��oP; oi] �n �1�nY) ?0 ft: al � . �,,.r ,�.�., 1 s �0' +;.^q{-�ca]o ._� nnsnl n,'1 cr rinci„-r .^,a,• li 'p� "ri[� r71 "..- cA 9.�nr ;?l�t�^�'C O� ^!�l`'1 p•-pi1 �0:7P.5� .::re�+�^nr i�o 1(1-��� 0•• +:,,�,+� onlo 6=_ �s F-n� 1�^se por s, g� rrn;n cae?7 r�'c7 Joi-�s or n�s�l Si^neon(7o.,•or ('^�ovi.r,an: Io�.ver rrgz•� n�*e� 210' r� 5-fn vl 1{} �7!'h l � i../i•F...f l q�tP,�'S Of 1+ '�rT! !*T'4ri11� 4^ r7.0� O!^'.i','." ° .ili-..� cri�,. l.S. � .. �t hasr c,+' .Tnins �s ^e�i�im rr��� •vh ss, +;�.�}1,. e^,^�nte�i �+�.� ao3. oc�n-s((" �� - A?PT'CEI �(ro...�r �rr�o.r;r,an: �ter7-••��r.to+.;m ^^el onlv 6F6 ft nane+.-�+,Prt � � rt,efrf�,r bu�'f_];rht R. :'3r1- hrn �'�ania73r �}� �7s r'olo^;'-� •,•�s�r+e hrr�,�. nr d5 }1U"f �-(� ht'ri ?� � ?tl T'7",pt �1n� S(.`�•-r•�•9]. }Y�t71 !j(J'1107R1i'i.0 S''S OCr11r 5�1�� 1 a!!It� lr�15 �'��� - 3- GEC�LOGY 0?' L",4?:1THOD? �2�GIOt1 P. R. t'in�*. (/r;,•s� 100 ?t blank�� (( UPPER Cn:;TACEOUSV 1 r.,arle ?orr� 20n�: p7e�-m., ls "• sh LG"�JER CRETACEQTiS T�u�iq ls, EO': "m mas�, ls �al ^io sh 20': ^rsb sH ,.r/�.h�n'�=�s �" rrn sr'�� ls - �eor�etrn�m is; 17�': T^�ss, ls &� '-'�9n-hed, ^arly ls �?.wards ls; 150': ^iase�, r,h�rt�� ls Comanc}ie Pea�� and '7alnut; FO': `�v�" mnr] F� so°t noPu.'.?r ls ?�`�xon sd; 0-1D0 ?t: m�se, brrnvn, X-bedr]ed s� c1Fn T'ose; 0-600 s+.: 4l+ern���ne be�s of mass, ls k sft m�zr7, �'✓�sor�e san�?,• he•�c ;n nlace ......nnconrorm;+•r:::.. T�IASSIC Ris:,e++, con�?n��rn''.e; 700': �on� of ls qeb�les; s��^a ?�eas of ls R- rPP sh�lq .1]^(`Cl"'�'tJl'7^.i x'1/.. . � . i'T'..�RT�`I A�'v messe�.� ls; 10�0 ^t: m�s�_�,e dolom;i-ic ls (,undali�pe fieriasl �Ani+nn ls, "�l�i.�m �nr� .ltv�rz fm's; lEOQ�: masrive d�lom;.+i� le .^e�-^. ls, F- sd fore 3nd bac]r re�f �?enos:+s '4ord f'm; 150^' : 1t west ena of' ^1 ass p•ts si� i �e^us sh, t�1in 1 qve^s f�ss lsy T';n� c�ne�.Aicxr.xzis;:pr,�Ym9.-rhFkx At en.^,+ �.^..' �� m+s �olo^i+ic reef ls Iaonqr�? f'ri; l�r.��: ,+ �.,�..+ �,,�1 n^ ^i�s mt� e� F• s�l, r^n�'n;^ rlov.mw�rd in+o ?ssG ls, ci��c��rn,s sh, era "�nr d�n� ql�n c�nrs� Y�nsql canm; q+, e�,e+ en�i of rti-s, �ve�� he:'��� �'�3om�t�o ls(Ness faoias� (,5 +}+P CIT�t�F`7- �?!�P,S Tln} � 7�nFI .mUC!'! 15� +1�... l� }h,_nt.''IH.�S is �a�b;+rer;i�• „9ol.Pd�((590 ft ls s�^�vrn nt haee nest�nm on 6c "t� Of' CO:]°'.��., . . . .17P_C n)1"OTri^.�. a" V . . . '?rtlf'C(ll'IA �(ln�� �+- +hP 14c;;} r�ni7 �i� I!l&SF Pl+fi CC)9!'S.P. T^fl�E (`.O?7f�' O'.r,o,.�lqi17 b„ sh; Tn e� si �nn ^? n�.. Tra .. �r ,' �+7-; 71 , � � �-,.r.. •1�'t•n:�I*0-.,..;1;. •• pr�i•�;.5 "LV A?dI AId �gn',s3nk 1£�0��: �le,�- sh, ss, co^ese cnr.e� A� foss ]�. Tia�f:Tll�f'.S ',nnr>. ��'. +-07. �.ce m�ri'.':^ S'. r��^m +o mi�?r'le �is�o xx3.�ond 3000': 'Chin bo�r�ad s� f• sh rr�t�.�ol�- har�s or ?rkose k Y�oulder bea��n� nu'�`^ne in up ^r :+r�rt ny�;���. ;z0^�-1000': Tr�ict.- '�dr?ed �r�y c�;ert�• ls, ••r,�snr�� sh Pr ahert. Ac,e ap��rox P°arble ralls Tesnus ?0^-7G00': Zr �r=s+��*n aart of t'nra�hor, basin �l���i�lr�' in+� ar TTA^..':�r "nn�..,,,•ie FCI��' th,.^l� �,.i . 7.o::r-�- �h�.lP 2000' ''hi�•v T'�+ :�,v1;,,;_.:,v�,q rv.'I..e...,.,�,•r li?ICO:Ii'OTi1e�:.. ... � ., L1��I(:**I �TS f ab�llo� na�;aoolite '�n,-G�0': *^-cc, *- . .:�^onl'-.. �.na bA��aed � t�n^icoloraa chert .imro�-^or•.,;+.,- .... ini�:.,�'o�novzcz�rr � � p"n„a�•;llns r.hPrt 1�^_n���: Y:r�,:F� �'ar1- �hert R- ls r"ZDDI: � i??'L'OpICT_nTd '^!��,r�e uo].�ora �h�le ?^''_ca��: Drr.�� s'i F• tl�;n ^]flr*rv ]s F• s�l T'ort Pan�. 7.��Q�: P"es^-,.e le��b=.a�e�? ch�r+ an� h35�1 c�nP . tm r�r rn,-,.,; +�*, . �((no IQvrer Or�i mnna-i�r�t?1� _d_ qisa+e Shale ?s-FR' ftar� �rren sr�le �n� +hin ls be�s T��r�+hon Is; �FO-9�0 �: m��n rlarm, ls ,,,/sh par�;nPs & ((remn�.nde.r imfi.n�.she�: hv+ o.olvmn s�ioa�e thin scattered oonp� s�Rnt+olll UYYER CAIti?JRI9II ^a�aer Flat s�nd ?�^�: P?ass ser.ha^oidal ��1, sh R+�i.n ls - �tp- -?- s zLi�z niv T.i�.&'.'1()Ct' nm � C'7S7t � f� � : S�n�'.stnnA, !^,-a,• +� qr��n and �ark fis=;]e shale. T'��n^ of smoky qunrta. in pleces .............. i�nconsor�=tv ORDOT�I C IAPd t'olk �reel� formation Tnic'•ness 10^-200 ft Shale, blacl,, e�raphitic, r,or.te.ins Prantolit�s Riar�rtr pnrmat;on m�i�irnes� �nr_7�� ft C},e�t. h�rr�, Rr�,• }.o l�:l�.c]c, b7n�L- s�^.ale an�3 �?�rY col�re�i, �osr., ��;Frrp((sic)i nrot, che ty limest�nes TYomhle formation Thi c�'rnes< ^."0-1000 !'t ��a1F, b)erY +o �reen wi+h +hin lg��e�s ��' limes+one qn� arr*ilaeenus sanPstone in Ar�-ansas. ?rea�minently sr,his+osF, mirarenus, r'�loritia s2nds+nne in ?"c�nrt;�9n Co„ bklahoma �ila�-�iv form�tion Thir''ness 0-�00 ft Snnas+one, t�r��v quartsit�c. So^�e rsleareous sr.nr?�'-on� An�? min�r a,:�vnts o+' rlacic an�? �reen O�flV shnle. Smolcv nnertz vs9ns in places vnr,nn�ormit�* r��,yrn for^n3+.ion '"hiclrness 1000 ft mnre or less 5�,�1�, h].acl- �n� p�reen, hanr�P�. ml,i.ri ZFL'TP,�'S Oi' �rq�r 5951(iSi;rlriP, nTlf� �R �():R� 9^P.A.B� f'1�lSl �P,Il6"S O" hllli�h L4F-�)Zftn]' limP.S'4;nttP. �T'��Si'ql ?'T�(1lJri'4q'17 {�[1T"�9+'�.071 Thicl-n�ss Sn'�_psp rt .�'971aFi'0T79� T09fiSiTrP.� 11(!}1�1 ?T'3V� r9�C9rF7011S �'O �U3r}y5f�i0. ��"P^i1 �OIIP�O'^_P,^3i'(3 9i'; h95e �ri � !"C.�'»r{'.B'_.71 r0. ���'! 9. ?R Ft»^:" 3^F� Cffn+n'71S 7^.P_.^.V !�ll(iC�Z 4,^-.'_riS F:71C! C?'�'Si'9]S CAT.^.B?iIAN ((mranhio colinnnar sor,+inn ehov�s oon+nr+� in ^r�%.=.+el T"k Fm er�no litholo�io hrl� a�rn�t ??(l' be]ova +oA of r+-,.�+.,1 P?t.� ino+-t�,'.nn os �n�stal T�•+. s�e �toeP� tmOr�Tifpr.�;+„ l;nil;rr ��: T�'.i�lr: ?0�-F���; �h. 1`lti'� �raphii-io and dF,-]- colored silirem�s ls. Sone �'� b�}- rr�rt in Arlr, z3a G�?dT'R!�I�IZT�ID rOltr.^*3� Sn;nm7���,q OF S�DIME?�TTS OF o11AC??ITA FACIiS T'ef: "Pe+roRrnphv R- P?etamorph�em of Se�i^�erts of (l�asr.tii.+.� T'nn;r-,s," bv 9vmust ^-oldste9.n, Jr.� nn� Dnnnr N. "eno, Aull. A.�.P.G., `*07. ?6, T'o. 12(Dec. 19F2),pp. 2?75-2290. PENPdS`!IVAIv'IAid Atoka formation Thic'-ness 150C-9500 ft Sgncletone, snnr��* sh�le and ehale of rariable chnrac+er Jscl.-ford i'072RR�'lOII Thicicness '?F00-G6n0 ft Ssnd=taze, mrzss�ce, ne�iuri to Sine-�re�ne�l interbedAed 1V/ ('YIi,V +� mre=n G���e %�i5�� zs � rt�t� zluJ St�+.nlo,y formation Thiclrness :�5(7n_6000 �'t S�+�ale, dark colored, an''erb.=,d�'ed +�rith �r�ir f�ne-�raine� �r��llaceoue sr�n�e+one. 8everal heds of volcanic ssh neer base iTa+ton '^i�ff len+il mh;rl.ness 0-90 ft DE4GNIADI _ I:?ISSISSIPPIAPS Hot Snr^�n�,� s¢nds+nne Thic�-nese 86-200 ft 6an�=tone, nrz�rl, qi�artz�+ie Conrlome�ate a+, base Crops out only in Arirans�s unconform hrkanses T'oveculi.+e Thi��mess 25p-900 ft TTovaculite: i?oner member - Calrareous vrhite maeaniferous T'i�i-'le memher - Alar.�� ti^;th in+erbedded black shr�le I:o�ver menber - 17Lite, m�ssive 5'.i:. .; unconformit,y S I LUR I!LhI b'3ssoi�ri S�t. ^�i.�t-ness 0-30n ±t R�+,ele and sl+�te, »ad, mr��n �� h1�ot-� r;sq,'i� uncon�'n.-r!i tv �lavlock forma+ion m},;,f,+�ness 0-1F00 ."t -10- p�nnrql]v t� ��r A�ve or ��e ha��.n. 5. '"iarh �rFe+�r {;t,;o'mrs�es �r=. nreeLr,�:er', +� p-•;��t�at the �x�.s. a. Tn A}=�t hol� n�r n�l at. r^on°e� A?errr, Pnra, mrr�. t.?��n 7�Ori o� n�v�risn qn� .•n�•.;hl�. ,�',3.1vr;9n (�e��o�'� -S Z�rat'A T7Pne+^3+ec�, h•�} +hp iT9`tr.'la s.�T'i.es� C�1PS'.f�P,]^P,C� �;}IP, '^qSP, Of +hr; Pq]pny(1�70� 1`*99 Slll'�" YP.HC!1P.f�. h. �o.•7i,c�ill'9.^.'flTl S+1'4�'S 71C17't!l 3P.:� ^.(ltl�'h nf' 'Fl^P "^i&ZOlI R'IrP,l' �':HVB R21 34P,�'8PC .Fhq��r71„q� �.^ nc� //l�`� �. "Jr,7's r.rn•T(��5�� hP;,,F*. r�r�.�.lrr� h•� +t,......nnnr ?'nvn ��li.r.^?a, �n +wr ln:•7�r ?''n�?�$r� ^;,=�r ;n n�,a?on�s, ana `n Al��r r�o C���, lotver Tsns.jos n;ve.r, ir. Pa�a, rPveal a+hi�l•n�se, o�' mnre +h2a 14(?Om "or +�,e Pen^- svlvan9en s�ctinn.((16-�'il P_2. Farna�hA-Sao Franc_Soo nens�.m�]�ne(!17�` 1. �fter d.p��;t,_rn oF +he I�^rne Ser;rs, rnns,;s�;�R or e�r�st�ne, !'1u.�;^_ mlac�nl c�nr*loTPr�+�t, +;7�;,Fs, s�alr,s, an� l;me�+nr�s, ann+h�.,. n]�Arnt.inn o�' +hr. Sr,rr3 clo rsninit�ro +no7,- p1acP, ...;'-H +.y� rn7c�inr a^�i me+a^or;�hism �� n crr+�;r pqr} �f +Hr ��r;eg, ' 2. A rvcl� of =ros;on fnlln*vP?, �n� ��+rr, �n +�P Si$vrsan, 'h=rP ��ras n�^ar4ne nncroar.hm�r+ h�. a-h� wat�r^ �f ��,P �i�]�' nf"'}h�. Pnrr_ni�a up to the 1,�g�_ s^�tn+-s� rf' th� 5. I'ranc�s�o T'i.cer� �n a';nas GPre;� 3. Tt,e }},;�.t, S. Fr¢nc�sco-T'�m?�ni se�r��s �✓�s ?Pnns;+.Pr? in �.n;s tepi�? sen, the sPr��,^, consis+,,.r!t o� sendetona,, shale�, and ao�all�ne 1�r.es+�ne �vhose rP^,pAn�� h*�z*e hA�n �bs�^vFA ;� an arra n]mos+, 2001�n ionr �na 5(' m p. � lcn wide. 4, hn 3rea occ❑ �ea hv the S. Frano.�eco-Aambiai Feries =s ve+. oor]v �i'.1�."JP�7.+P,f�. . _' . P . 3. 1�; Pv},npr7g� ...:Ll-nl.t f]17P^{�i071� Z]P,«Opf� +.hP. D^P.6PII'i; 'OOP�PT' Oj� }'}!P. Pvrnaire. se�?imnntsr�� basin. ... . h. ^'r.A,-„ +t,.n nev�r.�.nr! �r.P ,�;�..A rr,rr-r+ , ,t;; t, ..� • {�Of'ff13t�Op5� l', C fl^P, U�Ufl��.p rm�t-n�?l�r ro.^.c�r�?�nt, ntrPrl;� �-.rP Fiembu, srr;^� tia;th tenton9.r. .. �? ;.� c�. o,-r� a.n r, e. � (`.. �irnriR fn��iinm pi� }l�p !j!i1Rrl7� '.Il ^19ri�� *1]Rf`n� .-pi`1FY'.1'.S ;'�?P. ,^,rilp,f 0T1�flri �?.4StrOP�"".S1R . . . 5. 771 +,l•e /'9rhon�_�r�roUa +hP s"sa5 of +�^P S+q�'�g �F i' 91r 4nf� *'9rq�7l,ao ,,•,C,•0 �Ilil} 17F) i7'�-}. C(1Rti.17^r'f'.91 971'� ,^,n.�.np,� p;[..ti.t^rTl�'S� f'nll�..lPa r\ ni.�r� (`n'l'�;�LiP?7'E;41 �Cq09'}.$ ip ft�p PC�"'1'9R. . '^ l � 5�...ny.' ZF5 h,�n ' • E• "�'. P nr;rc�Pal Forms+-�n��F +�,� P�rne,l,�-6.^rsno�.sco reosv+-���.,.((Tnh7P ?: s�st. nq^e 9A1� ((7.?�1 A$, T'�r��n v�os��r r7.;P.,! i l°-191 \ ],—m�^ P�aleoz�;r Forna+�.�rs of soia+-N�T.,i nrq,il, msv be r�,c�,a�a ;r.�+�o +,ro r�n,�ns: �1� P,npi`.�c��l;!`nvr�17S f'(1]'^"?1-.�nR�� i.'.7 .:^.9�� ArE!9.5� i'�OTA !7r 1P,55 9+7'nP;*1V ''�7�?�.r�, n^ ?vi�ious qre; �p,� f'is^;?;^erous heas,��ih9rh ��q,. s.�, ,��+�.d with as=tarar_ca.(i17-1P)1 2. T+ � p^'' q._pos�ihle ti•.et +,t�P ^,r5t �rovn ^+n*� re F:,rec9r�hria��, n+ �P3et �_r. nert. �s. S;r.ce +�r-��� i� no '.,;�;ce+;on or trA '"arr,n;p., .,� �a7A�lonie.n o»oe'Ap;�� t;�e,e p}t�^no*��*�a do not nable onr +� � in�i;sh '-he aAe of +ye rrl;•�ents. m b. .re onlv th;r� �r.P rrr_ s�� ,�ith 9F'1J^R c� i.s t�qt +-rpsc� nonro 1'i"errnas r�r''3 �t'^P. �,��1'C-nP407:�.At1. . . 3. m�?p ��P,V0:1�9T1 Sf!f�,i,^�nt'.5 �"'�4A fl iR11C}! ,••i�'C7' ra;,c+:t'1�')Ui;I�R 4^.f� �n:iG�..;}U't'0 9^i; Of a�i,A ��eo�nrl ,.�,�P� � � - � A �.. I+;s ba�e�^�s ,�-rpectl•� de±'ined b. "'"• nhsrncr or r��e ?,�;or+�.ii+ ,?;�+,:r+;,,r•,�,,;•, ��„ non-mernmo�phic oharar�wr �f tLP ro,.�.s, =rr� f?,A �,mpl;city of t:.�r n,-tr.�t,.*rs i:r,.a': nene+rate th�^m-_ 1 zite? to basn"- � r�rt s and thwir �l�f. Prr.�+, atrs--c Fnr i+.. Aq„v . =der+,if�cat;.�n. _ 4. r,�r+h�r^nre,the pns}-5;1>>r,;an P�1 �,.. . . ,; r,oznir, n��;+� ;n t:�r, srnz+h oP '�razi� �re �at���a _os�ili_°�rous.((I£'l� . F• "'^� Ps�Po?�ir sF�tlen�e, re.,;, � SrA ,y...... '-S 9'-;dicated in "'able 4.(I�bst nAee 9A1�((1g)) � r,gq F^. 65 ((xix: �on+an+,s o�'r�`emoir; xx: blt�nk; �_m� 1-.?; m;�7=(` ^az;ll) nsir? �lanl--11 HR,�:IL ( (11 � bv Avelino 7mnacio ne �livPirs T"..!'Ci'.nr� ^enartamento "q�;onel �n Pr�c�i?ran n+;P�r�l, R�_o �c Jan=;rn, �irgz;l (�'J9'th `hP co77ebnre+�nn of(('I? others�� i(ne-�= �_4: ��n+entell I. I?'mT+OD*TrmI�rT (S1) I2, ppFnADOA�IAN �5-16)) � A. =enerel �onsiderr�t�ons(i�-71i 1. The ?'re�3�nhr�nn of Tirn^.;7 �hol�rn �n +-rP �eolorir L"an o� Soul;h ^.mericn ^;i+h t,�oo div; <.;;�ns, earlv (ep6i 'er.a ' a+,e (1P�) (({i1 Prerembr; an. fl. `�'}I1S l�i.`ri5i.07'1� "'}11c11 7'PA"P.cpnf�.5 'F,�A nArrhean" 37'1!i ���l�on'.si.�n" Of' f;�'IE nr�z�linn li+ers'-nre, �^as hased larp�>lv on +he metnmorphic Rrade of the ror.ks of the nPRZl��sn Shield. b. '"he alternat;ve nn*ae !'or m3nv of fhe,se roc3-s, +Y;e "Arazilian r,ot2plex", `.s in�icat.-ive of +he ^t�rt ,+,!�3t it ��.s lonp� becn re�.Lzed tH�.t ,�nch a si.Tple d'z�*is�on �c�A.s oPrr�As mnre deceotive thnn heln?t�l. ((Fl� B. 7ee=nnal co�re]a�;�ns(il:i-]�l) 7. ^P�i^nal cnr�e]3+;^n �r +re Prerqmbr;nn rocks o� Eix! ar�..e �s **ast :z� �irnzil obz,i�,�sl�� nresen+s pro�+]�ne o+' '�a "�";rst maenitude, anrri�cia]nr]v� e'nne �.^rPai;h=r�ne� �s �eep �+rt Axnosn*Ps soa't+ered.. 2. Iit+le iG lrnovvn o�' +ha vast ereas srown a� �arl� Preonmh+-;en �n thP vpper i'.'.RflZOR Vfl� � Ct�� 9T1f1 Ori� V 19 j.i � r+ .�rr�o' nf' �1'L'f: h1�T1�7'E('15 Of' i'1"1O1759ri� �S OF SallA7'C j.",lp..�ct.=I'S On n89r].V p7'CC3.T.hT'i411�� in, }liP �9F+�Fr71 Par1' (�1t' 'f'1^E f'.01]n+rV. 3. 3x h� ;p�;r�,..�A� -rsrt nr +hoSP areas �n,;l'1 -,robahl,� PVP.SII,IiP��V b= cerrel�,+A.1 ���;+h ],�+�- P,-�cP^�br;sn fo�+-mat_ons.((1.})1 C, Oror*rnzc U�7+� ((ls�l �� mi,,,, c�r�A�hr'.�n o1' Rrezil s�ems tn �, _ .. n+�� n mr��ln•;11.v r�er.�oq,<,ir.F oro^r,nic �n'Pnsitv rr�T, +he r,�as+a] r=mion +otvA,-r? +.�e, ,.n+�r;nr. 2. �s r� corol�ar••, ^�riar+tiral r.o+�nl?xit�� a7so s=P�� +.n ac�c�easP �t^n•• fro^ +he coe^+�1 zone.((1511 D. O+her 7a+P precenY,rian roclrs((16)) � 1. ^'ra Rc�nior,in �^ap of Sou+h �t-�er�_aa =�rn,�c � lera;e are3 n� nqmbr�an rool�s in nor',-�=rn ?`_nas ^:era�s �nr� sm�+,h�rn znd �e�htrql ?�ahia. 2. mhAse ro�t- s are 1-nm<m as +�. I.a��ras s�r;es, descr�UPd t7" nPr}��r, � mhP�e is nn defi„i.+�.-F eci'P-;c� qs +n +heir a,^e bi�t hPre +hPp are describe� a� Cambr;en as trst �_��t�e +-re��+ional nre aseianmrvnt, and, 9s vet, there is no solir� ba5is !'�r chenr*�n�* it. h. T*omPr=r, r.u.-rAnt opin9on 3n�'�n�s to-arc� t�e �t?P,9 +�-q+, there �:A•� -rfe]] be rock� pf +`"•O Ol- ?Rnrrg qt'�c i`.lCll]�t3a in }hiG ,.rnitai.�[*� Ai1l? i-hn+, DA7"f'. Of 't}1C ��LAV7'Aen ma�r be e�uivglPr_t +.o the +.me Ttaaolomi(�la+e Prec�±�br��n)),.... ,��'i. T'}hO�Of!'lC t`.nrr�p,lna-S.O:15 f�!' (:O?i'S!' �`]9c+iC f'OT^�r.+ir1'�'1� '.�"i+�l� T'13D1.f� 9II[? �?I'P.Pt ft�c;Ps chane�s n^P �:otahlv inseeure,((1E1� 7I7, YnI�O?oIC ((16_;�p)) 9. �rr; �,�A � IBrII.SSICDI(l16_Zgl� �� "'•,� Pal�oz^i.c s�A; + �- . r�en e, ,or ;n te.- n,-fl�.;.linn ar_�*� �nr?uAA� +�rA� r*reat �19.5?716: +'.hn ,�T4ZOri� '�'.h9 't�q+�ri�it}19-,cinp PrnriCi.SCp� oP.? }i�r P8�'0.R9. A7. Amazon �c�osvnrl�ne . 1. T�� Amazon bas�n , an anc;Pnt �eos.mrline o^ ]nnm p�„�;�+,�nre. 7. Tt ,�.nc subnF.rnPd r7i,r�n� i-he ��r�,r S,l�a.-�an, +he nevon;an, r3n�i �y�e 7s+-e �arbonif�rn»s. '�. Strr�.ta �r +wp �qr�},rien Si�t�r�nn, T]evoniAn, nnd �enns��7.van�an sVs+�ms ar� ��no^�n in tt,e lrn•��r .4riasnn arna. a. ��']CSP, fli'C e1P'�m9T'�ZPri ^Tl �'3h]P, 2� 'FhP, �'}IiC7tpP.SFoS in�j`rq'�'.P.(! 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GC;.+. f�7� /'ic'vc�:l: a� I �. _ -�-.�.._-�.Y.-•- ___,. � c? -- jc��� _. _.....____._.-.---- - � __ ._.- --____ __.. r-- .SC='/''ii:c Gr�r�c�fE .5 -�� -7C__..._�_��_.__ _. ��.��.______ _.._�_._.__.._.__. -,.____---__._._._..�__ ' -� _._.__-�__— ,; � ,S: c'. a t J, Su c� �=, �:» �! S�� ci' /�Qi7lI C'/ ' c��'C.� -s"'pp ; .... . . _,..__._._...._ _; ._. � cu„�G,;�i� ; L�.�:,rras > > �00 ..— � , ._. __ ___ __ _ _ _...- ��--- ,. , , .-_•, r / . ° -�- .- r ,r'r�� � � eC'�' r �*?� 1�+1P ,J �(L�/^l2 . �`� .(� : /�'-j' � / i % - , ill.� j! l/ ir� . � � . _ ..y..-..._.. ,, _ _ _. . _. _. _ i �SS'�___.__... , � . _, �S _.. y� r� � j�'/'r.C�Fi�•-- l�S���'�l 1G�i:G`. �t-a'L-�/f� /—G, ZYCc'/Cri -,-� !�/; /�'JF-f�-• ` , 3 �..+ . .�.......,._.__�__.�.�.�_____ _Y_ ___----- � -__....•.____._,. _ _.... _-.�_ _.__._.. . _ -- ____._____.__ __.._--_ ,___.__________- _ _.. _ �._... .. _. � ^ /� t�t Ct f=/ l'�,� 1 `�''� C�V /?��.?�L � S /Jf�� L. J' �Lr/ �? �Y- � . � r�j, y . .<.._...... ......_._ "J' 4 / /� M• / . ...... .......�.� ...... � ........� �.....�_ �`� iI7: r/% t ,��'S�'�- L/(;'..`� ��f/r��r. /�l°ru- S'��-�l�l��--. �...���_..-�- ( i; �:�., _____.�._._ _... . _ _ __._ _. _._. _ _�.__.�___� _ .. __.___ _...__ _ . _ _ _._ .._ , . ._ ._ �._ _ __ _ _.______. � .� ��_.__ _ ___ - .. 1 f'R�P_✓rY1C . ____�_.__,_____.___ _._�_--- �;v'r;z7 r-�- . �;�r.-- c' S—G�j I " G �i»l/_,;tl�ii;�/� —_� _... �.'!J ,vJOr'Ji � / U,��Q/'�Gi. C' , =-- ,.. _._: _ .�tf,�' / �/' e � � G�� for9�u. C'"� OS.S�- `� C C„7 ��`._"`...____._ �%«'P`� .W _�__._.._..__.._..._..__ _.__. -_--__.n..��.� _.._._ , , __.__.._.__ ` __�_.._..._ /��'ve�i�. �ar/ �'� �'�1.��t,.. --_____.__-._.._ -- /�"G�/�'�a S . � l�C.a _ __�._ _ _. _..._._._.._ .._ _._.. , . . -- - -- -- '��/�� � _,�' C-� I J �t, c; <z�� � C7 S; �11i'.'� /'l C �� i� � �'�- S� /�1`« C��'� ' L�r'c�c�>:� �vo ���� ..� G' C' ___ .._. __. ,._� __. . ....,._.. _..--------.__.....___.�__—.__, i 1� _�_....—____.-_ _......._.__ _ �� .�. �"/GZ /'; CGZ... J ..., . __ __.. _ .__. .. . ____ _ _ _ c' sic)) c;-�-�a�;<<;���� ? / . _ _ . ___ ._ ___. _ .._ _ ,r�Gr�^�'� 'l�e�I��4- � � _ __ ._. _. � T� �,y�,�rJ , --- __.______._____ _._._._. _.� _ _ _._. (o� Co�'��.n�,a � /."3ccu.;���� � '_� c'c' . . . _. _ ._._ .. j 2 �a ? _ _ . _ .. . . , __ ��,�I�,,��1, /':�� ;,w.4.,,�r1f� .��; - _ _ _ a-- _. _ ._ __ __ . .._.____ . _..._. ��si�>� _._---- _ _ �. _ _ _. � _.-..�_____ __ _._ _ _. _�.___ _ _ _ , _�._.._ _ . . . _. � OIL ZO�d�S 0�' 'lii�; U�TIT:r:ll STAT�S (Com�ilsd ?�v ThQ Oil an.d Ge.e Journal) _ _ . . _ _ _ a. � CAC�RIA:m .�PiF} Lt)'4��: O�.ifi'VICIAt�ii � PrinQi�al Pro�ua�n�; Horizonss The nr4ncipal n�.l ar�d gas pays i.n �'OiMQ.'��.UY15 of' Lov�rer C�rda�icisr� and olcier ��es are d3vi�si'�1e irto five groupe: 1. �`dee�thered pre-Car.st�rian rocl-_e ar.d bast�.t sends an� conglam�rates. 2. ram�r.ian sanc�stone re�ervoirs 3. .Arbueskle �nd �llenbur;�er 13mestones 4. S�nd��ones oi the Simpson �rou� and oquiva:t.er�.ts in Tex�s 5. L3o�.a�ites of t?�e Si*npBQn Proup. I)istri�au�tion af Pro%+uc3n� ,rlreasti '--hc�rev�r pre-Car.�brien rocks are exposed to ero�ic�n, thay may beQome porous. Frao�tures ane� jaint planes beaotne �videned by the weatherin�; pr�cessee and oil ma,y bs f our_d ir� the�o fraotured and porous zon�s. TYee �re-C,ambrian roa'�� ere, hrn�ever, rn�relv psssivo recipients of the oil which entered ths opan3.nps after the wAathered rack� wero submer�od. Thus th� x�ro-Cr�mbri�n r�aservotrs ai �;°�;c� "'exas I'pnhar��'.Io ara related to the r ermiar. roe�s r-h � ch abut a^ai:�s� t?Aro gr�►nite r3.dge anc� thca oil is cansidered � Permian in ��e. �re�.s of' �r�ri�.te anc� �;ranite v�ash, or v�sidual soil vn top of th� �*r�n�te whieh presduce �.n ple�ees ���hero the �rfanita is overlain hy Cs��rian an�/or Iraa;er �rdovici.an racks are f"c�unc� in �resterr_ Kensas, so3�ther�n nkl�,hr,ma an�' 3.r :E'eoos Ca1�nt,y, ?'e�cae. Ca.*�br3.e.� s�?.ndatone prodt�etion ia rele.t3.v�ly unco�on, be3r_� no�r found i�� �anac�s, mai.nlv in Ruesell �ounty, arid 3.n Pecos County, Texas. The prac3ue- in�; hor�.zon is a eanc�stona ti�rh�,ch is �eneral];.� alos�l,y related to other �a^c�1 sandatc�=14;e, ?;i�t iY� places in a de#'3.nii;ol�t bec�c'.cd F'ax�nation. �he oec�rren.ee o�' o3I %n �-,hese sanc��t;onas �vhere the Ordoviciari cover is Qither thin or absont �eads to th�a possit��.Iit�,T that _�ore r:i�t* bo found where tho , Ordavie�.ar. li�^vsta�es �a.re thiakor. ~'he pro?:�a� :lit;iea arc� that whoa-o the '�.11er_t�urRar emncl .Arbuckle li�es�;ones are produet�.ve, prospectin� for Cambrian oil w311 *=+otTe '-cn�.rard the th3c'~er l��dst�*�F:, de�osits �;r�d�:allv as, at �res�n�, th� ri�k af not findin� Caml�rian t�� 1 does no� t*�arrant dri113.n�; thrau�h li�ra- atone� �ic�h r�ay ranp;e ?'ro�+ �+ fevr hunc?re� ta thousa�ds of' f'eet in thieskn�es. Th�� t1rY��ackle l�.�e�tone is the *�ost impor-�ant producin�; hori2on in rovestarn �'ans�.s an� the �11er�ur�or li�nest�ne is becomin�* increasin.•�1y impor- tant in �`orth anci �'dest `�Qxas. �i; ma,,y thus be cor�sidered a potenti.al pay where�er it exists i.n � belt 600-7�0 miles i•ride ex�endin�; to the �aortheast f'r� 'p7est �'exe.s. ree F'np '�zo. 1. In eddition �o the 1ar�;e aactutulatior.s at fiemi�, �'rap�, `�ilic� 3r.. �ans�s an�' the �ar_R' Izi?ls anc� othor �roas in RTest Texas, 1�»^estores of' th3s a�� h�.vt� prodi�c'od lar�••e nu,�:r�tit;fes of oil 3n �'ields a1o�a the '?�mm�ha ri.d�c�, ,nota�l�,� ?'.1 norado, �'r�nsas anr�. 01�1�-ihazna City. �ast o�' the ric?�e, the Hiti.le panl, Coti�al��r C`olanta�� CQYIHA.�) obt�ins it� m�.jor �rodu�tian f'rr�m '-t�e ^r���zc�•-le lima. Porous zonaa are lar:-e1�,� i'ound ixi �he t����er Y>�:rt of the 1-ir�ei�t�s��s vrhor� they w ro subjeated to erosion prior to de�o�it3.or o�' the ovorl^�.Tin� Si!r.:rson for:�atio�+^. z':oWrever, the +:Hick out- orop�in�* s�:rios �i.n �he Qs�rds sho�rs the nresance o�' sevoral uncaxi`ar:�ities and if these are t'ounc� in thc� ?�uries� rocks, thore may be a nu*�ber of pays at depth in t.he 13meetone seot3.�n. �ame o�' these dsep�r pa;;s havo bacn fc��2nd and tY�ese �i11 grobabl�t le��c" w.,o ��:ore explaration t�t depth in tfxe� limestones �n<a thra��^�h the^� in.to G�>nbrian and pre-Catnbrian rocks. `�he ��: pnon �*raup conrists of � n��ber of' sara��s�;�nss anc' shalas, generall,y cor+,��.r.ir, � gre r_ rninerals. Thf,re 3e alsa sor�p dolo�:itic limostane in t?�o �raup �eneral,y near the a:o�. S�.ds�onos nf the S3��son �roup provide the rnost ir�pnrt�nt pa,ys in �kl�hor�e., natnbly 9.n the Seminale di.stric�, alonc the ?'iemaha ri.dP� anc� a�k scsattered f3slde suah as C'umberl�nc�� F'a.uls ?'al.1e�� �nri Abach�, ?n `Pexas there i.s ��.- �t�son proc?vetion in tha ''ed �iver aroa snd �n the Abell fielc? in T'�cos County. Th�s widespree,� occurrsnce of oil in the Sir!.nson m.akes it a prirnar,y a'h jecstive. At tha prasent tima, productit�n a�' me� jor �.mportanbe is rarelv found in oldar fbr�atior.a �+rhen it is f'ound ir_ �;he �i:�psan, '�"his is �robabl,y �lu� to tk�e #'act that v�hen it is f'our_d in the "impson i� is not sou�ht at �r��.ter deptha. ?'ho Siznpso� pe.v� inol�de r th.e ':'�ilcox, �3ror:ic?e, Ttx3�. �'reek and other ee�de. Tk�ese n�nag hs.va L�een e�.rried over ex�en�ivti e.rea.� but defir.9.te eorr�lat�ons �re dauiatful. Simpson c�olc�^�:ite� pra+�ac.e in: the ��en� ��;olo anc C��lalloYaa CitY,► �reas buf, their o�.ltp�� is ua:a.�n�301"�AT!'� CC)2;?pBiQ� �ri��'h ���at of �he Si.��eon san�.s. F�cten��.on inta Q+..her Are,�si In Il� in�3s, the St. �'e�er �ae t?�aeap.;i�t ta bg an exoeZlen� rasea�voir bu� tv r�.at� haa �ro�?�cer� nothin�;. ?'arthmr ea.�t, eazada of �h��yan a^°e, rou�,hl�t Qc�ciiv�:lent to the� S3r���on hava eho�wr� �o��e si�s af product�.on. ?anrth o�' i:��e Cfhio �"i�vr„ Lcrvrer brdrsviea.�.n �i^eston�e e�re no� hi.r�;�l,,r cons�.dt�red btr� ta��,�We i,s z-ca�or� tv b�lieva th�.t the "tones �iver, raLi��3y ec�uival8nt tr� t3�e .Nx°`�=.�ckla, ma;�; �ro�e �Sradu�tivs i� R�ntueky� �d a�ther stat�s. �'ar; - a�s3.dor, howevar, that th�ae f'csa�mat3ons he.ve beare �ao hi.�;h1y al�ered to p�or?uce oil in the eae�t. 'in the coastaZ area G�.�tbriarz-Lo�rer t?rdo�rician fbx�ationa li� �'�ar be��anr� rea�ah of the c�ri:'.]. a:.�cl �re prot��'-,1�� too hg.�,�,�,,• �ltered ta vield a�.l. I:r_ +.�i�e� t oe�y "Ro�.inta�.n :^.*�o�a �?.�:. I�crnrer t)r�av�e3.c.�� ia mieein�; and ths �e�u33�roc�c? sanc�etane (C�mbriar�) 1s nc� fa�r�ra�s33r ra�;arded. k'ae�st af �he Ttvckie�, roeks o�' t}�is age arc� e^�+x�eral�.� be3.iav�d ta �,e too h�.�hly fracstured or f olded ta produc�. � � n �.�����_, c.:�a�z���:1 �c� ��:��..T�a Priraipal r�raduoinr; ��or� 2ons t The �ar3.ncinal oil �nz? p;as pa,ys in f ormai;ians beti�reen the ��idd1� �r�ov�a3a� anc� �t�evo�ai�, inclus�.vc, are divisi��1Q in�o �� �roups: 1. "�3,ddi� Ordc�vician li�eetonas, Trer_�on aricz �Tia3.a �� I�acvor Si�uri�. �ands+anes, C�3.ir�to� �nd �edina �. S�ltiri�n �,nd ��rvon�.an li�;es�vnes, �iuntan, Dundee, 2r��rerse, ��Rc�nrae ��? "`Cora�s.ifer�txs." 4. Iatrw�r �evonian �andt�tane, O�ivkeuiy. s. ��ar �a��.�.� ���� ,t���e�, c��� �.a c�ts�x� ? ��a��e 6. Stra,y ssnds, ''�.sener an� �i4i��. L�i�t�i'�ut3on of �'roc�ue��na �ir�rasa Prac?uction f ro;� r�elrs caf i�iddie Di•dovio3ar! �c� Devo�iari ag;e cover� a lar�;e aree '�ut �a�al produc�ian frar.: th�se pags is ��ot �e i.mpor�aa�t e:s t'��� i'rom ather r�ajar zox�c��, `?'h�e oi�est pat� 3.� ��;:�ia Trvu� is i'ounci 3.n th� so-called `"ren�ort 1ia�estarxe of �?hica ar3e1 �I3ino'.� anc? �he �3.o1a Zi.^�sstone of �klahozn� and t'Anc�.sd ^h+a :�a�t impcas�r+nt 1�J�iddle Or+�ovician �roduoti.on �a�c� �'rom the no�hvrn n�rt of �he CSnc3rsn.a�t� arch 3.n Ohio an� In�iarxa, �vhere thare �raa �Iso one ai' the nations lax�gest �;as fie2�s. �s'ae� of the Cizioi.nn�.ti srch iittl �s has b�c�n f'csu�d �.r the '� ren�ar. althou�h �haws are r�ported. In I31ir.olu th� �r.ax�is��r af the baein and som� b�s3.n #'ields sueh as S�,lc:-.�, ha�e aroducec� 7'renton QiI. Thez�e 3.s r�as�n �o be�.iove tha�: it should prod�.aoe ir_ def�par struct�res in� i�he be�3rz. Zn �en�ue��t, "ur�.nybr�ook 1i�astor_e x�rc>due�ian 3.s of �he sr�me s�;e. The �r;ola ��,� praduced irrc��ule�ri�r �z�. ���.� �'ie3c?� �4 the north a��d saY�th of �I�e ��ichi��-Arr�uckla aplif� an� al�:o at ot-�<., t:�c �outh f1a�:�k of' �tho Cen�.rel }tan�as upli#'�, no�a�ly at Zenith and Pe�oQ C�ac�k. �ere it is �s; oci�sted �ri�h � s�rmy �red�ing �and knorm as th� t:'3.$c�r_er eand, the oiI boin� found �.n the v�ea�hered �top of the Via1e �nd � .� in �he t�vc�rlyiz!�; "i�on4r. F'roduet3on in thc� `I'renton is also in the oraded top a�rcl also loa�lly at pro�a•,�le �mconfarsnities in the 1����c�stone in Ohia. �n the �3�.e�h�.y r"ls.teat� re�ion, tlic T"ec?ina produo�s large qusz�t�.tiee of �<as in Iae�w York and Oh9,a (vrher� it is �na�m as the "�lintan"}. ihis saridy phas� c�f t�,he Lcr�rer Szluri�xt is 1arp;el.s,t r�etric�ed to this area end sffort� to oxtand pracluct;ion east ha�e ueen �en.or�a 3y unsucees i'ul. A lar�;e �;s�s #'law was �'ound 3n t?�e salt of Sai9.ra� a�;e in e� deep tQst in �.`a.ah3.��►r� t�ut na further �+rort has been ,cic�ae in thig f'oorrna�ion here. As sec3iments accu°��ulmted in the ts��sir� v}•hich vnderlies the F�7.Is�then,;�t Flatac�u, �'��cl� at�nc�e�;anes v�r�re, d�posltc�d throu�*hotzt the �evorii�,n.. l��rin^ tv the aau�hQast of.' the "�'lir��on" c�rea are Ori�kany z�as roser�voirs of Lav�er De�onia.� a�� anEa �;he�e �at3.de have �roduced oil 2oca11v. Qn �tapro�.ehin� tha denner p�r�s of th�; t�as7.r�, a-��:� t�avs �a�=co�:�Q sz�eecas�ivel,y hi�,her in �he ssat3on ti�r'+:.h sends'cones of Cho,;;���!- a,�e proc�aioin�; lar�;e qu��z-►t�t9.es o� oil �.t F3r-�d�'ord anc af;hers o�" Ce;tskill ��*e in eouthex.,�: Pennsylve.�.i�r anc3, �arta of' .'�Us�: �iir�;ini�.. f?vc�r �. � ar�e part af th� area,� howecor, theee sands �rac�.e int4 a thiok brcrnm she�le ser�.€�s vrzfh some thin sand� sxrr3 le.�s ch�ncse far auatained oi2 �aro�lc�e�ion. The most �ridt�s�are��d pa�t hori�a�6 of wi,lurian �ca I:auon3.ar_ a�e arc� 1°Lmestones. ":'.Wey provir�e �he �rea� �ulk of P�ic i�;an's praduction with throe pri�oi�a� nati�s, �k:,�e "'r�.verso, Th.�x�e2ee ar_�� �'onroe limestanes of' Lar�er and °`3dr.11 e C�ez an� �� ry�F�e. I'rosent pror'.uction i� alont*, a nvrth+�ast-s4uthwcae�t belt �i"EL49Y"Bed by �.�,rie6 of f ol�in� a.man�% grh9.ch �acplor�.tio�. is �radually i��in�; pfasYzed to �he nortY3v�est. �'roduction �eric's ta fa1.1 off rapidly in theee pays e�s in eqiaivalcants elsewher� 3n tho 1'nited Statos but tho reservo�rs ar9 Zor�- livad at la�, r��es o#' px•oc�uaticas�. `�^�-ia princsipa.l. pay in Central F'Qntua�y 3.s the "Gornif araue" forr^erly considered of Ononde,�an a��. It is na�r knovan the�t. same poro�ity is f ound in 1�i;er f'or�,e�tion$ and soMe di the g�y seotion 3s in the �'i ��ran, of b�id�l� Silurian a�e, This �'ors�at3on mada up oi' �e�bers sepax�ated ��v ta��onformities extends in�o Ok.lah�raa whe.re it is knawn as the H�.tan, end ia a f'a.�,r j]Pbdt1t381"• C,oad S7evonia°� nro�uction �.� f'ound �raunc? �he mar�;ins of th�s i113nais baQ�n �r3th prvb�bl�,= the �ast ir?porta.*�fi �aossi�rili�3e�s �or ne�ev l� fiel�s o� this a�e nn dee.�er �trta��u��s in the �as3�. The �air_� eand, �sc�ociated w�.th D�v�n9.��s liTMeatone .fs fol3nd anlv a.n nortlr�nrast�arn Illinais. ''ecen�Iv Silurian i���e�tone }�as beor. �'r�i�r�c? �ror?uctivn in ':+ar� �aunt�,Ts Te�a.s, in�icati.�zt� poesibilit3.ee of' �'urt:�Qri ext�z�:sior� �;o t'ri� v�res-� and so�th�vsst p �ensior_ Z�to O�her Areast i?plif �s ��urin�r the lat� t3rdrnr3c3ax� corz�#�nuin�; throu�h �he Dez=csniari e3t'her preveni:ed the depo�ition of ?"�dc�ls Urdoviaian to II��ozsian strata over �hern or eiee p�rm.it,ter� th4 re3nov�1 of the m:att�rial tha� wae so d�pvsi�ec�. The.re �.�, thus, litt�.o ap�ortun3,ty of fi,rcdi*��► produc�ic�ri in these pays ocor the flend arch c�nci the "�est Teacas hi�hs. �ten�ions of `�7io�.a produe�ion and intz°a�ivation of ��evani�.n p+avs m�►y be found tn the northaros� of tha e�ig�ern k'atat�ae �roduc_in� e�r�ea ancl ir� thQ b�eins af '��n�es snd tiklahom�.. In thQ ?�avky 7�`ozantain s¢-ates, �he �teff erson l�iestana, Qf i}evoni�n a�;e,� ha.s slicrw,� snr�e ai3 i�'ut is nat ,yet a o0 3ne�cial prar?uce�« In the coa,stn3 are�a.a, ih� t�sle4za3c far�;atit�n� e.re too dec�� an� i�auw.�se f ractt�rin� acc:oanpanied '�y valcarin i��trusians a�a.d some i'olclinp; �►akes theza �oubti'ul producc�rs in th� Corciiil�rsn rer�ion, 0 L�d�,� �iIB� Z.�:s Ii-a-IA�� �'rincsipal Proc�t�oint� Hc�ri�ans: Sandstonea: �erea, '.?ior, �i1.� Tniun, �eer��r,� ete., Garper sand 2 9.r�estQness �t. T.ouis, Ste. �crnevie�e(�'eClosk;Sr), ��ississipbi l�me (oh�.t), �e,diee�n 13.mes�one. T�9.str�.btztion af Prod.ucin�r-.�ireast In the area, bot�veen tho Ciracir�n�,ti areh an� the I��ral�chian�, baa3.n coa�ci�..tidns con.tinued th.ro�a�h �hm 1a�er �:issis�ip�ien nnd c�.astie �edimenta, s�.nc�$tonee e�r3�l s�eiles� ac�mpriee the �;reat 'bulk of' the iaaceri�l depo�iteci ia tY�e b�ein. Tho .A.ppalach�.an ""ountaina h�d alreeu3.y beer� farmir_g f or a Ionn• periofl, a�.thou�h the �►ain tiplifts had not vet taken p1�c�. The up�3.ft af �h� s re�%3on perm�.ttect r�.pi�' erosiora �nc� tho clasties wero oarrie� into the bagin �+rhere they f orm a�eries of �red�;eg and lsnees of �end in shal�� In the eaetern eex�c�e►, the or.lv �3despread sat�d is the �erea which Is found in t'Iest ��ir�inia, i�ent;u�kv, �?h� o anci �,�!ichi�art. 47�her sands vf local importe.nce include tha `�ier. `�c�u�r*r. �3ig In���n, �ocs��e�t and I�eener. The lrnvar i'ississip�sien _____ _._�_r_. .__.�....�.._ �.....�._. in tha :'�7.1ar�hen,y P1ate�t� repion eatl �e con�idersd pretty thorou�hlv prosp�et�d. In I��.inois, the Carner sand is of very limited importianee but sug�ests that ather lo�+rer ��ie�3s�i�gian e��nd prod�ation me:y some tirr.a be found in t"3s area. Tn the I1li!�oi.s bae�n, the i'irst ��iss4ssipp3an dego�itian was oi' sha].e but later thiok 13�estane eer�.es �rere depasitod �,ith unaonf'vrmi�ies betweez� eor:2e of the pr3ne4�g�a1 �?�ere. Same praduc�ian has been found at at� the �ap of ths fit. I:oui�s 1im.e�tor_e, but the principal £�iesis�ip;�ian limeetor�e pav ; s the ?r!CG103?'?Ti a local neme e.p?�1ied to e�r� csolitio member af the Fre�lc+ni� 1i��stone rvh3eh. ir_ turn, is tha lowermoat formation ir�. the "ta. Genc�v3�re �;roup, T�+e porosi��y of this pay auEcy bQ due to de�noeation. af c° 2cit$ �n ep�srie�? �ra�.ns, li?�e s eh€�mionllst daposi,t�d ean�, or thPse may heve been �� 1e�s�. ��rtiall�; cc�„e�ted at o4e t�.me. 'r7 If the ?�oro����r 1� ori�3na1, it is ore af the Pev� aasoe on rerord �here , �oros�i:y in a iimestone raservoir is not due to �roe,thorin�; b�lav+r �:: surfave oF tmconf'or�it,y. �o��e ��rac'uct9.on is a].er� f ound in the upp�r memt�vrs of the 8te. Gane�viev�, the '-'os:iclare s�ndstane and the Levir�s 2i�;ea�tone. }�es� of the �gar���, the forn�tion.s ra*hich �tould be ec�u3.valent �o the "te. Genevic�-e ara �.'�e�rn.i: anc? the m�ain pa�r ie the tap af �ch� '�'oan�" evh�.ch is epplie�' ta the whale li:�estone sari€�s. It 3s �;nnarally referre� �o as the ��iss3:�s �t3-� I��e ar c��Qt and is an 3.r�portai�� p�y in eastax•n T�a.�sas. In Oklahc�ma it is of much mare ��.?�itec� impartaj�.es. E�'#'or-ta to find p'�,esiesi� •i Zi?�e prodtactian ;n Toxas ?�a�re been �ana�r�ila.n� until in rece�±t Vears a�rod�ein� -tr�erd ha� beei� lae�ted. alori� th� �reat �'lr�k of the 8end aroh. Th�e may leed the wa,;� ta �.�port�t dravelopY• men�ts ir, a re�ion vrhere pracl�etion ha� bc�en lar�ely cor�f'ined �a :i'ennsylv�.nia beds on the �theory th�t there �a�auld be �ao tf3s�iseip>,:i�ar: pro�uetion, z.x- ploratia°a to the '��1'! Qn�ur�;er �'arther �tort�: �n.d west ma�� p.1sa u�.aovor ?�'ississippian. praduction. Th� ""a��ison limev-"one of r'is�iesip�ian age forait thc: oldest Ici�o�ra �ay in thm T�oek-y s'ot�tain e.z�ea,� #'or_n3.n� t�.e n��ir� producin^ horizon izz the Fev�ir�;'unburst �'3eld of' 1'�oxttana. Share�rir_�;� t��vo b�en f ound x� the g,�e�r33aon on the ?�ak�x�-G1en�?�.ve anticline on �he bo��ndary bet�reen I,Sontsrse arir Y'orth Dakvta, ��ivin� �hie f orxnation a v�ride ran�o f�r exp�.ora.�-ian. �;�:i:ension Tnto Other Arc�as s "'he a,ceompanyin�; �►ap, sse F�iap a;�:�. 3� ehaws relatively fa�avv arca�;�s rrY�ere there has 'l�ee:n ev3c�ence o�' x►� loti°:er '�i��ies3ppi praduction. The bes�F poesib'tliti�e n.o�r aprear tc 13e �s� -�h� s��.l3is�on basin of �.rontana eEnd :":or�h �'a'�•ate� �d �he surroundin� territory e,n� :liz the ea.$tQr� p�rt of' the ti�lest Tex� s basir_. So*�e �m�11 produet3on will dvubtles� Ue s'ou�ic? �n th� f'1.�ks at �h� �iem�.h� rid�;c and ais4 i� th� Illinois-:inc�iana l�ssii�. General Goolo,�ical Cons�.dprationst '�he end of the 3ow�,r �Yissisaip 3.an nay be cons3dereci aa :narking the end of ane set o�' �eolv�ica3. conc3itior_s ovor the COLIITL'i'y' as e, whole and the beginninp� af �.�.ot�ar. �at�ean the pre-Casn�rian and the e�ci g�' �he upper ?�iss3.ssippian, tharc were four �reat peri.ada oi' limeatono d+spc�sition Zahere the lanc? areas �.-�rp low a�nd 1i�tt�.o �edi^�ent ws� c�e.*risd into the sea, TT�in�; oil-f'ield �err,is ra�:her than strictl�r scie�.�if'ic ` carr�lt�tions �hese �re the Arbuckle-�'�lan�ur�;or, ti iola-�re:nton, Huntnn-Ccrnif arou� �.r.d �:ie�issipni limt�. Thare vaere u,.�cor�for�i�:ir� �rithin anc� abave a.ach of t!�ese e�ans9.ve 1�z�estane forn�t3.ans ,r3th the development o#' pEarasity anc:, �n mr�ny �1�rses,� acc�ulatione a� oi3. The :�orioc?.� of` �.imestone d��po�itio�: t�r^� ���rces,:c,�t m�d f'o?la�;ev by uplii'te of ma�or si�e a1px�� bra�d t.rends enc? by t�.e devela�m^snt oi' b�.s3ns bet�reen the arahes. �edi-�en�� �rer� w�slzed vPf the hi�h� a�*�d 3r�fl �he bae�ine vr5�.:th th� dspflsitinn of s�de a�.c� shales crhi�ch car�o� be co�°�c;? �.';�d avc�� ti�.de areeis but ha.vo t-�ry s3milar charac�oris�i.os becausv a�' ;;:�.,. ?.; ^o�.cl, ne�.t? e nature of the eari,h mrrcrc�c�nts. Locall�Ts as �n th� l�pp€ilach� ari txrea, the �u.aahitae an.d the Aarb�ar,°�r�.e=}=iah� �a b�l� of fol�in�;. thc��c� wc;re :�harpe*� struoture�� �k�t in �;ene�al a�t �klahcnr€� r�perator f'cati1� quit� e.t homo in �he pr�Ne:nnsy3vanian �ectians of Ill3nois �r ,'est �'c�xt�.s« :'ollo�.�;i.r.n �hQ �rsre int�:�se r�ovemants alon� -thr :����rztain bolts, ��nc3itions chan�;ed rap3d2;� �si.d su�aequc�nt �;ec►lo�io�.l histor�- is di�ferent in the dif Parsn� produc�nr� se+�tions o� th�, eo��nt?�y. �, 0 C�F'I'�..'T� MI�SSIS�IPz'IA� pr�.nc��al rraducin� �;orizonst Sandstaness '!Taxton� Cheafer f Aux STs►ses, �ethel, Cypre�s, etc.} '�istrabutio� of Pra�uc�.n� Itor� �one � 'C!pP�r Pe�nsvl4�.n� a produc�3or. ie restricted �a thr^e ar�a� aztd is i�portes�t anly in one, the I11�r.ois basin. `t'he La�vn sancl produce� small r}uantiti�+a ai' oi.I �n the A�.3e&�hony P2ateau re�;ion ��ero the bnairs which s�tarted to f311 dur3np; thc� '�rdovici�. had beaar:_� �3rsos� comp].etely fillod« Ctabsenta�nt aeti���y �n �hi� aroa csansisted maanly o�' th+� deposition of s�ds ra.nc� ah�les ��ith asoil? �i:�r�,T c�onditians v�rhich co�vor-t@d 1ar�;e sectiona of tl�e t�e.�3.r in�o svramps 3.n vrhich Gos7. beds acctunu�atod, In the 21].inois b�,��.n, � mare var� e�a�ed .seat�.or_ o� elastice and �some lir�esto3ies v�ere depo�itec3 ta far� the Chest�r series. �eF3os3.t3.arz of these �'or�s►tions �ra?ualiy bece*�e reStricted �o th� dee�er parts c�f th� bas3n �rhore ar�.nde in �he t�pp�r r_rnembers f�rriec! �ic�c�#*�-e��;e�. The �aroduc�n� str�ti�*.rnphic traps in the lower �se�^bers are, c�f aa��ree, nearer �he ed�es o:C the besir_, �3ep�3nnin� e,t t:he top, the �s;r� are as follrnvs r De{�on�.a, C2ore end �alestir_a sanr�s#:one� �..- �':abaeY� i�iver exea. F"altersbur� enc� Tgr �nr�r��;s sarzcistone� --- eove�in�; a wider area in tho �outhe*�r part o.�' �he bas3n c��rhher� �hey for�:: ti�c� principal Ghester pays. Ii�rc?�nsbtir�; and C.oleonda �andstona --- �n3nor pays. C r�ss ('��ilor, Carlyls, F3rl�veecl, etc) san.c3stone --- ane oi' the ma�t exteneive p�6�s in the Ches�er s�rioB; �en�raily prQductive 3r� the northern part of. the baein. Paint rreQk formation �-- Or5.�3.na].1y �onsidered a stz�ay ssnd at T�oudon but noev �ro�+�ct3ve i.n �€�c���.1 fi.�,lc�g. Bethel (?�enoist) se�szc���!-ore --- o*�s o�' t�;e r�ore i�npazVtar:t Chester pe,ys vr!?ich is al�o widol�r distri'�uted� Aux '?ases eandstone --- th� s p�z3� �ae ori�;in�lly thauQht �o be 14 nonao�TM�r�rt�i.al i��t '�;es proved to '�e a�oad �nd �.an�;-lived :�rode�cer. These forra�-�ions ha�o been �ore c�.refully correla�ec3 in t�3e Illirsoie �a�sir than �nv s�.r,�ilar ser� es e7.soa�ktero in -�hn coux�try ti�.nd the type af produc- tion of rrhieh they are aa? ex� mpl.� 3.s ciiscussc�d more 3n de��.rl below. `axt�ans:ion �'nt� �lther �.re�as: Gan�?3.tio�s s�m3.la.r �`:o +hose Mx. •t._�:E; :�11i�ois basin eio not appear to hav� ex�stc�c� �:-, this t7.me i�: ar.�r ot?�flr part Qf the ca�zntry. 4ther c�3ava�tions, s:ach a4, thn (haaohi�cas a.��' ��.r'.�ursl-lm�-�:`:'ichit� be1� af i'alc��.n�, �.p��e�r �a h��e been lo.�er sa that thick shale series w-ithout the intor-�ecided sandstone. y�ep� laid dcn�rn arou:�d ��ean, ^here is �:here�'vre, na ar�a in whieh prospecting f or proc�- uct'�on 1n sedi�en�s o�' Ghes�:vr ^;�e a pear� to be �ert3c�z2arly f e�orablo, �he bQst '�ein� ara-:o d the s�uth and of the ?lashville do�.e. !��;�Qr�i �ec�?Q�i.v�.3 Gansi�erat,io:�s: z'he 1aoe1 upltl:'ts �,rhi.ch ��ecc,r�e mQre �.ntense �n tho upger T.`3s�is: ip;�ieri ,?^.�-:. ,. _'_�_ .,_'zo pre�io�.zs perz :,ds in�:onsiL ied �hF� 1oca2 variations batry6E311 formations so thai c-�ra.. ��if f�ren� ;�ar�� a" '-,.e; ��re b�.s3.n present. �Y%c?e7.y dii'fero..�,a cor- (�;y.�v.R.OYIJM '='hus, ��:F, �lve>�r:tt�io;� �:.,� s�nds and �.r�iuerv�4}ns csade i�. :�icsr�: ar lese cont3nuo�as eheei:s eactendin�: ov�r �ide ar. r�as beca'�e an altern�,tian of sands s�hich �inoh o,z+�ev�,rd, eapc�ig and ��c3e in�n she�Io dtywnc��,a. '�:•�.s ��.s a,:'��; t Y�t�icn2 de:.���ition�l s-�,°�.ti s*r��'+_,ic tra�� i.n limes�c�ne for.nt�.�;lons.- �he c�n�'usi.on ra�ul.�in�; �ram 3.mproper oorrel�.��:i��� o: s::. i.���r� 1'or�:z- ations 3n Ct-��tzo+r.a con�;rr�s�c�d vv3th the �an�.fo�ai��r o#` ear.roi�tions �'au:nc? in �he _T_? 13n�ie r��si� a.� � t�rf.e>u+a {-o �iie es�re��a1 �caloniQal tiaor'� �one 9.n �he 1at.ter area. �'h��.s ht�� �aid diuir'e���s ?n ene�bl3r.�; o��sorators �o �nrn>� tY�ai .r ax�,Gt 7o�3.tior. �ix� '.�7e ��ae'..:�.cr�, �t:;� c;raluate tha�r o�aaxlrns o�' find�n� other ss.ncte 3.n d�ri? � lY�r° f?�:�.:sur�, to ? no:;� •�r-i.�.?�in a fc�r �'eet th�: r?istar.ee •ta those s:.:nc�� s�ad f�inail�,► -�o iz�tr��?uce c�ec�o�ies in �rodz.ctian throtYgh multiple c;o� �letiar, af .�c? l s. r'.s a result of v;ri� �eolo�3c�.1 �rork, apera�or� 3n I3.l�.nc'ls s.r� able �o test a1I �ot�ntial pays on a strt�etura w�.tho�,t the risT�� o�' m3ssin� two ar three ber�ause oi' a tendency to ce].? ar:y �;aod eand "5enoist" �s�h�ther it is rel �ter3 to the Aqno3.st ar n�t� f�1c?er opvrators 11 v��ili rer�srrLar '-hE- a�r�*� n�m�"�er of "�'e..�1e��i1�.�n se�zct� ir_ t�i�la3�:r�r��. �opra�3.��.c��a�. s�r�t�.r�.•a�hics tr���`s r� �-.- 'ic uou�,l�.t a1vx:;-� i;��e,�cls �o��nded t��� �.he Gho*-!�l�.�e u;�c?!i� �n�i 'k��r tha 1�.r_c� n�' ��r�.d�.t�.nr� �n�o sliale cldcmd.i�. . �i�ra� thesc� poras�.tv tr�r�e �:r< '}•?'ct:t"�E3Ct� �'�� I11iCS a�' �'olc'in�; �;?�c�� I��.ve the be�� cht�:.nr��� .�or r�ro�.i�c�-.�.an. Frr�sa�ctin�; for str��ipr�.phic �re:ps, 3n �k�Le '!i�ht af' c��ar pres�mt '-,r>r�'�r;�'��e �enta�ree �Y,?�e caz�e�v1 cr��re'��tio�i af de�cilad . s�bsuriace ,�'eo?QMi.e�.l metiao��� �?�!-k:. -��+.e mogt r��'ine�l �eapk�.�sica� p�os���c�:•Fng �e3a?�.oc? � . ?�e�osifi;7.�snaT s�r�ti�;raphia tr�.ps oi thc� IZ1.in�:,is ("hester t,,�e x�.�ay bs Q�cp�etr��' �r. �*�r,v �a.cin, nat arl�t art��zn� t�:e ��,z��:,ire t�ut �eala ir tlle baeix�a e,s grell .:^ ��rse� a3e� 'In i11 inca� �, *�he lor�er mc�rbsrs of �h� C�heat�r teri� �;e+ �ra�3�.ace arau22� �;he mar��ns a:� the Y►�.s3r ���c'. •;:';c� .��.�he� far�a�iozis wit?~.in +�iv �::�..si� proner., '"'f�� c�,-cle ie �o,: c�7.waya a si�:,�ie on�, }��awcvar. Oscillati.or�s of t!�� e�►o��e lin� at t?:� }��ainn.in� n'� s�. �,•:>t^ioc' c>_`_= 's�^-�n Pi,1.1'��?� 2:�av� be �peotad aro�d t?�e ^�r��.�.. ?1.� �he �as;n � a.11:', ;_.: s rati;rr��x� zcs traps e.pnromc�^� �he ~.'.,��1 •,,'; .;� ,nt� �i� o �}�e �yc1c� t�ay ba i;����ezru�t�c? ia,y � �;rea��.er subr,ir,x••�enco t?�e�� us��r�l �txa.�' tho n�r� �raps �e.y o�ax•1�� ac*�n tne �'irst Qnea i'ar: �c:�?. 12 ta';a^f- T Tlw� . �'� a L+�:_ik, Y�.�': �'rinc:ipa,1 �'r•oR'caci, � �'ar?zonss ��xclsuataasa ."�.uzz� �an�?s i�;. �:':i�: ��a�.ac�i�.at�. areA, T1?.3z�o�,s ba�in, �'�n��s, (��=1 _,�c�ms. c�:; '!"�rth Centr�� T�xe�. �anc?�s in the �".s.��'al.enee �;r�at�p af 17Q�t�aest r�w t"e�ico �nc? thc Ta�.e1,�c�g an�a �'�7.2iiiE?�118£i o�' C�yo�:x��. T,�mesfones: �`�rs�� C�.t�:-�-�azreirs�, `i'arl:-�.n sx�c� o�h�,r 2ir�c�sta�e�s �.�. F'AnE3e``, �E4tJe(?;t7 0�' f'i• �.ai-:c?'€'�, ,�'ar�'?.r. i�'a?1.,, �i'.E' a azid vt�'�E'.�� ?.�i= �.;:,�c,�^r;: •"=_z IJpz`'�h `�'6�Lfi:' ,� +'°!.fi',�Y''�.'c'it�'� � t�l? O'F' i`aOt�L'C � Y':^' `�Uiz 20YiFr t In �t�� �21e�i?�.r_-- I'lt�tc. �u rca#-� ��, �'c�rir�;�;J��c�i3axi prod�3c-ti3.on is l�r€;Gl ;r I3.�iter? �a �;h� c:er�t�:sr�l n�rt ��" �he b�s3x�. ��z dca��s�au� �x�cier the ii�tle �"Gml�:arc� ar F�±rr,t Ccrw ?''t�n �+� I�i.�Ih.�n�-�rd sands vf �;he Cone�e.u�;h f'c�rrr��,�ia�, th� "'urr_it?:� �nr3r.�� r�anc� af tho t'�.lec�h�a� ar.:ci tlic� "r:d r�n;" Cosr t^vn. ex�ci "��� s�r�c: � o�' :,>f� � o�fsvi�.Ze �ra tl�Q � os� im.por�:r�n.�;. '.i'�iere �are a�.$o � a�w:ber• of in�-�:�bec:�?�,f; �;�.� s�.nc�s a.�<' sor::Q of' thc�ss procj.tace c�il. �ac��i=° . �a: the "=�set�rn '`ni er� or Coca.1 ras�.r, pr:i.rc' � 4 3� :'e -. ..._ _: _>a� 5 � ': `} o�: 3� round n.'!on.ro �-�•e sat�����ex^� c�.^.� oi t�P r�. `;��'�: ar��icl5.ree. "M� hi�her prod4�cing �ft71C�.S, ii::: s'�°?.'•. �i� �'`'?���.iG'`v"� r�.Ei:,";)U,^:�.s �;;a?�, �L)s,QY" �''ELI`��.G6•r 6.T'E3 1.'OL'1S:C� �Tl �'i�iE.' Y1oR'�'ihE?T'21 gr:7:�n oi' a��e�1;<s. "x, a,Fze ' o'��.�.son, I,aF�re�.co�-�.l�e an:" °silenda3.� era�s, the �roer�e3.Mi� x:arizons are xn�i�l:�o o£ I'ott�F•�.ile a�;e r�xa. ia�cluc?e �Lhe :rric���6pozrt, ?��.ca�t�. �an� Rx,cl�ian�.n e�nc�s. �:Iar_s� the "�uain t�a�ii.clin� i�. �'rre G�nira3ia ara�., s���c�: prc�ucti.c�� w�s �'v�,nt' �� t'.�e Fet;ro ser�d an�? n3nar �roc�uc�EiQn has been � c�':,�:�.1,n�� fram s�r��* Fo�n��T�v�rie�Tx ear�c�s in the �estez�ri parL ns^ ti�s b:�s3.n. The pr�ncipal P�r.nstrlvsn'�en nroc�uci.��; har�,son Sn Ine�ian�. �s ti�Q '�'«nsi'3elci sand o#' �tk�e �o�ct�v5 � 1e �r�v��p �ut t%4r� �r� el:�o soaeo pracucin�; hori�o�s a�ee tri�.s � eval. :*� �as#;ern ?�sar„ ':or':t c,;�.st tlklt�?oma. arc3 �n.e� ?.'cs"�lester b�a:.n and e�anctin�; �cro�^ t��.e 3aa� ��.�z� �:r '�'4a�zz��t�,uqua �rches a�.� ti�s buried I':�e,ha '"oi��ta�.rxs �.re e� se� ' c;:; af s�nc�s wh�.ch prad�acec �st ot t;hQ oi1 in t�>..e carly d�;rs Q�' �he cicr��e:'! o�„in� o�' �ha '` e��ern Trzi����:�cr "osl 3a�3.n. Gf tl1c; �„r7� �lambnr of nrc���c�n� l�oriz!+r.s, �-he �s�sald l, �._.o, St��.�.a&-�r �r `i'����3•��sra, Ls.,yton, 3.3 i ; :.Y.;1 y ;?Y'13 � :Sr � ' n1�2-W i:'r'�1 y ti9p'r,'� t?`S'!T?1.7 � t'" .fliaC� �'UY"';.';d8�a �li��'1C:;a 9�.'+°"F` "��?E :.r{7d'� '.I!!li7QT'��i'i'� ' i�"'i1Sl3,u • `�'':^; ; F�'lU(i6�Y'3.?1€'; � �2'2Ci£ O+' r.'t.'��QTtW40C� `.'Oi2�'lf'.,� pT'-+'''+3Ct� fro�r- �4he �?�12'G£-.'ilc: s:r�g?. Z� �vrtherr. Ci�-�a?�oma tha I?�etiz-e.�� s��.nc� i� e�?�.��' ��o ��x:� 3.isi. �nc? t�rxrus _,.�,_____. i;�ie sct�th oth�r sr�nc�s eor;F� in, ���=<.��41 ;a��; '�z{3 ���1����:, �e}xor•��, "�.ir.n�:r�, �'e�? I�orY, �;�.1 '';.F.}�n. `:�'�'�c�r sc�,+:'�, as ir. I?.Ii;�a� s, ���:o nr�duc��nc ;�arizone ter�d to l'� d�e�se� in i;'�.cs �c�ci;iCan• en�' ��.,:> '�t>oc.-, ���'�r_„i.?cr��se, x� ooso� Cra3rr�eil, TS>�:���s, ��': ?h��cs�ar, a:.�' Icrr.r.jx� :'e;:.a�.st•�^ceiza�wax�. a�;e rz��:� ��:,}3e Ftinc3��a1 ,�rot3ur.�sr�s. �'�ie :nore ;� ��o��t,nnt 1,�.�� r,xociuc���.on ce�ines �'ro� t�3a ��ttnsa�s �" : �-:--Zanein� on +��e Ce-rtr�.1 �'�nsa� up'ti.�� ,.�,ore b�si.n aon��i.tic�x�� do �at oxis•�:. "'��e �e.��3 �F.xi�r .'+ st�ec��s� 3.on �'ra� youn�;er to olt�er paYe :'ror� r.ot•�th to 90t3�'.,t1 ��.�*'@� ;���ce a?or:�• �s,a '�en�a erch �xfi i� th8 �e<i "-��rer di�.tr3ct, �3th�u�h i� 4kl:�:hc�►s .nosy of ��h� �a,�� are in t%� �lenn, Da��j�;:-� .'r��liir_� r�:r ti'r:� :"la.n��s of the arch is, KifJ!'19'L'�3�-, re�u?-��*��* 3n di.�cover��� �n t�_c olt.�or �3�:r��run : eri�:s. - Z71 '��'?P. -,*r1C`?�T!l �'���6 �.''�'�?� '6��'lr3 ''!!9.:!:''. '�€1`rC �:'E� :,'� 'Gt"_^ ( _SCO S?i1:t!G vYlf; ' G.*'.)±l-; F9.�.15 �.x.„e •i.�z -i;�� ''c3r�.' :,era�� �7P��'k1f1FJt� ��nainl;T in �h� ^at�gur �.i.a-�r�.c;t �o �;���: ���.,v�i:.h. "'hc� 'iinn�lt:sa for.!�►►aui�r, �s.�}�,e�. prr�c?ueas £rc� sev 1�a1 serds i� eae-c�rn "�:��xn � �•��; � s s��'? �,° i-� :��-�4� r8sneets tQ �`:hF.� ot?�er Pe��ns��-vaniaia �rarl��c�n�; hc�ri� zons, b'� tha "��a��; .�, �,-::�►�.ch 3s an :t��:po �ant �rodc�r,in�=, hvr-� zon in Centrai and vr�s �ar:� °`���rcr��Y.� i.s *�o1�c� of a��t�+�� �.r '�alanke� t�encl anc? ex�c�nc�s o�rer a��ide ran�e. ��;:�;G17.9:i.;5: �:2'E'J '�'�Fli:;'.' :'�pc:Et$S ��r�s�ects �'ar ad�3i�io»�,1 ''ennsy�.vana�n ��rvduc�3.an in �►�v c�f tl.c: basine are sz�e2l �. caus� o�' tha ini;en��.v�s c�ri'?in� i:h�t, has �:aken }�i�.ce. Tnis ie lese trus afi -':'s.:ti, basix�s #'?.€u�in� the '�er�� arch that� o£ the dis��^�o�;n �o �,h� e�r_t. `"ha '�."3.r+:el�ass proc�ur,�:��:�y, :�n ��.• �ern `��rer�ing anay ux�end dcrcv�� c`ne e�s� ea.de of �'�e �en�e�r ,;��.�; �;, ar_c3 sa��A �II po�1s ?t��ro a� rQad-; 'ueen fouad ir v�restern �ansas. �'E3XiSiC�""i _!'""flGiliC'�"'lU?} n.a�- l�w. e�pec-cec� arnunc mo�t o�' t�:e Foc, °,ro�3ntain basins. ��'uI-r�.nle �:,a�rs a� C.�nen� ar!.c� productian ;n �;ar�bQr Caurxf�y, ','�sas, provv �h�+, tho �!ar�i.ns o� the .Ar�.�eia��-o bag'r,. cnnt�in� 1'ennsy].gar��.ar �i�. �r_r� :u�her ` �xp'�ora�ion �2t�ir. t'ne b�.s'in ��r '�e expecteci to #'3nd e.c�d�.t-�ona� i"iel�'s. In th�e ��li.P.a b�sin or "ansae can�itionG ap�er�r ta have �iees� fevorat�Ie tar Fenr.s �rlv�ani e.�� e,ae�r^t�lq-��.�ns �7.tho1?PY� nc�ne, h��o yst �er�n �o�n�. 14 �Pne?^al �eolo�7ic�1 Co�sid�rat�.+�.r.sa '��ost of the f iel�e prodizcin� frorn sand are in basins 1�r3.ng near up- ].ift� ���o��.�+�a �tr �;�� A��alachian f'o1���.n�;. '�he wict� dis�r�.bution of Penns,yl�t�r�ian nrodz?etYc�n �s �?tae to th�� ��et t}�at t�3.s fblcl3.r� �ava� �rnore wides;�we�c� t:��mn exy�.r other in th� t'nitod Sta�es. Tn r�ao�t ar�e.s, the z��pa1- achiar_ revo?�tion be�an in the �`e�=nni� a� ".'issiseip��ian hut the culr�in�.tiQn. pv�_nt �:aa durii�g; the 1'enr�s�J.vania:n. At this tim�, -�he :�ppalachiaiaa: ,�ze,chi�as, b��.r'-s� Ar�uc�les, °'.ichita� �.n� o+her domal or folder? areaa had conai�eraale reli�;f anr? vcpre sub�eeta�? to s�rc�,� eros4.on. Ccmte:�por�neoe.asl,y the low s�rea� i�: xrhieh i;he Be�?iraents w�re dep�siYtec? srvak more rapi��1�,► -�hsn durzn�; other nerioc�s result�n�; �r a thiel� �I�kornation af' �anr�s an:? eh�lc3s �aith so>ne 1'• r.:- �tnn.e. �"he Eubsir?enr.e ir_ �he b�sina r�ras ascil.latory so th�.t at �:z�es t�.��,T vaere upli�'t�d a.nd t�e rocentiv c�epa��?te;c� secli�e���s rre��c, sub�ectec� to crosion. �':here the uppermo�t ber�.s �ere 1�.^�ag�onea, ;�:�rasYi,-.- �a�^.� daveloped, in r�any inetar�cF�� �?ormit�;i.na� tho aacin_:;ulnt3on o�' oi? ."�r�c�imes Iar�� ere�a l�y practio�lly at sea letei a�d in �heee eecti.ons caa3 depa�it� were fot�r�d. �.5 � ;:.�:i� �1 ...,�..�.r....«.- Pri�civ�l Pror?uci.n� TTori�onse `�andstc����sa �'h�e'��sra ,�aB sand and �hallc�-: c►i1 �r�ds in southern �2aharsa+ i?e�.a�rare, 'Yates �r3:c? athsr sand� fl�n�cin�; limoatar_� h� ��*hs 3.n the Pe�nian be�s?n. i�2r�c�e�c�nc�s: ras a�? oi� pavs in the .'tichita--�.?.ban�r in the Texas F�nh.e.nclle and er+u�.valent horiz�ns in t��e T�u�;oton �;as fiele� c+f F�ansasZ porous sanee ir_ the r�e�r �or�, �€�n �n�?r�s and ?�'hitehorse of' the �armian basin; ?.�bar fbr�+a�ion a�' �. ��9.ng,. Distribt�-� �� �*� of' F�rc�d�*e in�* -'+reas a pez�r.^.ia>�. p�oc3�ao�lon in the � nited Statoe i.s vanf'inad to three dietricts of 7}hich the Ferr�ie�n baein a�' �'oxas e�n.d ?7env i�exico anc; �Y+e "=me.rillo-??u�otan area a.re the =�o�b importent, ?'he �rod�einp_ hari�ons here reprasent the f3nal ata�es oE' f9,ll�n� of' �'�„^.:Y3 '..�t* �^c�r�.n� �sadir�a�.ts axad thes,r �rv ov�rlc��n by a salt;- &.''2�?�j�'t'�,'tl3 sericas �3,�-.h red bc�ds aup�r%:mosec�. The �rodve3.n�; li�nstones and �.ssae3�.�ec� clas#;ica �eco�n� progros�ivc�1=► �►oun�cr frozn north to �=outh with lizne- s-�on�e r�� dolosnites �rith easoci�.ted �;rnn3.�e �rash of '�;ichita-43bar�� are for�ing the� prineipal �a;Ts i� the Panhar3c?1a aasd e�uiv�,ie�nt ��bQr� of �hd (:hAsc� and � `7eZ1�an��an #'o����'-:��r_s ��oc�tlr,i��.,� �;as a� :?v�-��tan. . M?�e C1e�r T�ark is no� e,� yet ex� imnor�ant pay bu� #'orra�, the doep horizon t�� �asso� enc� Sharon �"id�+e anc� a? sa presd,a�es 3n �he 4`restbrook .�3eld on the aastern ri�^ vf the rms�� and in the ne�evl�� �isco�v`sred Lub'�cac`� fiold. The prineipal produc3.ng hor'.i�on in �he central �ar+ o�� �h� basin is �he Sen �rir?r�,s iir�estonc 7n �•=h�.ch xnaat of the �:ator-Andre�r�-� Coi�nty productior� i.s foe�nci.. Tt alsa nrdd.uees S.n the "lau�h�er and S�inole f icalaa and is the principe.l pav at �iaeco�. Sn ihe ea�atern part af' tho br�.s�?�t �ho San Ar�dres also forcae �he doape*� prUdueee in the I�.tan and Cha1�--Se�t�:? ee fielcls. It �. p�v� in ?�s�r T.`exico. fitill £arther s�uth and wes�, t��e � �hitohor�e group is the �ai� prauuc��� horia�ox� i� Yates, �he Grane-Upton anc�. ":;in�lor-ba�rd-��aas Cai�nty trerlds anr3 3n �"eti�r �'o�*zco. t��z�Rr of �ha fielc•s groducin� fras� the a���hita- 16 harse li�eeto�es an� dolc�ite� �.re �'1ank�d �r3.�h :impuro 19�.*�es en�.. �v�3.t;h sands rovhic}�. s�rr�c��;oe w�t�Ch o31, perti�ul�ry �,n �'�i�ler County, Texas� arz� Lea �?oLmt�r, �'7BAI M'FX1bON (�n the weg� flank of �h� �oa� �tocs'l�on h3�.�h Proc�uct3.an is abta3.ned £ron t?�e �e1a��r�re sc�n.c� whieh �.� e�,uival�ant to the Zcr��er part oi' the :3an ?�ricire�. 'Phe lmst st��;es o�' basis� a illin� a3.eo provide so�e prar',,uc9��r; sanc�s in tho �er3 ^3.ver diatr5.ct, wherr� �e�^miar± �rodutstion is �'ound i� '�e�.ma �nd �dilra�,'o This is aont�..n��o�a� vri�"�: �'nrznie�rt produe�ior in the Azaar3.ar�cc� bas3n, zna�.n3�� at Pab�isr�on an�? in tha Ghic�ash� �;�.s f iel��. Tn "'yamSn�*, pe.rtioular�;�� �rot�nc' tl�e m�r�in of tho �i�; Narn bs.sin, tI�e �abar 1i�o�tpne of P�rmian a�e pria�ucea impart��t wuta.nt9.ties of black oi1. ?��s��r:�iar.. into �th�r Areasa The *^act �•,�ha� r��st Perm� ar_ �egasit� in other garts caf' the i'ni�oc� St�tes are of car_tinQntal ori�in pra.cticsa3.ly preeludee the possibil3.ty of #'ir.�3-�.r.� ad�iti�nai area.� �roduc7n� fram roek� of this sys�c�r.�.. There is, hcr�raver. an excel].Pni pos�i�ili+v of axtan�ii�:g knov,�z producin�; belts for consic�ersble disi;�ncs�. Ir. ;,�,�n,r ofl -�!�o ':����st. �'eaces iielc�s thar�e h�� been 1itf,lo dril� 3n� belcrw tMe Ll�3nBri-IYiQR-i'. -?rQc�i3�:�.i"Y�" hc�ri�on so •cha�h der�ge� Yermian pa�rs anav bP f^�mc� to exten.d yc��th of thoir prasent ka�c�v�na. 13mits. At th� �a.*�� ��7,,�, +�,�re i L� !� ���r��.i: arc� E�etarean the :dest Te�as and i'a.nhsnr�le f;lelds ar�d extend3.n� 3.nto r?evr I�Rexiao �here littie prospec�ing has been done. It is imnrobable f.�ai: thie re�;ion wr9.11 be fv�� barran of producti.or �n view of the lar�o reser�es f'oun� in f ields a�ow on tha outar ede;e af the prod.uctiv� area. The dseper parts oi the basin, 3,y'sng between the �vtor Coi�rty fic�l�.s and Chalk-Se�t�les, rzav �lso prvve to be not �oo deep to eontain oi� on strueture. '��ri?li.n,r_*, ie d�sclas4r_;* a ntia*�ber of northarast-sauteast tr�nds alon�* �rhir..?�� -'�'r.e��c? are 1ar!�e �'ie1`�� a� _.' e�ue.l1�► l�ar�;e gaps. v:oro discoveries may be expected alonn t�esa 3�r��:^ of folc�in�;. In view a�' �he lar^�e g�rac�uction fram t�he prolific Zi�ne f ielt�s, �Y�e 7e1�+rare sn�c� ha� not �,c��n prospeata@ to ar.y �reat extent but pro�?ue�i;i�n has been four�7 a1on� the r��r�;in af' tha western b�sin and more mey bo sxpecte�. 1% In fact, fih.is s�nd �rovi�es �he best knmTm possib�litie� f�r exten�ir.� �radua� �ion into southern i'vevs Coun�y an�-� �;he �rea to tho sac3tli�rost. Po��3emn oi�. ma�J he encot�n.tered in sotwtiier°r OI�Zehoma both ta the north anc� sou�h o#' the 'e�iehita-,lrbuc�le rnc�untain ��1t. T�. ' E�e `'ockv �^aunte?n �rea, ther� �!�.� beer_ lit�le :i�torest in :�bar ?��.a�ir-o3.? �i^o�uction unt�l rQcor_t1;�r ,�.r�°�o�� t?�.ere w�.s suf'fic3ent de�and ta pro�vide a r�arlrc�t :"or the o�1 �1r��c��r found. Search fbr T�sl�ep an� '�aai�on Q�3. �,�4�7. unc'o�ab�edl=r i�r!cover a�diti.onal �nbar prac3uction ix� sevoral ot tha basins n� wes+ern "�yfl�inp. !'aeneral. Geo1o�'iaa1. G�r�siders.t��n�;t As +hc :!'az-^�ian �'c+rmations represent tha last m�rins �eposi�ts 4.n the ''i�-Continen� arn�, uo �ro�uet�.on can be e�ncted abcavo this level north of �he A�p�lachiexi-Ch�achita-�(ox3,a-3aicones bclt. This dae;s no�, of course, inr.luc�e �h� �e►c�r �`c�ur_�tain dis";�ic'- ��he°��� the �aas?n� did no� x"orm until ],ong �.�'ter th� Per�i.an so �'�a�`; c�c�.c?.�.i;a ^,_aa vrh3ch ,�rova:i� c�' i�^ �:i:c� i"a ci�_�ozt•txnent durin�; �Yae Ponns,ylvaniai> arc� repeettQd in th:� e are� �.r. i;ho i;'e�so�oia, � F�:7 2'?�Z:^S�iG-.Ji7'' �SSiC Pri�zci��.l Froci�aci�a�; Har3,zonss �andstosaas: Gotton VaY1e;y o#' sc�uthern Arkans�s aa�d northern �auisian�.,, S�.mdence ari�? T'orrisnn o�' tha '�oe�.�y �'oza��tain state�. I�,.r�estc�n�ge �ma�c'�eru�er of' se��t"nerra Ar?-arieas anrl n.or�horn Lo��isiana. �'�is�r�.bution o#' Produc3np� Areess �'o1lo�ai.nT the Apna3aeha an r�avolution, �ther� was widespr�e�d arosion af the 1a�nc� surf�ce v�rith cieposi�ion oi' :�alt in th� 1'arm5.�ar3. fallo�red by red ber� deposit�.c�n. `�hie �ont'nued into �he ?'rias�ic but dur�.n�; tha �ura�:=ic the eea i±�va�od tho continent fror� the �'uIf of ?1es.ico snc� the '.ort�� PaciFic. �n the Gulf ar�ae.x the �'iz°ef sedi.�s�ents la3.c3 dov+m. tivore re�i be:?s fo�?a�•rcc� ?3,.� sal� �•<•hieh is �erlair. �;�;- the ��saekaver lx�estone, th� pr3.rcipal pro���,cirit harizon i� a 1�a1t r�' Fie1�?s oxter_d�n�* parallel to ��ze c�ta�e lxno ciividix�; Iou3.�ian�. #'rcx�n Ar�-�s�.� t.-�+?� �cst af' tY:e pror.uction to the r.:�rth� F'ailQ�r3.n� �apositidn of' �t}�e 5�ackovor lirn�s�anc�, the s�a r��treater� ar:� r�d beris f orm the overlyin� dero�it;. TY�e �.ext�, marinc series, the Catt:on �'al?.ey �ro�uces alont* an eren narraurer bclt, •bhe pr�nc�p�a1 f�.ald containin�; tnis pay bo3n�; at "huler. Tn thc� ^oc�ry ?'�aur:'tain. dic�trry c�, tha ` ur�de�nec of �1ure.su� c a�e averli�;s the Chu .p;��ater Triassie red be:�� and pradueQs in the ':;3.nd �'iv�rA �reen ?7i�rer er_d Fo�°r,�er '�iver ���sine�. Prc��?uction in western Go1or�.do anr7 i�ah fror� th�s ?�orrison s�a�;�ests tx�at it mey prvve pro��.:c�ivo aver a z�uch :vi.der area. 7n I�or.tan�, f;�,e r1lis f'orma�9�oa�, w�,ie�h is equ3valent �o t.?�e 4auz�d�sic°�= �?roduces e�: ReT�in-Sunbtar�t -±T:��dia��l�r abovo -���� i�nconformit:� sa��� ��t3.t�t:, Jurassic ir�yR-? ;."ieriss3.gpie�n. bec?8. �xtene3an Into 4ther Area�: Ther�; is p?'et;tf+Qe.1.1y na pas�ib3.Iit3� of f indinr� 03.1 in �lae '�ri�ssia a�y�here �r.. tha �'r.3tec� States. �'Y1a�"ee h�.�'e been n�erous a-�te�pt$ ta e�ea� �Turassie prociuct�.or� vvest- war� �'rcr� �l�c Ark�nsae �re� �nto Tex�� but �rithout e�aacess. The limitin�^ factor �s seem.s f.o be �ho ��stri��v�Eion of poras�+y vrhirh �rababl;r r�sulted f'ro�z erosion c'xxrin� the peri.oa th�t �-he formation v�ras uncovered by the re�treat of the� sos:. Tha sozat�-c�rn l�,r��t o:f' t�a5.s ratreat ia not ?ri~o;�n. To the north af the prod��cing �,rea, the form�.�;�an wed�es o�at ?�e+�een avcarl?rin� '�ods n?��` �h�� _ �1do�� :j9�:�nn�ylro�anian roaks belo�r. ?�evon�i rz�r3 �orthern :�art c�_�' ';��:e 's�s� `�'�axaa baszn, f ec- -��ro?.ls have �en4tr�.t�ac� �hc� .h�x�sseio and practical7.�► nt��ha.n� 3.s kno�az� ni' its occurrence. I�? u�exico, �:he �roc�txcti.�e r1 Ai:ra liar.+es�ane lia� baan thau�ht to be af tlur<:�>sit� �,�e hut �a�t atat?�or�.t�es nvea plt�c� it 3,n thc� r'ret�,ceous. T'e�'3�it�1y Jure.s�i� rtsck� ha�;a been i'ounci in ?!�exjco anc?� Qi1 has ��c�n ro�arte�y S.n -tsier�: �ut tllere has '�e�n, �s yat, no c���rts�,tal prod�1c�iQn f'rsm. t'nis systern. The pa�si'ale a�tens3an of R1ur�,ssi.c pavs :;outla and 1�reet vf' �4xkansas is, thQref'ore unkno�vn. �ast 4f the prod»c5�� c�re�. in Ar�-ansas, t?�e .7t�raz�sic has not baEsn tes�ad to a.*�y Qxtent. T��e n�:ar�hern Paci� ic e����:4r�eni; spraaei xni:o �h� :,:oaky i�our�taia� at Qa dur��n� rpnex Jurassia! c��zr �,at� vr���ien ta� ;e tne -.;� li$ .sazd �undanco f'ox�atirar.s wea~e � . d.epoeit;ed. '"hc�se� axe f'd�aza.d in a1.1 of -�he �aaeirie �n thc� nort�igrn and sss�ern pai� oi' �ha araa, oxtenr�3n� iz�ta sata�I��was�er� Sou�i� t�akota, i�orthHresterrt �iebraska � an�" c:er_firai r.o�fhsz�ri ���ar=��o. As -k�he #'ormations were c3��c�,�.t�d on an o1d 3and sur� ace Y��,� csn a�'vana�n�* sea, the,y pra�vieie x�u�,�arous }�o+s�iY�i3s.ti.es for stra�i�;raph3c �raps �g w�3.3 as f'or pro��vc�ion on stru��ure. t'ho "`orris�n 3.s �ai.r.iy a t'r��h-water fax7r�ation sna is nn� expected to y�.o1cZ �^Lac'�: oii, Tiav�>�var, th� fec� �:h�t i.t daes ��Y°oc'uc��; t�.� �i�SOT1 Creek in nortY�w�stez�n GolorAda anr� ��± �:�n� 3. ,��o1s xn titeh makos i�: tt possi'bla ob ject3ve �.n the wes�ern ps.rt af �he area. �'arther ao���h, �;he Jurae�ie fbrmations aro maf.r_i�r red s�nde+ar_ea en*' 3.i.�!��i:cnes �c� are n.ot �7�:TJ�C$$d 'i:0 yield product3.an. Ccner�.1 �eai.o�3ca1 Cor�siderat�Ionst The f ec°� tt,at th� r;re�.ter part of the continent 1�.y abava sea lov�I dtar3n�; ths Tr9.��:sic anc� JlaxasG4o per�oc�s mekes �he harizons unde.rlyin..�; the Lo�✓�r GY'�t9C@OU$ o�' particular i.�:portance as potent9�a1 e�rati�:raph3.c traps. Ov�r the Grer�t PlQine reg;ic�� fraM �e'or_tana intp north�r� C�a:'.ai the underiving fo�ations are limeEtOnes wh-ich range in a�;s frar� i}evonien into the T'en��sylvanian �xrov.;�';= r� �: *�.c�ca ranPe of pas��?��e oi1 res; r�aoir� of ��ricY� or�l.;rr t�� �.F�c�i.so� hae vc�� provec� to be 3.r�por�an� o - Yr_ the sou�hr�cs�ez�* �art of' the cauntry ��h�ro both eystems are made e�p ra��3rtr o#` c�ntix��ntal �'aans��s, correl�tir�rc �.re d3.:�xicul'� �a� surface �;Qc�'?o�*y g�c:neral?" �in.diea��s 1itt3.e vr no�hi:��; o�' the po��r:tie.l�.�:ic:; o�" tho �znc?erlYin;T rocks. '�ra�1er c3epenc?�nae :�u��, therei'ora, ��c� �plFxccfY �-.� �:�ophvsioal metho�s of e�rplor�.�-.:io:� or �tin �ns�: �'�;:'!li�^,P thrnt,��h thc� �.sesosoie b�ds �,n:�, �.r� the T'errr._�:ian t��.Ri�, t�k�rc�a;:r'� th� u�.darlT:r; �� :'ex�*�ien red b��$, g�.lt an�? enhjr�ri.tQ. 21 LU'iiitiFc C_i:LT���:�Ut�S ��ri�ci�a��. ► Y'Q�L1C;:1.='.r' �;orizonss r�nr?stonegy �-�luxv, ��'oe::ton (Travis �'<sAk). L�ota en� �u� �3ank. L��.m.�aton�ss ?'�orii����nra�, 1?odees�, and �'li�;a, or F'Qtt3t (G1�n rose�; '��.�.�a �.n� �'�var�F. �is�ri'�u+ion of Pro�uein� n,re�ss principal praduc';ipn �'ron I owor CI�Bte.Ceota� besds 3� aroia±-�d the nar�;ins a�' t?a� �'�.st Tex�s e=nbn�.n^ent ,vhi ch ext.ended �nre].Z e.r���x�d thn north�rr_ slope c�f t�+e S�.hin� 1?p�ift �r nc�r�h�res+ern I,oiaisi.ana. '�ho earli�set deraoeits �vvers the �as�ton ar Tr€s�ris k'eak �arzn�.i-3on Z�hYeh ;�r7'vc�,.�U -ir_ T"r�^��, Charnpa�alle �.nc3 other �'iol�s in ?'.!xaior_ Cot�ni;,y, ar�-a?��s��, with AO*^G' mirtor �roduc�3.on in �'arth I�o�isiana. � xecen� �isec���•r�> ._�^ ".r�r,rl;n Co��xty, Tex�.s, �^.�.y vxtQ�c? �evelopment of �:h�� fors�aaL� �,� c�ns3.�iera�l�r, In. tho s�ries `'t�rraerl�,� kroarn as "C�1en �'oee" tha lawr�st- limas'-n�+� -^����er, +�� "Ii�a or P�t�:i� is �a�t an �.�npo*�t�.nt �roc3ucer in Ar'- ansas r�.�i; i� a,� i�*�ort�nt �av on the no.rt�: e�nc? east �'la.n!:s of' t.i� S�,hine �p]ift. T3�e �'o+�rssa �n�*?�er car.,tai�as ecberal ir_d3vid�:a1. pay 2a�es wh�lck� vield larrr� n�z�.nti+�i�� ��' o'.i ,,,� p;�s �� �he tr:i.-st�.te Rodessa fi�1�? and. in other po�la ir e�a;atQrn fiexas �1on�* thc� loro�er �art af th.� �rostern flank vf the basin. 'I'}ie uppe!^?�ost -�c�^ber of t�e 7ao�rer �'retaoeous, the r�luxy: h�.s � wi�e ran�;e o� hv�irocer'�ona �'ro� ��r �?�s��'tlate in t'�c� �'?�r2��1 :�7].l �'3eid„ -�:,„.,��*h hiMh-r;ravity or�.zde at '�uit*��.n +a low,�ravitv su3�'ux-be�rir.� cruc�e e�t T�1c.� and :�z�l�hur T3iu#'s'. It r.oror ap-�esrs �-o be �t;he m�s+., w�.�?r�sprea� paY �.n the i:auer ^r�tr�ceo��s Lut -�?:� e ma�,r �� c�zac ta 3ac�U o�' p���p�c#:in� in the lrn�er. zones. Thc� '�ead� ii�ne ro�veQ� in a fevr amall Pi�lds r�ear th� `=°sxia i3alcones f ault �ore sot�th�vest flf thQ main T?�e� �'exaa diatr; ct. T'ar�her to the eauthwPet� ir. �ht3 ro��th �antral 'Cexa� �i.strict, F�ztother L.crwer "r�taeeous limes�o�e, tho �:dw�.rc�s, is t;ha nrin�i�ai t�ror3uci.n�; horizon. Y,',o:�t of tYia fis7.cis procluoin� f'ro�+ t�.e �"r�v�ardv ?�"TlP. 1is a7.on�; faults but a n�her ai racsnt cliscovaries in:�3icate th�.t �h�� horizan r�1a�• pqy aft' in arc�as not �ssaciai:eci with faul�in�;. 22 In tho T'oc' v''auntai.n r�re�, tre Lovr _�� Crf=taceous �ea �va.nced northure.rd into '•'�,yomin� �rhere the i�-ote� eand is a produaer a£ �;+inar �tt,portnnce �:rau�c� �;ho F'ov��ic�r �?iver ar_� .,an� "iL-e�• '�aeibs. `'�E: C'�;�: ;_i�.:.z� or `•san� t�rs�t sand ot T�ant�na is the ba�r�� mc�►her of' the �oc�tcn�.i >�ex�--:a':-s.o� erhich was dcpo� it�:�r' by s� Lawer C:rete.ce�caus eea ac�c-e.ncin� fro�^ the n�r ��. �T- fo; aas the �:�r�nci�S�I �av �t Cu� '�an,- ea3� �. �inor c�ne a.t i�e�vin-��`u�t��;rai:. �'��tan�ion Tnt4 �:t�her Fireasa ':'���: i c�4J�;r :"rot�eeous pa�.t� �s ?,'�?ovm a�r� pr�scm� �roduct; on at-ruet��.:-�: �ai�k►in �i7E1R.��.ri8 ��.lc�nc fa�11t� both mei.r?3n�.1 to b�sins anc� in the �3e�per parts a::r? as streti.�;r����h�c �TEl�S fcarr,^.i�c� as �h� eea a^vancprv ��ta �he basins. .A� preserrt i.t pro�u�es �.x� four ciiSf.r�,�4;q� :ir! wrir��l�r sc�tt�rec� a..�eas. In T'ca��c�, IJaw�r Cret�cseous 1 i*nestan�� w�re the m€�3n pr�ducers ia tho oId f 3alda of t!-�e a siapico- �'v�?�n e.rea and these h�.v� been oorre�.a+ed �ri�h the >c1�ar��� lir�estc�no of Toaa�. "�l��s �t���e��s �. poseinle cor.�ir�uetitir �r�.tY� thc� Sa.� Antonio ar�a. -�;c,�,:,vr r?rill- ;n�; a�.onP t�1e '�31cox trend in Texas and I�uisi�n�. has a�;ood ohane3 ;:�^ finciin� pro�3uc�ivu Low�r Gret�c�o,=;�: ?3�•'s a.r�c� th3a er���.�ae �i.s na�, #:he at�,�ec�+iv� of' mt�nv wilc�cats ir the activa ':a�t '"c��as plav. an a w�r: ' c� -r ���+;�l,t�i:� ar�*�., rel.at4.oMs ar� aa�can�he�t ob�r...��re,� `�'hr�re i�, �..n aof,'zTG: r..�rr,-�ai..�t� ��c� �• z��^dor �;a�= �;it?� an e�.tar�aon o� tne Cut �anic �trat3�rap��3e trap e.s an o3i jec�a.ve� T'hie is A rcrcarsed trap g� Gi�t �;ank v�rhare tY�a .t'ormer s�io�o lin� is on the �;ov��nstructure sicie and the upp4r 31z�3.t of �he field is f or!^.�er? by a transit3an f'rorn poro�oe sant? into i.�g�rvio��s £orratiax�s. °"his sug�;�ste i?�e possi"b3.13�:;r of ather tra��s to the we�t n+here whn dips �re ravorsed. '3�tw�ert �he are�s �ahere tk+a R' �atenai �.n� the La�ota prod�a�e the Lov�acr Creter.eous for�-�at��ns (knavm as t31� '"loverl�r} hav0 na�t l��en aorrelat;er.? d�i'initoly with eithar so that there ara� a nu*�ber of ir.tero�t�r3.�; bosaibilit3.os f'or strati�;raphie tra�s thr����ot.�t sn�athez�n �Ranten�. sr�d northsrn anc�. ee�atral ':.yomin�; in the I.,o4�er Cretaceoiae. �c��erP1 Crevlo�►i��1 Cansic�erat�or_se `�'he x:ow�,�• Crataceo�as €'ox�nations, corsi��re� as �. whvl.a, a forc' a� manu car�r�.ic�ti.ons as an�r �ro,an c+�' roc�:s af aimiler axt�nt in the� z'��ited �tats�. 23 . 3�'or t�lis reason, their dev�lapment rtas boen irre�;ular. �he rc�cexrt incre�se in the ne�^�l�cr cf ,_�er�m o�ject'�vc� in tM.3� ser:ie� �n �e�t Tox,as �.ndicates �the extsnt o�' �he no�si.b�.l'�.ties a.�'ford�e� i*� at?�+er �zre�.s. T� `T�xs� thsre are sevare�I. i�ncrsnfc�rTl�t�es in #-he see�;��r c�L�a +o t'ho ��ecQs�ia� �d�ranae� au�ri re�:r��.ta of tha s€��. �.n' �;,,�t, a�' th��e '�r��.ka repressn+� �?�ossiblQ ?o�.i19 -:'A;^ th� aectrmzzi ,:- ti.a:� of oi.l. `nP_:� "��.?r�' '-�'^' �":^ �'�f,�'�' ''��' � f7�'d�,� �,'" . _:^�:.',C;�"c � , j7c�z-r, ti�r., r�� .�t)?7�"� !?' S'f; bf' ��''+OU'��'i %G-'2i�",iF�.�. .Ai?'£�:S�1t:y n:n�t3�'� i'i ,."�,,. .�r, ' 8,7,r2 'TGt", r7@T"�F:', ^•"16L1!'E+& �PL?'7�.C'�;' n�":; r��arc3i.n� ��ssR.tzili�`.�ies ir: �h�r aro:� i;,�ossiblu 3�ey���r? nai.;��;�la?r o�;t tna#: as �the �er.iE� th�.ckens -�-� �he east *.�her� i� is %naEm, it i� ?�rac�ice,lly certair. �hat deep c?a�3.31i�:K t��.wa �acate 3.t �a�t af -t�ie vatai�zp up13�t. 24. __ ___- - - _ � UPr ER. �r":.�"i'AC;;t}t�"i P�3.nci,:��,1 �'roctursin� Hor7 zanss San�stox�es: "�c+odbine, `'o�io, ���t�., i��akran�re, �3lossvm, T'�,c�,tach in the �'�st '.'exas ��s�r� �nr� �.�:s ex�ens3c�n in�o noa•t2�e�^n Loui�ian� ;�nr? snu�herz� �.r?�ansas; ^u�.,,�.l�osa, ^elm� ar�� ;=;utav� in l'is�;�ssip�i; ;�;c�varro :in. �Qu�h CeY�tr�l Tex�s; ''�t�-ote, ?"ur ��y„ Frontiar, �`s►ZI Creek anr� I9:e�1e in t;:e �acl�y '..duntain �.r�ra; '�esa '�.�e.r�s ar3.c? �'3ctured Cli�'f� �.n �'orth�res� ?`;ew i:'ex�co„ �znd �tt� s�n�s in ��.e n�rth*�r�a `,ar� �na,�u3n ita�,l��r d3.strici af �alif'ormia. e:om� of' ihesQ hcsrizor.s, 2�9.i�'�C?i�'�i.�'" '��1f; �c:�?^.'.�� �L"'€' :'C)")0 ?_ '�;�_� i:: .. _ ,_,�.;=, ():, t:U2'.'»_:C�Y"'6 .Z"..4, . 683�"l'' 1)�C?�E:Ei pf' 1.jt�t,c",f"'t: SC"sY°yv`? r S.%meRt�r.r_a (�nalca�?ir�; ch�s`!T�)a Paixzo�a sr��'. F����r�+F> =;�rs rc�c�':- :��r. nUrt}�er-n I oL�i�ianay ?�a1e sn� l�Us'�in 3.rz Sc�vth Gentra3. Tex�s. uerpentini: ir_ South Cantra7. ^exa^. '�3:tri',ut�.an o�' rrc�-�uci.�� AreAs� �'�ie linper Creia.csous s�as �.rnrat�ed �he ar�n�3x�ent �.ro:� �he a�.or�h, extend3n�► i�ato `,rinnesota., '�ansas and the ?'ooky P�',ountain statee. Gener�l.ly rpc�rs'�in�*,� t��i� em'�az^ent ?:�na� ��nt5.��izous3.,r ;nora restricti�� in si:�e, the lavraet fs�r:re,t3on, t'.-�F �`'��o�:^� s�n��tc,ne aaci��t,;nr? �he �;raateet srea. �'hor�e �►e.s s�i?? n �or�ne�°•}-�.or� �c�.�:h �hQ s�a, howero��r, in the �resterrxr� �:�art of the �rea and some m�;r'trte beds are i`ojanc� in t���.� aec�or in tre ►an��rtnost Crete�ceau�z anc� �.r. t?�e Harlu ?�'ocsene. `�'he i��sine T��':�.GI'1. I�1P, ?���+reen uplif'ted �reas throi��hout this r��io� , w�re t�h�as araas of' c�enositior, i*�volvir�; ac�QancQs a.rid retrss�.ta oi' �hs �ses v�ith �he poesible �evelo��snant of strat3.�raphic tr�pe around the m���;i�s and of blen3ret sane�.s on strezct�are �9r3.�hir_ the i�asins. The �,r�.ncip�I ble�.l�o�; eat�d 3.� the ?ie3cota but 3ts c�il possibili�iee are i�t�LiC�C' I?;4" ths fAet that sr�bsea�aent; r?.o�'r�r�at?�n a�c� erasion lias �xpos�r� lar�-� outr,rppe of' this r�er=��n��ls �p?1r' Ebt the etzr�'�ca en� it hs:s b�co�o-� lar��l�,� fille�' �i.th, fresp, v�at�r. ?� pr�cic?e^ �he pri�aiw�1 sot.�rce o�' e►r�esi�:n c�atar in tho F�otae, f?a�r��ka an�? Y�s�s, s�� f, ��rh3ci: r,�kas it eu� 3.mprob,�l,l4� *�;�sarTroir in �:h��c are�e. Fo7.1o��i.n�t the deposi-�'c,n o#' ��re �iancos sh�le, t�o n�ex� sand a� 25 i�phrt�nce is thQ �'ecrcastl� or �eu,'�-��r. �h3.s e�=�z3 g�rocluces in f`�.c;? �r^ �z��,,,�r, the Paw�cc';ar '�iv��^ �a�� �re�;i; ?���rE;r� ��aein� and in Ca��ar��o. Th� �`rontier for�a��on proc?�,c�€ �'�rthpr r�r�E;.,, bc°.r.," i-~per'tant aroz*r_c? thc� �'ovr�er "ivc��•, .���t.� ', �""c?rn ��s�},:->. :��nc�� fae�nc; ara�'nr, the ror:r'.c�r �`i�rE�r b��i.� ar?c' to a ��i.: „t� c e��ro9 3.n c�t?�er pt�rt� c�' ,':vor,xin� abave th� prinei���,l �'rv.,*ic�r e�and btit �.z�. the� t�e�m� fcsi�r?�•t�.on ere �n��. �.s fihP 1,�,3.� �ree� san��. �'�ie ':ia�7e ��nd,�-i�onc� i.s �;h� t�ri��r,ix�Q� �as��ror���c±�n�; r�ser�o3.r 3i� G�sn�.r�l anr� �•�st�r�n ld'��tana. i� C�.:�'o�a3.^� i;�� tM�±c?� �h�.eQ �'ozw!+atiar_ bf' TT�a-�e±� C.r�t�c�+nta� �.me ._._....-.— was �ho �1�c�s�, i'or�^a,,ian dgposatac3 a:"t�r tho builc3in.� o�' th� ���.et R�ns;oe �a��i.ch � e bei;'! ievoa tA Y��?�rc� �^c�rs;, �a: �.iL3i i��.�:� i'or o3.2. To �'�te, no�aavo��, it; h�� vialderr? or?tr p;��, bs3n� the princ��a1 r�s�z^,rvi.r :�t� �h; fii��.ds arc�unr? San �'rencsisro *�a'� anr� �:: the ncrrthez�n ��a°t of tha San Joar�uin �'a1lr.y� hro��n::� the� F?,�'_►:' �c,�,s�t;, i;�'e��a ��r� �.?�roc� major ambav`;sents r�urin�; t'pa��r �retacQo,as �imF3s. ::� i;h�s ��stern.+:�a��c df' thE�sca amba,Z�-��.•�nu�i tl�e •?io rrrsns?e br�a3�zs �f �ic� O3'i'" �)T'dE�i1G1T?�' �'orsne��ic�na are th� .Atx:��in c.ir�1l� zvhS.cl�i =.���s partia'17 y erocled nrry or to �he depos�t�, an of the T:�;�lur° �2, a�rreat':ie.��-c� vc.z�.canic x oel-, 1s�ca' 1�- re�'c>rrec7 to as 3d� �nt:�.r�e+ �r��it�}x t�.s 1�id ct.rn:�n �arz �Y�e ;��i�tin �r_' al�o narticzi.l�✓ aroci�c� Ue�'or�a i:�ie c3opoy3�;3o�z a� Lt1e Tay�or, anc� s1;r�sT s�nrls �.n �he �'av�r�•a for�sc��.on ��h•ic�?� �;�a�r ;�i,:� correlav�l �rri-�h �hF3 "aca�oeh far�her to i;he easf:. These proc3l:ce ir, ��'scc; :�ar� -�ni;��,:�cs �?�.sf;rie� but �i�.vc� not � v�� bept� pi•crve�? ��r�r��te-�ive wt� ���» i.rti� coaatsl a� �_a��sp �'Izo !nir?��Ie E;r.ti��.�r,n�nt, at �?-�r�ant �ha �oa� ::��s�or�ant, �.s the °�;f�.�t �exas bac��n �rh9.ch ex�en�s arol�n� t;he nori;h fl�n.k af' t?�e Sa'a�no uplii�, merTix�� �B9.th the ?'isr=�seipryi �nbfa=-���;nt. �e�c�stion �.n� �his ba�3.r� b��;an ��ith the la�ing ai �hQ "��c;o�7��.re s�n� �rhiali �rae par�t;ia�'1v erad�c� pr�.or ta tho depc�si�ion af �he nvpr�.v:i.riR =�.a�1e T'carc�. �rincipa3 pror?ue+,3.on f. rom �h? s.i or�a�ian a.e> �lan� the s�s�:c�rn sic3e oF the e�E�sin in t?,� ' ast Texas f'ield, on mtruc�uro �rith�in tYie �as�� aa at T't�n, �'a�tr3�5.ns axz - a��ier i'ioleis an� along fau�i: linc�s 3n the �'exia f'�u?.t �one, at �"ex��., Pau�e'! 1 ar3r: othex� f ie3.c?�. AUo�e thd :�r"-�+�t�ne, s�:.nds 2fi � in the �'�ueti.Y�, Ta,�tlor �nc? '"AV&�..*'I'O �ro��ps a�°e prp�uct��rc� lucal�•,., fo:-:��ir� in so�ne :� ie1K?.s a seri�� o�' mu2tip�e pa�ts. ",'��es� incluc�c� -Gy�c `_�ol��o, Uza..n, ^tacl�r�n�, ��'�ss�+�t �n�� "�c��-:o�?i of' �svh�.ch th� RAwt �.amec'. is �he ri.��;;. ��c�Q� ,.X7r�..Z'k:L! �t�� �iiiiU.�.a�. C��t�..i.t� [•..t4�.ch }7.L�.Y �Q�� Cfl2"�'��.f.���� �����i� L/1ti� �'1�1.ii��' �.� � 3.as�- :Y.-:�;c�r�:a�nt �rociucex� 3n the '.;ast Te�es aro�. b�ut i� thc� princi�al ��s psy mt ��onroe. I� the T�igsi�si.�pi emb�,yr?�nt, ��+>���°c ;1�t� '�oc�n r.on:-i'a�•a:�1e �ra;ais� of pror�ucvion i"rom t►,�e `.:'ucc�looss �a: r-... ,..,,7,�s�.a1 ��ro�uc4io:i Izas davelnpo�.. A� t�±is is i:�c; ar� �m�.�' ,ln, ?�c,t*ra�r�,,�, a e�oc1 pr`"BPP.Ct'.+ �3E19 bee� f'ovn�? ir l�is: Asaip %f nt�r�r �;i�.e, �.IAt�:�a ``Y.n�;:� li�^c>^. "'1��� ';u�a•:r :�.s tho �7ri�cipal producin�; zone� et `�fn;.'�'e,• �rhor� sevc��•a� ��r��'3 P�rnr���cc�. �rt4r�s3o�� T*�ta �thc�r 1�rF�asa @`iith t?:e o�.ce�atio*� o�' the '!��.es�issx���i. �nt��;r-�i��?�, t��o ar��.s �rherc� �h�I� o�� T,���a� �"re�tac��rax3e �ro�?uc+�ion masr ��� aY:�ected ha.�a aeen t,iorc�u�;�:3« ��roapec�ec?. .�11 0�` f�e b�z�j.ns r_�� p�+a�ucir_� ±'ra,r �'ormatic�rs oi' �his a�e, hcr�* �:.�;r, �'1f1�T'f. f'tilf: '10:5�'�'i'1.,'^.t�Z' f}1' COYif;;?:r�-irt' �.'Tt'o�i1�"t?_''i�C 'k'i�?)E?�' �T'C3�"+�Cf',C}i1:"> raE}11U.^'.,�'iS• • 2? _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ _ ::;�i(; �:;i;:� l:�ri.�p.cinr��. i.'r�c3�.�cix��arizanss � �an�3s s �'i�lr,ax, " ,arta, �'a�u�-Cocic:i2elc� r�*�� ��fc:�lray(Jack�a:± j :�r.. �h� ��xas Cnalf Coe.st �-istr�c�- a�id Lauis3.arse,; ''ilco}:, �nc3 r�e�i.,c,rous s�,nc]s in �he CIa_a�oz�xie �:�:�- ,Tack=on prot�ps in `o�:L�� Texas; ;`i�ca:� (irxelud�r.;�; Ce.r�:�izo) 3.r�,c3 '�,:,c;e.�. Ci'��t in as'',8.5'� `I'�3Xt�:4; A�r�n�.? (ra�ch�ll an� �cAdams aones} �n �hE� San Joan�.��.n iTa1'?ey af C=:�1if'cnrniaf tha '`r;*a�nos a��.'- a-th+er zonoe �i.n thc� Tejan in tho coe.st�1 distriot; r�f ��1i�'�rr_ie.; �n�" gr�nde in the i���ac�h farma�tio�� of west�rn Co? vrado a�c'. '";;vo�3.n�,� "�stx•i':��t,�.on of �'rorlt�c��,�^ �r�as: `"Ile ..i'cox �;ra���, :��rtictllar�y t,,e (;E.'.Y""'��c; fb�,�'��?.�n a+ +�,e to� �srm�s kroum to �araciucs n� 1 in ��st Texas "but �ro=�i,� °'��. was un�r,:,:�c;r 4a?�+�l,, rrittre�.l, a 1s' 1M1e3? �'ie3d, bein�; ��re larr.est 1)�"0C�2�t=�u>�. � ome �ar� iz� ��roduotior. was i'o�n.c� e�t C1Q�.r CrE�'- anc� :Jo�'s L��ke z.>; T4x�s :in 19�7 �izt li�;+�1e i�.terest w�s tak�n i.r_ �3-�;s arer�.. ";o�,�ver, in 1�3�, �;afl�a �ro�uc;ti.ar� was fat�d ixa -�iz� :i3cax e�t T'ol�, I_ouisiazt�-., :a���� :in 1°40, the ?':ilca:-.. tirQs also �`ou�d prvciucti�o �� '�i11 e Plr�t�c�, ,°r4igch �ta�? �'orr�erl�✓ prociuced f.rc��, uh�. 5parta. Cloeclt,� �'ol�orrir�p� this �were a ne�mb�r oi' discovarias in ??ari:haaAt I:auisia�a an�~ a�l�y at�rted �1ong; the whole of ths '","ilcax trenc? t'r��. the A"issisai�pi �'iv�r i:o I.a �::al.le C�unty i.n �;ou�hwaet mex�s. �'zm�er�tae �iscoveries ha�e bQen m�c3a alon� this trend end the fnet haa been e�stebiis'he� t?��.�- the wholc� sectsan o£ �':°i1.�ax sanc?� r�a;v oonte.3n nroduc�iv+� r.sembers. In f,he rlqit�orna �;roup, th� '�u�en C� an�? c3ches memtaors oi' tha P�ovr!.t ^elr��x: sta?�,�*roup �l;ao prorlizced sr,iall nuan�it3cas af a�7 3n �ast '�ex�s �aut *?�e prine3pal �rQc�txct�on developod ir. tha Cocl�f'ie1.� membar alor1^� the !`�a1.f Caast. Tn I:oui.sian$, �'ort �3arre, �3anr. rof't anc3 o�hA� fiei.ci� produce fra� the Cnckf i�ld e.nd �Tillo r�1��Eto and o'�h.er f`�alds produQe frc�m the"S ari;a w��ich is the Iawest sand iz� t"�,a r�rou�s. '?'ne 2ar�est f'ie3c�� praducin� from the Cock�'ielc?., 3a Ccsnroe. Fro� thia a,area to t'�Q southwest, the Glaibar�re� belt inores.aes i:� wiclth, al.thau�,h not 3.n pror?uc�tiuitv. The Pe�tus sancl ���c�ber is the me.in pa�y �.n Bea Count�r. � �EiTi+a$ Qf' YE3s*It�� t"'�OZr '� C�ia'3'�c4i'.� �,ptel "°ryt'tl^t', c�1.'='!Q.^. •'�f�'P ?)!`Ci�t1C8 f�i",J'rp; �;�'lE3 ','7Cj:'{`'C?]^Xl hql� of' �'1.e1�?� '!r. `'a�,t�?�west '�Ax�.�, �rut �!a�tr �.��aart�nc��s is ft�r o�r�rshr�dowed by the t1ac�l-sr�n �az�r . 'T_'hc �1t�c'�snr i� ;��nt�t� 'lan�ori;*�..nt 3a� Sota+�west T�x:�e, �,-:hvr� se�:-e!a +��.s�inot eonc�e �.r� �'ol��ri. `!'hose irr.l�7e�e th� �)fHerY3. s�nd (C�ci��c1? � ti��hir_h a�°o�uce� in t?�e (:ole fi��c?; thn I.c;,•{ar ?�ir�,�irlCt ��nc� (C€�d��ll.) ��h3�� prac3�:ces frc� a n�nber of fi�?? �3� �� " �hh �nr? ' �a*��.�-a r..nz�r_t3.�s; t;h� i'�ar = `iranr'o s�nd (x,��"'1+�c�y} �ro�ztzci.nn; �-- �E-1*f' fi �-_n ^�.r,+^y '-?'n TO:!�1€a '.'��C�t*?fa 6Q71C.� �'�C}i1,rv�r) ?7TOf?t?C.f..T".k" �l.71 �IIV`3� rOlt�''.':'+ry �;s1C' i'�o�a�rn?�ent ;'�e1.1a e�n� (l�c�;lro4rl a1s� proc��ze'!r�� 3.n t:havnl Cauz�tg alon�* e. ��FI� �•ne+, of the Ia+:a+� ?jaa.� =�?�;d�e ed�c�; '-�:A Gharno�?�v e��<nd (1`.icA•�lro- } nraducinR �.i; �e?�s�? rist�az-s a��nr� fit�� �o]� ��+nc� ('':?i31;r�t�;} nroc?=,�.r.�r�; in '�eb�+ ai�r' �`�uvnl ca4�.,tic�u. �^�e�r+�^or r-rth tk�cz f�vort�ce af f.'h� JF,e1-��r,>� c}Qorsaae� �.�?�' it i� no� an 3.mportaxit nroc?��c•��r F��.s� of' I,iv� Ct�t- f'o?an#:;c�. 1M 'F�'1� ``(1C�'t� ?''Ot1?"°?'E'.�" �T�E`, i;hF, nnitr {1CF??�; �rQ�??t.":'�.QY; Cf3.^.1C:' �`T0;7! �&T)� 2c�nees in �?�.r-. �,'��;at-nh frrr��.#-ior �.t- Tf��*-���:�-i��,: Coio.,� e.nc�. Iprer��� �r� �a��tl^ro���ster� ",�'�romir. n�. The C'•�?,flc,rr���, T'or.e:�� ti�.a�s P.rtaduc�3 nuea�:t-�'-���^ c��' oil �'r,�q• �'a�� �'a�ch�ll zone ir. tn� '',or+,re�et ("rfl.? itz�e r:n�' �"oa��r_��a �c�s� �'i��.�'s. `� iE af' �c c,.��ra�y �.'!1'''�I"�fl.�''tt'': �l^ {"?^t.� ?"'!. Pr1.amR TC?73P @,��; "�ffl{`°a 9 ,^,.:,t�rl ����.! E • mti�� ���'Z'C':':08 q.t : �F;31 �1TI� S � e�nc� in the "'� �ea� at- "�.rc���'�.?a, 'bo��. �n Vr�ntura Ca2ir_i;;r, x:;�rk �he on��• �_.ocene proc�uc+.ior flrom t;�e coastel district ofi "alifQrnia. �xter.� � on T�ato �thc�r Are�s z r�±e� '"ilenx trenri o�' caast�I Tex�s +a.n� I.��:zisieud.� is un�er�oir� ra�id develo��nt at thic ti�c �nd n�rr fi.alc�a can be ex�Pctc:^. `?��ne of' the oxisti.r� �'��?d^, ,�„�E� �c ?�+1�� �'±-,�:�,,. An�3 "heridan. a�a ciis•ti11�.t;e fielc3� of lar�e sipe anci �-'�r�r� is �l���r� �,�s�•��,q'! i"�, o�' f 9*��'in� v,.l far�her ;?ou�r� on the sl-ructur�c� in figlrig p� �#-j��� �'VT7a• `T'�'!E3'!'k3 ''LS i'10 ", ,P,-„- - {�.K'OX ?7T`O�UC�1�]r, Fi�'10111� 8�0"r� on the �»��:. Si�c� o�' t,hP "iss.s�i�� 7"��� r, '��-��t �t��� prod>>eti�e ,.+ilcox tran�' h�s r_o#; r�c�r frnm� i.� `'is�issi.���. vc�t. '"ts axtension �o i-ti�� so,a-t:rnvost i.s also r�+ thoro���rl�r �x}aloraci. 2� '�he �'la� ��orr�c� �7!c3 �'��,^�-son �*,i'A1.7D3 h�ve i�e�� ��rett�,T thorc�urhl�r e�c�2ored. throt�r.kat=t +'�e coas+�.l ��: a".r,,' ?-�t.t1e f ur•ther c?evelopmer_t +� :hvse zor_as can '�e expsefie!?. I�: +%t� "ocs��y `'t��anta�_rs a?-c�a, tha ':';sse,tch �;an Y�e exx�ec�:ed to produca ac?�~i.tiar_al �i.'� arc�iinc? t�hR �rar�'+�s�� c��' +h� t�iY;t�a anc� CrrO(.'.'•1 �7i�;sr baeir�s. �'he hi�?� prodl�c�;ivi+;� of the �'ovens pa,ys a� Coali��;a, eouplsd =�;rith tneir lae4- c>r ��-nr�neti�;.'�v �Zserevhers is Fo-�a�hat of �a. amrst�r;�t. CoaZin�*� ia bnli R�pc� t-o 1� � �r t�� :9r?�§rf? ?.�n�s of the� Y°�ooer..n sr.a€� �.�td -tha �'ormation si.�ks rapi�l�r t;ow�r�� the ��a�n, k�s��n? 11,4?�3 ft. deep �� Kettl�� �i11s an� �roba�].,y ri��3ar� ?n�0�r �'t. �t Ru�na �'`i.,�-���� ''a.I1s. a�te graa� d�+�.s�';�-: �-zas, �L:-�e���fore, ��rezrented e�'or�t�a°� vrrit-hin th�, v�.11e�y. �ka the e�at eicle, n+ ��°?a�.�;-�T�le, ii ie '��an••rn to .�a„c�� n.= .,. �'�ni�' 1C�,�'�''�J .fte �n-� t'�c��? are nnae3 -?�assibili�ie9 .for s�ra�;i!�aphie �z-,..,r ��c��-� -_.,is si�"c-, o�' thQ b�s�.n. in �ir^-�=; �:erritorv, Pr��-�;�:st ha�f, :i:� ' ;' " o, �; :"n:w oc _��: �3ro��zetior.. alvn� +ha eoani;�1 �Q'� i e:rs :�� �rerron end ":;ashii��^t�n. a 30 0 (?LiGti�t:s:,T'3�: �'ri.nc;3.t�a1 r ro�uai.r.� "ox�lzon� s Stancln: ?'vmc�:^Q,�� sax�•j� 3.�� tha �1'3.rksburg 9XlC,i L'i'?t70 _.Q�"�'iLll�y3.il£1� He�sroe�e�3ne. �nc� ?�iscor�i� za:nes ;n t.h� �=�ali' C�ast arer3; 6�iyVpe; _.. : c;��, ;>>>�;i#.tt T3ar��ra �d ''�n�u�^�-�e��rhall seei;or9 of �he �oes���". F'i��rict of Ca7.�.s'�arnia. "istri'��ui�ion �f I'i•a�lue3..i�~ ,4retxs � (h�;" o� th� mos� di�'f icult probl�^*�s o� tho 41i�oce�c. o� thc, �^�ilf Coast ;�t i�� cor.r�lat�.�;,. Sti�^.e autnoritie3 s�art �csul€�•iy i� I.o�xisi�.n� �iacQ the i��.SC;OL`1)�S 2'7''ii> 'T'' �;'�� l.r;::''?" `��.0('�l9I10 Vi�lf�.6 �.?? �`,iUUj:�1 'i'9 t�&t :�QS?i0 �Ep�U";�.S�3.R �7�.AGFi ��,� C'���:���,o �.� �;.� ��?ie ';'' i�*oc�ene. In this discuee.ion �ho bounde�r,y be�areen �he C31��oo�:xze a�c� ��.c, ""��c�c:tic3 �� ��taoad at th� b�.�e of fihQ Cataho�ala ar�.� t��e� �qp of ti:he T`�.scoa•`�i� ��o^��c�F, ;,cne. �'�e U13.�*ocene ia �e�neral2y nonraari.ns on r�ut- crnn 1.n I.o�;fsi��±a ;an;�! "��:r�s, a2��� ��a�h in the e�.stc�r�n �art; cf tno area �a�r�.ne ��i.c?-sb1ar�* �arl �= c�*-c� �'oxand a'� �he surf'ac�. xl�e Vicks�urt� i'or-��,� thc loyre�t �^r��vp 3n the �li�;c�c�n.e r,�n.� �G�O:??86 pro�Tr��a�;ir�'_,y �care s�ua:r�y td the T,�st, a�rrnin� �. 7�ur.bbr o�' i��pa�s�nt p�,y� in �h�a lo�rer Cru1t' Coast and �aeatl� Texas clisi;r�cts. It nror�u��rs t� t�ia d�pp �a*� e,� Thom.r�san =>��� i ierc� JuY�etior_ but ia r�c�i� other- wise i�porte.nt i� the.up�ar Giali' t'aast di��Gric<;. "i'�:ic� Mast i�r�rtae��; Vic^_�s3�,xr;� aroc?uc�t�on ec�:��e from �. �a�lt eariendi.n�; throu�;h Ji;r: d�ql�.s, :�rooir� an,d iildel�;o oc�tmi.•z ee 7n `�o,�`'`'�. "'aat�s, �rh��^e 4�� or ":o�e �'icka�iar�° :�r��'e �ar.clQrlie a ^ot�3^^� af pe.va in ��he .�'rio. The mai�^ be9.� o�` i ri�a g�raductio�� ? ies a1�o�� �a�e ilic�sbur�; ir th; g belt �.nc� e�ten<?s ta th�a eoas4, form�n� �hc �a�e rc�sercoire in some �'ie3d� arci under- Ivin� '"ar�►inu1'in� �nd hifiF�er pavs nb�.rer t?�e caaat, Tha rri.o is the mc�et 3*r art�t �rrad��o3n�; xone 9n f ields sucY� as �exot, Refi��,io r�nd Tom Q�CQnnor as Fro3? as 3n th� active J�ekR�n Goun�zt �is�wic� a_nc3 the oId s�lt dor.:� fiQlds �o the I:oui�s�aria `'t�ta I.�na. �'era 3�; ac�a�es to be an impo�t�nt pra�t�cer. ^�Za apuer !�XiToaono, 3ncluc3in�; th� �.`.ar�*inul3n�, '£etaros-`;o�*���. na��' �i�cor?�is pe:vs 3.s c�f v�r�ab3e 3�+port�nce in �the �z?:f' �`oast are�. '�'hQ la�re�t 31 paY, �hv '��ar�;intzlina pr�ducss a� z+lour �Iuff and nther fi�lds a.1on�; tho coas�t a�.� tha �elt aonta3nir.� pave of this s�;s is brae�est at th.e vicinit�� o�' Jaa�son Coianty. '�sr��.nu1 ina �*ocluction e�ends 3nto Lnuisiana e.t Jen�n.in��s anc� �'oseo. t�ere the upper 413.�aaen b�3t le�ve�s �he coast and. in eastorr�. I4uisiana e�Ten's to 3-he n�rth f.'rarn I��c� ro�tchartrain. the �Ie�eroete�3.na pe.Ye Rre more see.tterod the.r�. f,�-.E �'arf�inul3na Fanc�s ��r3 arr.� �o� ass i��ortc�n�:. The*t h�.ve nat boen rgported sout� af ���aeces �ourit,y, �ut produco fro�. s n�±ber of fiel�?:� in the Sax�t arQa, an+? in a f�a; 1ocalities in "afut�ia sn� '�''ic�:or. ia. c^ur.t3eg. Yn I;ou�.siena, �h� I1e�eroate�ina praducea Fra� several pools �., Jon�'erson D�.v9.s an�? Araa�'ia par3shes. The '<�riscorbi.s �rot,p is uni.mport�n� ir Tex�s but �roducas i.n � fev+r Lou�.�iana iiald�, �.r.!cludi�g Chax�rlov end Basca. '�he C119.�;oaera c_' Califorri3.� i� con�i�lc�r�^c� �;-r s�r�^�3 n�:��=.�er.� e-o '.�.w:c�.ude the �re,yenh��*en shales 3n tha "ar t7oaqu?r_ *��.31ey. O�thers p2ac� th�e f�rr.e:•fi:����r: 7.n. the �ov�n. Tn anv aT•Pnt, there a:pnears to be 1ittle possibilit�r of find�.x7s-. :�:�iaah OI3�acene oil in thi� �istriet es t�.e Rreyenha,�an has not been faund nroduotive, The e'ee e, of t}1i�;ocene a�e�, prac3uoes ix� the �rentura-Newha�l �ne� S�n�;a rarb�r�, c?is�r3ci;e �'ormin�. the lowest ��.ys �t Capiten an� '�lwocad �.s wel�. as the pr3ncipal pev ira s�iveral f3elds in eastern Ventura Count4F. E�<-;nerallv; fields nroducin�; .i'xam hi�;her f or�!at3.on� in t?�3s araa havo not �e�n dr3.11ed 3nto the Oli�*acsene �o �:h��; ii aen �ae cons�.dered a potantial reservoir over t�ie �*hole Qf the crrast�l c�9striat. C}n the oth�r h�nc�, in. �he Lo� An�s�.as �asi� wells on s�ruct�re have p�ssed throv�*h the l�iocene and have f'ound the �espe either barren or m�.�s:ing; at Ftiahfield, '�o�^inp�ut�z, Torrence e►nd. other fields. Pos�ibilitv �'or wed�;e-ed�;e proF�u�t�a�: an thc� �'lar�Ts of' schist �i�hs is, ha�c�J�ver, �,resent « � �t�nsion Zr_t� �''ther hr�r�ss Any �vell alon� the r�ul£ Cor�st which he�s tha i-,ocexte as �n ob jective, obviota�lv te�ts th� Qli�vice�a, but to dat those wQlls have �enerall,y found the forr�atian tcsc� close to the outerop to �rociucse. The producin� Oli�;oGane 32 ma�.;- bo campare�? �-, ;;1�; �,. �.,c-�' f�e, c�" o�ror�lappin�; shin�;les �rith the best p�;;-s 3n the s'ickBbur�; to the soutl�raeet an<? �he �`iecorb3s �fiy to tha nartho�.st. �'Sl�a.at ha�;_�ens farther easi; ;� si,ill iazil�no+�n. 41:f �;oa�€� product'lor *�a-- d5.e o�t altcs�eth�r at t��e "'�.s�issipni River ar it may d��cend ���in �tep-13?�c3 to�v�ard the easi- w3.th la�°Tr�r forma�? ana prodnoin� �.r. ~lorida. C�vlf'aeard, sn maxi�r sends oome into the l��.av+rrt ��etiors, frax�anirsF; ,�rQc?tac��.ve �urec�Pe-er1�*ps that p�t�s maSr be �`ounc� at a1mAs� ar.=- r?c��h irt t�:e C1i�oce�ae� �t Ieast �ani�il tnd aecst�oa� h�� bec�ome eo�pl4tel�- s'__�1�;, �.is ,�;r�seap ha� nct ?�ePn test+�c� �1'- �'� �.aara� the Loi�i�i�a �'rulf' Coast �rhero v�ells ovc�r 1",00°� f�. deep are st �' 1";� +'� e`'iocene « Tn C�1ij'cf2":1�0.� t�e �Ii�ocene apr��ars ta have �;vad chanc�s frsr pradt�c- tion onlv in the e�mbs�=ments �ncl basina in the coaeta.I d3atrict. The thick marine sc�atio*� in sirni'!ar emba;m'-�n�s in �re�o� sn�' �Tashin.�an ma.�es thls ;�roe�p an ob jer,tivQ in these e.reas �rhich �ro the onl;t ones in the i3nited Sta.tt � under- �?�.in by �er�:� ar�r 1'OC7r8 wh�ch are s�i' 1 u�ateg�od. 0 �� �41��TT t7T'�`�T��`T' 1.: l.:J>> `_!�d e.F-::.J ?'rinc3.�a1 ProducSr�� `ior�.z€�n�: `'-a.nc�ss "'��c'a%er, �'e-��c�t, '"emblor, rtsr�or.s, �hanac, Jacalitos, U'tche�ain, �err� �iv€;r a�td "an Jaenu'� c� a��s 9.?� �an Joer�ua.n �'�17.e;,*, �aliforni�. '?'mqueras, fi�-n?�lor, x'onfierey„ �'o�elc�, "e}?etto, an� Pico in the aaastal d�.str3et af Ca�.iaox�nia. Pu�n�e, '-'epet�o Fan� .Pico in thv 'I.os �n;o�es ��si�. I.euticsular ?�iaaone sanr.?� w�th ��me �'l�c�oen �ro�uc�i.on i*� I,c�i�i�iana eza� Teaas. �istrit�t:t3�5.� �f :'�-o�?ucj�r�, .t'trea�a T�; t1�F, �`r�n -Tt�er�uix� '�e.11�;cr �:ha lawes� pay in the east�rn half o#' the ?�es- :�, � s; � � �'<�c��F� �.�,r.e, �. �ax�c?y m�cn't���r of' t:ha S'���rns �'orm�.tion c�f laarc�r " � �r;=,� , �..�,s -�z.o��t2c3,�.;� a�; ,ac�p�hs af' over 1��+,�'� �'t. ,tn �'io �3r�.�o, �ree2ey, e.�.d :"+asco. "'o�erd �he oaeterrb. �'l�:nk, �ha '�ecic?er also �ro<'uaee 3n ?'ou�d '�ou�ata3.n v�ii;�l a sheil�Cn�a?' e�n.c� �,on.a, �fh� Jewott� a�ave it. In the mi�e�Ie !�iaQe�!e, the�?'emblor �one i� the principal pay at iiettleman and a2so producee ,n the neti��1�- diseavered �r��aa of f ia'!ds north oi' Coal.i:�ga, TTe?�, 7c��;c�.l-.'-.�,:�. T?�,is�.n. Cit-�, etcs. ?'k►e Stever_s �ons, of uppor '�iotsene a�;e, �Si•pd�lc:�.^ .'_>, ,'•�� Qentr�l �c-�r�t of thQ basi� at Cara.al, ' lk �Tiils, `�tr�zr.�, C�reeley and o�h�r fi�rlds« Plic�vene `aroduotion is li*�atact �v t��Fu e?.�:,e;� of' tha ��s� r�+ri.th -�he f'har�.c 2onee or -�'�� "'tc'�era�.n pr�c�ucinr at FrUit�calc�, t'.-�c .T^celitoa zana at '"ern rront on =1.c? o ti€�a-; sic�c rzrxf� '.`�i,ar{av-�un�et, Ccs�iin�;a� �o? Mi�.c�a and o�her �'ie�.ds on �he �vest. �'h� wern '�3.veP zone c�f �he .�en �'►o�tquin eIa°r praduce� a� F�rn T?iv�r anc? ather sar�.c�s �n +�ie i'or��.tia� are prnd�aotive at T.1k '�ills snd R,asne. tl'a.sta Hi iIs an ths eve�gt. � Ir. the Santa Rmrbar�e seetor a#' t�e oo�stal d.istric�, t�e Pliocene prodiaees at Summerl3nd„ tha �on���. at �.'2waoc� and the Va,�ue�os in al1 f'i,elda. The �:�onterev is e.�.�o� �he pr.ineipal producin�; h:�rizan in the Santa �taria dietr3.ot, A11 proc�uation in the '�enf;�tra dSetrict is from the Pioa a�d Re Qt�a(Plioaeng). Sorxe fiel.ds in i:he V'entvra-?'e�►aha�.� d3.stric-'� �raduce fr��rz the g�.co ancl :�'.ape�tto b�.�� thc� ?`�odelo (upraer ���ioQone) ie �-he pri�?c3pt31 pe�y, Tn the ios �r_�;cles B�.sin, 34 ex�ept �ar emall pro�uotion �t th� tQp of the schist, all pat�s ar� of' Yliocone and upper 2��iav�n� �.�eo i'ioi gro��v�ion is less v+r3.de1!; distributE�d thexi �that fro*n the rene�to anc3 �'c�ert:e (upp�r �•`iooene). On the CFulf Caae�, �n�ia-A are a l�r�;e ri:nn�er c�f 2snsin� �=�av� in th� "`iocene an� a i'e�rr �'ie1d� proe?uce f'rom the �'liaoene. is�;��E�r�1].y thesv f ielde are close to t�se coast. In the Sautheaat Lal�isiana area, ev�ry field praduce� �ro� th� �!iacene, excsept �,�est �11en an�? L�r�known �:'e►ss vrhich are at thQ svuth scig�e of tY:�s O�iryooene be1�-. Tho t=?iocene belt nexrc�'s to -the �est, t�:c� last import�,nt �roc3uctian bnin� in t�he �sucet arc�e� in I��uac�es �ounty, Texas. 3n the e��tern �?istricts, �:he ;��.Ys ara �?is�-ri.bu�ed thro���;h �he ""iocene and thQ 9xre�;vlar3t� of the s�.n�is r��kes corralatio�7 dif't'iault. `Pcn+�rarc3s the west, ho��evor, the pa=.�s are placec� in �he �'a�t�al�ou? �� (lo��sr :.�.o�one). There ie, thus � rise ix� the a�p of the upp�rmhst�ps�rg frv� .r��� i:o c�a��, as �Y� �;i�r:� c�.�e of the Uli�ocene. `�-tenQion Tnto Qth�r Ara�ss �ec;��or r?ri1? ~.?�.� i.n. the `�an �3oarauin Valle`�r an�? coastal distriet of C�lifari�ia 4s ex�eoted ta �'in� ar'dit? ons�l �+3o�ene anca t liocone p�,� s. �'hare �re alao �om� ;�ndri?.l�d �truc�ure� in t�Qth sres.s. The best ohancFs for clev�slapinp; na �• �rodcxetion in Ga13.Parnia appe�rs to be to the r�orth �f the �re:�an� prn�?uain�; e�rea ir. ths �an .�ea�,ufr. Valiey. The ��aperial ual�ev ha� be.en proi��ectod L� with no fa�rorable resvlt�. As product.- on in Saratheae�: ��auisiana c�oes not ` �o mueh north of Lak� Pontchartr�a�,n, �.#, ia annceiv�able that the b�a�st pessib311it3es for t��iocene and Pliocene pro�?e�cstian farther east ara of.fshore e�ian_� t�io cantinex:G�.l shelf. I?o ind� catibns o!' reoent pays havo been �'ound in T,�iesiesipc��. anr'. Alab��. to d�,te. The� presenoe o�' �rtes; sn w���:er 3n theae f'orc3ation� ma�kes the Atlaniic seaboard sn ur�3?.'�e1�� :i cxca for r�ros~cactin� •�•nless wa17 s Qre carr3ed bela:�� the t�tiocene. reneral Geolo�*ical Cansi.�?�rationa: All f'c�rm�atz.o.-�s �'ram t<�c: '�pnor Cre���ceoue throu�h tha Plicl, ." e are �a].ie�t Anc� basin f i.11 anc3 �he ��olo�ie�1 histor,y af the areas consasts of 3� a eerz,es o�' �,d�anees e;n�' �€�rea�te of the sea t�:i.th n.u..*�e*�c��s a�xa�� unconi'orm��a�s �.nd eame cc�nt9.iieni�{t_1 caepos�ts. "These i�.ercaso in vol��ie in tre up��er Faart of the so�r�:ion in e�n�r c��.str3.c';. `",.,r�;� •���c; arF,as con��ain a�,reat n�u�.t�er of �+rec3�e- ed�es c�c� erosion�l trPps. i'ear the' mar�;ins of tlic, Cal�.fornia ba�:i.n;> �truct;ural =_�av�+�rr�s h�.v� been sharp �ut el�e�arh.qra s�rt�c+urss mre �;entile, exoe;�t �here salt do�:es hc�.:ve '�een �ntr�.zc3ed 3.r_�o �h�s r�l�tivolt,� .:af�: se;'i��_cr._�:c. '�ie �e�arch for aa.'I an str�acLurt� ha� Z�r�e1-- c�asecT in tl�e c�et�ela��er� are�� and is nc�ti-r bo� n� r? � rec+ed to �;hQ traps �hich �zre no� r�f'� eeted a� tha surf'�co. 0 n i f ; -�_ Fir�;DBC�OK C�F' SOTTTFy ��ii.'i;?2TCAI'T +i�OIGGY "I;�lz.r�m F. �Tgnlrs�.._r�3itor Ti?11?r�rci{-tr r)f' ('.1T1(`1r121^�'l.� f in.('�,�pni-i�(?}�l0 �i���rin']!',�1 ,5`r1C'.'iF?i'zT ()?' 4,1?iF?`•�C'Ei �,��;1+,��Sp 6F Jt7nP l�, 1.�56 (!��,stra �t nn+e� �nra memn; r n=�r*� 1� rE?f':"rf?1'�( C�� � _' /. . , . .. .� - `�r�zClrets ��sa rf, e � - ''`�*no�r fn ,tn�tes . .... ......................... ((1-vi� T�tle p��e, dPc!ic�t�on, and.mPmrer�•of.+,he•Soizth•Americ�n.�eolo�ic•• ' *"�p I'p'mii;+,p� �}�p,•; �.i+�,a ;n 194g1 � PRF,F4�:E ((ri-i-ix)1 bv '�Ti.1 � iam F. ,Tenks 1. Tn 1P4-F the �eol��*; c�l Sor., ;e+,v of 4�neri.�a�,s�n+ +o its T�'e7 1 o��rs �n.� tn r�anv o-(-rFr �^eoloais+s �n� �ra�n�zat��ns a nreli�^�.�,Ar�r rpol��i��� ����3 �f Srn�th ' ���rica (I ��-�rsen, 1Q451 . a.. Tn 1;ti?F ZOZ�O�;di_7Jm .rE?�.rS �iYl F�111�t"P'�(� Cr)1n���?-+-P,P�....��'a'}'l�rr�� a11t� E?rl�tP,C� T1P,b1V �r �-i f T erent r� ata from ea�h �o�mtrv. b. rrPnr�*.e ,"�� �+.ose �s e�,t�r �t' +rA �eo� o�; r T?ap nf �o,ath P.meric� as��mblFr� fhP d�ta, s.........., and s�arm,'++ac� ��'�ral dra�'t a+ the �n� of 1948. c. The colorec� veoiomic map, on a sca�te of 1:5,p00,000, vT�.s Auri.isre�? in 1950 bTT `�he �eolor�i�al So�-i.et-r of !�rneri��, �n co-on�r��i�n w�+h +he Amer�can rreo�r�ph� �al Soc� etv and� +he TTn� tec� St-�+f�s �eolor�i.cal Slzrvev. 2. A s��on� c�ut�.r nf +p�P �n�arF.e� �nut-h !�m�:ri.c�n ^-eolomic r.T�p �o*�m�t+F�e .�..as to pre�are an exnl�na,tor,y texf to ac�omn�nv the map, ��Tith siz�mari es o£ the �e8loa�v an�' �ri>>cipal� p�e�lomi.c x�roblems oi each �oizntr�r, ,+,nFrP+h��.• wi.fh seet;ions anc3 � �h�r+s �.�ahere ne�es�arv. a. ....�nterest �n it wane� lantil early 1954. � b. ��- i;het t-i�e th.� nro-jF�ct 1v�� revi.v��, and the present ec?�+or was �t�kec� to asstTn� resnons�.hi l�t..� for its �atabl� c��tion. :�. T�e co-oper3ti.on of e�ch ( ia,ut.horsl l�n< r.arei'1z11�j aoln�. ��,Pr hi s �ri�inal pane.r, or, in man�:r cases, �m��- 1 n nomnl etely re�ri i-inp� i t � s r�ra+ef ul � v �cknow7ed�ed. �. Tn a fezv �ot�n+,ries TM�u�h ne�^r �^r�rk ha.d been �1�nP s�r_re 1Q4t�, an�? it seemed th�+ t��e ne�nr inform�t; on shoi�.l.� bP �n�i� ab1P PVPn thouz*h it c�oas r_o+ �ppP.ar �n +.,he map. 4� t��fti�r717m1"1 ?�Tl PX'3Cf SBryUP.T1C'P, l5 nhUl,C)�?SZi% i�nl�0<'�.i�"�18� f;(�"?11"rip5 in,7i'f}'1 lT.7JC�T"i�flTl't arAa.� �f Prec�-rrri an sh� �l�i r��1�-s, 1-i'-e �razi.l �n� the ^-tii an�s, are e�.rl,y 3_n +he Rolume. �. Tn �n�t of +h� �r+,; �1�� +�Pr� �_s sp�c� �'1:� ref Prence +� +.�,e �.�bo1 s us�c� on +he �Tealo��c p�at� ni Soua-h �m�ri�,a., �n �rr?�.r t-o fa��.�i+a+e d�re�+, re�'�rence hPtvveen ?"'�A ti11(j i'P,Xt . • 6. n':�nv fia���m��,+a1 �ro�lPms nr �oia+h 41m�r;��n �Pn]_or*�T Fm�rc�e frnr� +�e separate SU'T'TMfly`�Pg 'T_1 �he xQTlf1�0(l�r. a.. Some oi the ��s+ d; fr; cl�}.t C'llt�('P.�']l +7,_e PrP�e�rlbr� an. b. '�Tork �vr=n� +�,e ��st de�ac�e, especi��l?r ;n Rrazi.l, FrPnch �Tiaiana, �nd �iarinA.ri, h�.s �5�n�v�can'-]�r ��va��ei� rnar 1rro,�r�_��aP in i-he �';e1c� a.r.d h.as �I,-ea�V caused man�r �hanc*es .in c��+inp;, •,•�,;�h h�c? bePn rasP� a.lm �st en+,;l•P��r on d.ee�rPe of me+am�rp�ism. r.. T?ad;�a�.t�vi+,• �TP dPt.erm;nat;.ons s� f?r tishozrr no ,-Pr�r n�d Pr•�c� �n,�r�. on +,he �ont;n�nt. a�' �n rocks �. Pr�r1 e-�s o.f p,-Pr,�mrri An str�{-� p�raphv, 1 �n�_�; St�n�P correl ��?.on, an� bro�.d t"��`�n� � his+��rv arP sti_] 1 lare�PJ�r 1,nresolrPcl. - �- e. �om� �:e��unorphic rocks in t.h� or���n� � re1'-G of. �Nestc�rn and r_cr+h�rn S�n+h �meri�•a h�ve �P�n �onsi�erP� +o hF Preo3mbr�an. 1) In t�� raribbean rant*es sia�h ro�l�s no��� annPar to be 1 arme]y r`esozoi �. $. T?o �ooc? evidPnce �f' PrPc�.m�r;en ame ;n +r� ^�nde�n b�l.t has bP�r_ dis- clos��l. 1� There r.iti�h of the r��+,amor�h�c-;a�nc�o„s t-�rr�.nP anne�rs +o be P�leozoic, an� some oT �t ma« be ��r��* TRe�,azo�c, *��+�mnrphoeP� �„r;�� +.hP ia+e �re+acern,s (+�+:s m�l-�n� Becessarv +��� r���hAr �a�u� s�m�'�ol, p1�m, on '-'�� �eoloo;ic 1'���). . '�. That thP c�ncapt of r-,n .+,inentQl dii''+ � s accen+e�? �v manv �*A�7 o��.�ts in Srnath �-��r9_^a i s nnt surpr� s� n�^, ''�,� '-hP cont�nent is �n� o�' the pr�ncip- al �ol,r�es �f e«-id�nce. 8. �TF?7'F' 't1�P r071f�?a�£�yla,. et.S'�"el?1 lS ,.,�C�F?lV �E;�-F?ZOpE;fa� , i_t1-�i ;'f:G 5+7"a"E;"LfTY'a.T�'f1]_r' and f�oral sina��3ar^�ies wi�tfi'Az"rica.' , ' ,, � � b. ���r�, too �.rP t:h�� i�.ileozoic str��t,i�.raptiiic �nd faunal sequencPS so simil �r to +hosP of o�,'���r sou+nern con+,i.nerits, a� w��7 3� FLL]]TIP.Y'OUS �9�?i ox� �irect�or�s of Paleozoic �l�.ciation:. c. Tf eviaer:c� �or former l�zud .-_n '-1_� So��a_h .�'-, '"�:, re��or. c^•_i-�,;:�nes to be �.ss�mh''ed, le+., ��-ep�:�a�'•_� ��olo�^i�t"s �at-e ful.l ��+e �r_�, ;^r�th tti�e rr���l�,.c��.i�+g� t�,cr a,ll �,}'1P. da�a. +o ��T15V7�'r '�;l�g Qupgtiflri rr��pW?r� �. ����}?11f+ �7](�'"•lnr7m? r�{' U1]n�'r nn,�f-,+0?O?.0 S�rS�;e�me: ec�"T"S f:0 =13tTE adv�nced e�reatlV, 'f;l�� 1 p•�TPr �Fi! POT,pi_('� C,XC',P,pt: ? 21 .�1�"�'P21'�",i218,� � S S'"� � � £i.Yl r'l7�_P"Rq. R. T'Ate7 r?P,�"?.�lP�l S8C't1.012S nf' !-11F+ (',�rq�r�; ' ?r ' +h .. '111 't0 S1�_l'r� 211 Y'OC 6 17? P, corcl;.'1er�.n rp�^Z�n north of Arr�ent�n� ��z-A ?�een m��^�,rP�, troi�T�-some �et���led fa�anal 5+1��?ies ar� �vailable. ' � � � � ?�s�i'"7E" o?' r2ra,Z� �� an loti^IF T' P2ZeO7n1C 2'r,C1-•, T g �.if1'i r1A1.�. 1�E^�.US�' c��' 1:iClr • �f f�s,�;�s� C. �'�e efnectG C1{' �?]_F',!?C111� 9T1 9�"'rl �'f'C'•OYI.� i111 �� cf1.71'�ls�T1CP,S fi?'e T'O�" C�E;s]?' SOUf�'1 nf r^� omhia, ar.� �z-�n ;n +he n��rth,�r�;�i-ern nar+ �f t�e con+;nent; +,heir {;'CAYl� S s�"E? . 17?7 rE?rf?,1?1. . ,�. rY12 Of -f'�'?P :'InSt: 171�'�'rP�'�'�Ilp p�"0�7! P.i�S !�f' �-.h.E,' lRP,S7Z07 C`��1'a rP_.1_'1f17.0� C nf' T"JaSt',P,i71 c7i1;'1�+ l�^ipY".0 £i COt1�r�T-77� �-1�F� lai e{-r�1')1?'Fi 071 1{' zT�� r£in� �TTL '�p'� A�U?:071� �T"1 'n +;.me �r.� 5pa_oe. 3• r'-17'�ZJ cTU?'?�^�_C Z70�(!9Tl'�'.'riC'��.?,'��z� �_E' 110�"i�"�.F' �_Tl �'�'11�_8 '�Yl!� rolom�i_�a.. !�>. Z;�f;P, cTll?'P.-�;, C T�OZCHT'� �l?1 �.?1f� i'^j'7'UF�z'" �.C'f'�Sr7 {:�T� ��.SO ()r'C`llrrnrl ��_7?1£* f�%18 P��i.f�.c �oa�t.�:��n*�!��xx�r�v���.��:�s�z�ig�c�s��?�sas�.��rR��r*��:�g�-•��:��s[xx�;�x���� c. Ser*Ments �f the P:�e�ozoin Ar_��an �3fNni i�h appear to ha�*e t��Pn ;�'�ru�P�' a.t y+riC]f;��,* Spi;�r'?'4'.r?�1 +:,.,eS� AT)t�`d?"P,T�+'1V 7"-�?]^'�Pm f'rnfi �'a�"P �Ti;�'�S�.ir+ n2' F'�?'��r �re+aceous '�;O la,i;a !'t^P,i;SC.e(�l]S. , 10. 7n �n�rt3r� �u1 t?�ese and. m.an�r o+h�r nroblAms �t �hou1� be n^�`er� +M��; the�r are re7.�+,ec� �+-o some of +.he ori�i_n�� dif�"icult;es ;_n �+re:��r�n� thn �eo�o�*ic T�ap o�' South .�merica. ` a. The rrol�lems can be snitrPc� cinl•- bv a �on+inia;_�� exnan��on of areal mappir.r� prntrT'�1T1S. 11. The ^ec�lo�*ic T�Rap a� ��ub7isred �as �B�'Tl rri{-jgi7P,l� for, amon�; other th�nr*s, be� n�* too detc�i.l ed: there �re pract�_ca11'y no bi ank spaces in i-hP zvho) e ef Sot�th l�merict�. a. Cince extrapo��t��n. o�' �Po].ot�ic kno��rledfre can'�e clone �•r,+h some confic!ence, Mi�=^n suf�� cientl�T broad meolo�*� c�i.z-� s' ene, �_t se�med bc�t+er to �:ive � r��s�re� nrP�iction of +he sreolo�;ic n�.tter� th��; tb �e�e blan?�s in thoce dimi.nis�?in� arP�S �r.���h h;�ve no+ ..�+, �,P�n ev�n �Po�raphic�ll,r explored. . b. 1n +hP unl;nown areas, �c �n fhe �r���, of Bon�;�?Pr�ble control, +hP reolo^�;_c P��p c��.s a nro�ress rP�,or+ on +h� s+^te of ��nn•�,1ea�e and i;ri�l��n� a.hout South American rneoloa�v �n 194£?. -3�- GSA N SF l �r1"OYI�:' �t�i nC'p V ;1 ----`— ?�.':AIN P��URI'��OSmn,TrmT,�hI, r^ 7Tr`r�� �F' SOT'mH t�st���?IrA �3V T7. .T, TTny�rinc"'f:!�ri �a� �.. ' � ..r . „ .�V� ��' �',� �'� ' ( ;� a .----. " l y23�Z 1 �.--�f ^I3 . _ f, �j 1 � ,: ��9; _ _— _ p . ' ,�v 1 � 1� '�— -- 6 ; , ----------',��.�°� �-- �.j . . �,� ,� � �� � - �,_ _ ,�,,.,_. ,- ��._ _ � ° J� ~�. � � `' � S � _ z6\\� � 3 ,. � IJ 2 , , _ ti , . , , , , zs\ � - � _ -, ' %�� �. , ' � `t � 8 _ ,\-�\ �; �\ � 2 ; �—. - ���� _ � i � �� a ,� . '� r , � � � ,, , .. 2��� ��r. � J � � �� � - � 1 . ;3a ' .�/; .. �;�� � a f�(r�, ' �,..�i��`�.A 3/ k_,fr�tj �� 8 �c:�'1�y i 1' ; s« � �r�� � �� �32 � 12 � , �4- r- � ��`35 —— � �,_._ 37 ` 40 � I -3- ('=S A P�� 6 5 � i'?��'P,� X-X1.�.: �� ?nlrS �' ?'"'T'� Pf' SP1 e�l'c �^'PY1P,�^�1 1'P,'�'�'iP,710E?S nT1 �.�i.�*POZOP'V� � �Pr�npHOST'?TT�'TT'�2nL, pE�Ii,r'S OF _. A T�.___,A� xii�-xv�;;)1 r„ T7nrac'�c� �T. T7a.r,-;lnmtc�n TT7l�VE?T'ci�-tr nf Vn.''IG�t�;�T=3�';'rnY1C'n�'jf�'''Sa.S 1. `T'hP, nrP.SE',Tl?% cl�rllr+171^P, nf' ,�'n17i-h AmP,T'��'3 �S TIlE1�T!1�,' �'}'1P, Y'ASil�t Qfl '�'1'tc A71f�F;Q21 PIOt*P,i1F'Yl�g z+rl-�ir1'l �P,?'^Tl �r ?7?�F�r_,S'A71nTll�?'1 -f;;•^E'� (;C7Y;�;�.`111F'C� ;n+�rm;t+.ently throtaah- 011'F {;�P, Tc�Y'�ia.�'t,r� rE'3.rYic�1 �. C��'n!r�X ��". tl�P rinSP Of �:11E? P�].00t?71P,� ?p� �P,T'G7S"� 84�ri a.'t 1"�2'2Serif. '�� Thnllf�ll �'�'!P,SP, ?Il()�rr�mprf;' 7'P,T�rP.S921'� ny��.m'il-il�,r f�c� (',1f?S'jlcr i- �1- BC ,0-07'OF*P.ri1C ''��"1'�S2 �Y? '��''n P,�TO�la'�';1021 nf' �';1'?P. ��2507.O�C lil'1!�F"�Tl ^'f',OS'TY1f;�lY2AS� '�"!'lr'Tr l"dE`'t"P', �'!Ot C1T'Ct]iT1- SCT'��P.,Cj �;O t;�'1P, ?"7f-;:'�;E?7'11 f2C+C?P'P77P,S rllf; ,nrf+7'P, f'P1�. ,•.r'{-11 �-qrt,r'Tlf�' ij]{;P,I1S1�:tT t%}lT'017.f�'l1- OU't '�l,E' ,.nr�'?nl E? Ct�ri�"'Y1.P,ri't', frnr� �-}�P �'-O�.,ji rA pF??1111riSU� ��'O �'`inn ��OY'Il 9ri(� f'�^OT? UE±('; f'@ 1-0 `T''i� �_r� . �• In �:hP ternSf:F7'�'] �E'�i- -F.l�,ntr r2Sl]�'+'P,(� iyl t-,l�p Sl]C��;S"ZT@ Utll�i'�; !'1f' +!1t? �i_f'�'P,T'E'Tl't -nolmi:a�r r�n�es �aah; ch n�r�r f nrm the so-c�� I A� Andes. 4. 7'n the extra-�eos�mc•7�na1 �r�as +�ezr res�a)tec� in �x+�ns;vP stabe,nnt;�nAn+r�1 fr�ctllr;n� an� ;� t-h? �lif�'�reni;ial UT�17.f't an�! down-fav�t�n2^ of :�roi-.r3c�ed r�miOriS. �. �;�+,h ir +�.e 4n�e�r. nnc� extr�-4nd��n are�s '-re ]�cat�on of +-he mo�-ements w�s c�n+roliec�, to � �ons�dera.ble C�P.P'rPE� 1�•, +�+e pre-?+,Tesozoic s+rlacture and his+.ory o�' '-!�P ret�s.ons cnncerned. 6, Thp �'ro„t; spi �ce( ( 3A� 1 i s an �+.temp+, �� ;�� �t l.�,e ma�n �narn�o�truct�a�-al re�ions or nrnz�;�c;es of �nt�+h Amer;ea ���r.��h e�n }_� cli��-;��v�.shed ac�eorcl;ne to �.re;_r ;n+-erna� c�ns'-�+.,1a�;�on �n�? �xtc�rn�� rel�e�'. �. A��+oSt a71 the units can he sUb�3��r;r?�� �nto stab��rov�nces nr_ beth mornho-� lo�3c�1 anr� s+,ru�t;,�ra1 �*ro�,n�s. b. Th� F','9S'�P,!^71 �`c�r i; i i�r�s n�' p�rn �nd �01 ijr; �, r1 ot-+,�� �� 3 s; nc�i e uni t car. l�e slab�i--ide,a ;rto �+ 1��;;+, f�„r subpro�rinces, �nd +,�� ��st�rn � !'orc1;1 � c�r�;c of �o11�mb; a 9.�+,o n�t l�s� t.han se�en or ei�ht. C. R'1�F'SP, S11����iTlS�OY'S� }'t03TE=�7P,Y'� i-�01tCt'�'? 0017�T@Y?�P,I��; £iTl� l75(?f'U� �71 �l'^? r7PfQ,11P.C� 5{;Z7C�V C):f' F73.Y'�"1C11�'�7' F].�"P.S-1.S 'pr717]rl �3s-E? n1l�q('1]rE?rl �h %. Zri �I-�� � .}.� � _ P OTT�'T'�1 � l7l Cfll�"P,. � C,'7C��aT13,,��1'1 nf' i-Hp T`�l�ii rill 3'�'�'F+I!1�'� l.S r`�l�P }�r'i.P"l..' +:n C���..`3,C�nr].Z� P.A(�'1 rcrri.f�12 lI1 �;F',''T78 Of ii-,� mA;n e�rej-PmS O? l'O(',�5� ((nnm�ra7 s in r��aa.inc? er of '-r; , � r fl,. s o:� Pr n. e �m +�xtll l. �'=„A�.•�n� Sh� �l.d '�'9rlV �7'F�('',1T^'�Y"'371� 7?��r?,ajA �Tr��r �,��,_i��ll���Fr_r� T,',�}.,�-�OY1l�P,rO� r�'1(a 1'1fP �'��yl'r+isi7'r'l�ra-i�7'�17111 .�'^P,('R"n�r� �lI'1 a.� (1T1m nnr+�inrrl p?31"t� ZEi'f'P PrG'C'�'"1?'^ri ti11 �TT't'�11�7t3� a.7onp� �Ot7fti+�7'ri t70•^C�P..r� CO�-f?7'?Y1�. 0{+ �nn1-;pnp+ql TTrjpP1^ "')-;'�.S�'1C�T'c�1's�.�?Rs3i �ri C"f1�;1'?1 n�?'f;� l'071?;i21P,T?'�7i! llpi)8Y' �'E;rf',i arz* Fl� nY1P' COEiEf C�• rf.?7'11.IY"-3.� '�i?"'17i 1 i.�'_1 ��7 f��.� T;qrl�J' P7'�c'tiTrl�jr;.,r� ���'�1� P1^f',C^.Yr�?-�v�iap�T�fl1'�`-i.CB^.a-rt»aUa) ?��OYl� P,3S+;PT'Tl r�.27G�. S^"+�'�"'n ��r�?erG� la+e Pr�c�mhr�an(TTatizma.) ��an�* north�rn �nrcler; co--�r�n� of coni-;n�nt,�l T?pr.er �ret3cenus(P�recisi al�n�^ ,��st�rn �n� sol�+hern bor�'ers � 3. Coa.s+�l "r�zil�ar. Shi.eld �. �'a.rl« ?�r�c�r,�-r; �r�; m� �? �l_ e(T�art�a�Pna) an� 7�+e(1�"i.n�s-?taco' omi)Prec���bri an a?c���; ,.,�e.��-Prn 1-�r.,'o-�� p<.t;chzr covFr�n� �f continen+,al T'PP�r Triassic(Lower Araripei, mar�n� Ttaron�an(�°os�ozaro), �n� ,,,�r=ne Faleocene(?,°�rie. Farnhai ;n the nor+,h �nd coilt�n�p+�.� �;�cene( Itabnra.� )� n the �entre �'— -4- 4. �m�znn ���s�r. � �. ',°-. _ Tp,�-�y' cil1�?'1a71�`n1'O.T^?�F?-1-351; Iotiv�r fi.17� �'1!�a�c ?�8T'011i.slTl�Tr,ac(`l77'1]—T'1^ArP._ ('�,r17a�� �Tl`i1"i71E' `n;-7,.7]e �c';1Y?SV1Z��-I'i'IA1'L�T'�£i�1ll���; ??1F17'i'']G' �'OC'P7lP..� n]1^'OCE?11G'� T��C10E71F'�1'._2"�r�1S�� `3rJr� Pli.O�,�l�e��t3T"^�'1r�5� �-Il +h�=, F9�+"�'n (;xf1"0P1i'I-Vi c�r+�nent.al Pli�r�ne(Per�sl mracli.n�* WP,S';�"7AT'� 'nt.o hr�c'rish-vTa+er faci.es. 5. P�rnr�ir�� �?.�s;n �� ';` , T �,°,.Ar e; �,�ri an(S �rra. �r�n�3e); I oc,��r +�n� r�� c��'� �; rP,VI� ni an(F�mentei ra- ?n'1o'A�� tt)s11'771F', `iY!<� (',OI1{:P,7'�f�1 !'�'Lla[�IP, �P,I1''"�S�r]�'o711.921��]�177.�� CO21f";11PYli-q1 TTp-�er P�nnsvlrar_i.an or Perm;an(Pe�?r� do Foao�; eontent�l T'p;�er Trias�ic . (�?u�,i.n?�o-P��+�� �ons); Rhaei;;an ba.s�lts; cnn'h�nent,�l ?TPo.r,omi�n(rodo-Cor��a); c�ntir�n+a1. SFn�r_�_s�n(I��.*�ecuru); m�r�ine 1o�.ti�er P";ocene(Pir�bas� and p1;�cPne(Ti�rrPir�si �n nor+,hPrn �,a1f � e. �ao T{'rancisco T'�.sin I o�..,�r ���uri an(R�?�bui l; �ont� nen�-al TTecoms an(T'ru^iai.ai %. �'��1�;iP ��5�.71. (`rni''�"P?^i'91 �3"�hI'1�11? �I3iTr3S—P8�"�D117'Ol� Z,p'^7P,7' Gi1U7"_AYl �,.5'&��1'rP—T'I1ti�� corf,�nen+al '�'eo�o�!ian(m�71�A�or-rab'or_.loi 8. Ba��-SPr�ipe ?��.sin T(lirr��^ ;;;�„r�.an??�iif1S!3 �?r7'i_S�; con��n�n+,al TTpnpl' �'I'lflSS]C�('7!'P1^O Dan+.a.s-�T�+orai; cont�nr:rtal a.n.� mar�ne m;+��n; �n_*T�ocom; ar,(Rro.+,�s_ _ Jap�ata); _m.�r,nP Trp'Pr �retacen�as(�an+� ,4m�+ro-Tl�as); marine Paleocene (S�o S�Y,ast; �o�, c�rtinental P].i.ocene 9. P�r�n� T�asiii. �'nn��.n�nt�l �am�r�an?(f'+�ma�ta�nlin soi?t�^P��t.; Iou,r�r Si.l�arian(�aacupP) in the z��st; Low�r nevoni an(Parana); continental TTpr,er Penns�rl��ani an �r Permi �.n (Tubaraol •;,r;th mar�.nA inerc�lat'ons; cont�.nen+�l Permian(Passa Do;s�; cen+.ine.n+�l T?pner Tr-i_as�ic(Santa T."�r� a-�otuca+,u�; 1�h�eti ���s�l.ts(SPrra ('7era11; Rh�e+.,i�n or loUrer Ii�ssic red-be�s(�'a.iva�� cnr.tinental ITpner f'r�+,�c;e �i� s ( �i �ta rla ) 10. Co�'umb�-�ui�b� Ra�in f'�nt-�ren+al i's�mbr�an?(Ja�,ac�i�o); �r�'ov;c�an(f'-�rum`a�-Ti-:anucumi) l I. C�; �,�i tos �;raben I9.+.P prA�,�m�r;_�,n(m3�P,.�G); Lo•�,rFr Si7tar7_an(��rmen); Iower ne�Tonian (Santia�oi; c�nt;nental Up�er rrPtaceoi�s(Por+on) 12. pen�.-Chaco-Pamnas P]�ins Svhsi�rface: PrP-�ez�onian ian.�noivn l,ut prnb�'o1.r present; I rnver nevori �n; con+3nent�l Permian; cont=n�n+a1 TTpnar '^r�as�ic; Rhae+;an basa'ts �n sot�+,hmast; mr�r�ne a��l �ont;.*��nt.�l rTiocene and P1_io�ene; �o�TPred ?�,r cont�nen+�l '�iar�t?rn�r,y 13. I_lanos-Acre Plains '�� __� . � ; � Subsiarface: Pre-Tr�assic unknown but probablv pres?nt; con+inent;al T7poer Tri.as�ic; marine ^retaceovs anc� `�'P,1'f.�arv th�nni.n�; clown and hecomin�; conti.nPntal tot�r�r� �'�i,aa��ana Sh�.eld _ti_ rSA r?`. 65 14. r�r�bl-�e�n ��n�e ( (xt*11 Scarce Pre�am�r�an?(SPbczs+�nnll; 7nP�-amor*��osn�? mar�ne mi+h�n;�n_ ''�oco-o,flnir�racasl; pat�.h,r co��r�na� �f m�r�nP SPn�r_ian (ps�r+lt• me+amarphosPd), mar�ne Focene +� ' ' . �Z�a1e A°i���nP ar.� m�r;ne anc� non�-�.nen+�]. Plioc�ne 15. �tr�neai�e3��n �ndes T�te prF��7^hri.an( I�1P;,� a.s-Re11 a,r; sta-�?ucuchq�h-i 1; TTnn.a,r C7na�ov� ci an(�aParo�; ��;�i�'�� �P�ron7�n(t^ombozr); cont-,�n�n�6�1 PPans�rinan;an(SabanF.tal; marine Perm�an (Pa1m?rito); con.tin�ntal T?pn�r '"r� �ssic(? 3 �uira); *nar�nP nl�ocomi�n; pPrip��r� c�l co�Ter� n� af' T!�arine Senon; �n an d�ocPne and aont,:nental Oli�*ocen� to Plif3cene 16. Fa7con �re� '""�rinP ',�,oc�n� to A'i�cenA; riarine and mrlti.ne�nt-a1 P]iocPne 17. �'"��•�c��bo Rai sn 1.��r;»P rocer.e; enn+;n�r..+,a1 (lli�o�e�ne +,o Pli_ocenP I�. roai�ra Peninsula Ia+,e PrPc�*��rian?; m�.r�n� PPr�;an; �on+;n�,^+�1 T•pr,�r '"r;�s5i.c, mPtamorphosed ?��r�n� '"it;honian-TTeocor?i�n? 1Q. "iorra. �?a fi�z.,+,a �.?arta PalPoz��c n!!'�(in!nrr�h'('.S ?�T!(j ;y2a T"1a:7'?rE?�� L1�f(`�'?z* C'r���c+,.�pi,.. �r' r`.n71�'.i11F.�Tit;fil 1'DiJP.Y' R'1'1 H,5"7 C '�. �'���� <,rr� ^orc� i 1 � eras of �'o� ambi� 1 9'f'.G' PT'P['�T111-�r1_fiI1��1.i G_'�'1 TMIP+:r']'"?r'1^j��'li ('S—�11P�"�''".P� � T�l.'a'�1 P!�!3m�1"l fl21� (1T'f�OVi (`i � � rllC',lnY'�� �T1(���P T?E�'�T:'1.£i11�F'1C�1"A��'3—r�A('ti11Y'�.—�!�`fill3l]r8�� C'OI1fi71F'1l�''3.�. PeY17'1`."y'�.Z'AT11817 (Pi*�ir�I); mar�ne PPrr.cvl�an;an(�ach�l�l; �ar�r_e PP�-mi.aar� c�n+inent,al T�pi,er TT';�"�-i('�('Ti7'O?'1� i�F��"f:1TR� 31'�C� �O],C�iT1'"CS; *f1E3?"�I1P, "'7.t�;Ori?Il—''TPOC',OTI713?1��f�i1F''Zs�— Tr���F�1".,� P'IFlZ"?1n �P.I10]11.�71�TT�.11e�'f�—r?11P_.�RIU�1(,'�� COY1�lY1_�.1'a�"9� T;'OCE?21P,�rU'i�l�sl:'� �I1 i']7E,' �out�, mar;.ne(!"u�s�re) in �hP �or+?�,; ���tchv p�:riphc�ral. eozrerin� o�' continental 0?� �ocene t-o� P1 i oc�ne � � � �1. T oi�sPr F`a�.ada1 nnn-res�r '�epres�ion T;"�iT'7.?1P TT71'�r'-- '''ri`1..,�'i(: tinrl iTO.�(`�.Y1�C�� rn�r,;i�f' <Tld7'�"1C�j P& ?'�I1P. T?cocom~an; �mar�ne fo l�;^�.rk; ,t,...,..,a+,�r r,��ei�� +c� -1.'_��c _-. 2,2. ^��'-ra1 CordillPras of �olorbi.�, and �;'�St,Pr11 ��,.����A,.�S of rct�a�or Precamhr�3n(r��z�.morras-S�bu�!d.�V'} �z� sn,a+h�.r "olombi� and a7o��* e��t=,rn frnnt �-e +�1A T�'Cll�r1�7.; a11 c�nr�; � � c2'�� T^P'�;'�ml)7'i��'!OSB� I.o�.�rer �.Yl� T'Al�tm2" t�ci�..P,07,n� C� M�"1'f;� O�U13� ;n+.rl��?�d �'r �DOf�C',{'nT11C' *f1s3SSC,-+c� t?�'�t^�I1P, TTp'�P,1' 'r'riti�"''C R?'+� �rO1C�T1lCS�PA\Ts1P_�P�j Tft","'11� �`TPf�COm�A2'�. nn� 41?��.�171 �7l'+'T'U�P,� bV �'Pnon;£�21 f�'!nri.+ag nrira zrra.7ll+'Pg� p�tClltr �c+��er•�Rnc* o�' ��n��nen+�l ';ocPr.P(?Tm; r� �.n� cont,nPnt-�z? F1 �o�er_P an�' vo1 can; �s (''�'�'�; �.) 3 '�l��+Prn�r,y t� rec�n+ �.rolcar�_r,s. `!�?� '"jo,Ci;n._71 n0"f�l � � F+ra,^� nf' f nj T„ �. L` o '�' � �nc� c�za� ori �a:�-i)1 ITr!t��rt'pC'-FlV vno�rm. Sc�r�� � me.amorn�ics(Pa�ebmo;�?) in �orth; m�ri_ne ?'-i.t'�on��n- _ �---_ �`TP,nCO?[l� 31'l� Rlti� �rie UA?7P,Y' S�rit�y!i s1Yt lri 1'1'�c? gnt]'�'.}'1� (`1-F f3C�0US 1111'1^?1���JP.,S 951� ?'Li�C�'"ti1'P.S. -F- 24. Choco-�;s�neralc3 �s-Sectiiura pelt( "R�i i�rar �eosvncl-ine"1 PPr_r s�-ltran� �n( 9inotane) a.n� mar� ne T?Pocorn� an. �n� Senoni �n � n the So�zth; m�r?;ne �;oc�nP t-o mi��le i+"iocPne; co�+��Pnt.al_ tzpner P!'locene unc� Fliocf�ri� 25. "�e�i-ern �'ord��leras of Peru Paleozoic an� mari�e TT-��^r '^r� �ssi.c �n +�p n�rth; ?Tnn�r �Ti�ra�n,ic �rol�.�ni ce; m�ri?1P `�'1�;�'lOYllsill-?�T0000MT.t321; SC`�.7'CP p�'f'.('1'�F±g Of' Cc��'1��71r'17a"�� ,�,f?71�71?3T1, l7p'?P.'r' `?'pr�-i �rtr arid 7Lt�t-F+rri�i7'V ZTOZC�7?? c`S 26. rFn+Y•a' �r_d ras+ern rorrl;7lera� of n<".tz�R�1;�r;at an� nor+herr Ar�en+;;na 1�.�-e Pr�ra-rhrian �n ,4r�?•.,+;�n� and snia+r�rn Perli; T�';r�a]P���?^amhr��n Zn +he s n,�th; Or� o�r7 �; an; ��ic3 r' J e S i.7 izri an; I o�rer nn� P"; �' 1 P?`Psron� an; con+- 1Y1P21�'!�� �"iS��Sc�pni;�n� m•�ri71P Tri.f��lp PP21'']SV r�nr r + i rl : l�T�r.ian; m� lo�•.�r o m cl 1e "er*nian; enntineni-al upz�er Permian; m3ri.nP and c��nt�nPn+a1 TTpnPr ^riassic; m^r�n� lo�ver I ias�� C' 9.riC� IOi"��I' no��;er, c��n+.in�nta] ?R1[?�] P, �"��Tri firi� � OW�7' TTF,O('nTf1�3T1� ME�7'��'IE: "til"'Pilti_2Yl i'O i:021��C1�71 9I1� n1"riT?.E U?�'"�P2' eP.Tln71�f111 iT� +;lZq nor+,h; c�nt�nenta.l Senoni�n �n. the sot,th; cont�n�n+al P31eo�ene +,o plir�or.ene �n 1-re nnr+r; ���-;t�nen+al Tniocene ?7. Or;�n+� o�' Feru �rcloz-i�i.an; m�.rin� �+�i�d1 e Penr.s,rlvani �n; m�rine lo����r t:o m� r� '� e r'erm� an; n1�Y'�I1P, 1o��.�er 1135"?C� C011t1Y1211i'?1 .�"P,Ct131'1��72-T��U?'9Cla_11� C(�Yl+�.l"��11�:31 "'eocom�ElYlj m�r�ne 4p+,ian +o S�non�.an; continenta7 P�leocpne; cor+�nen';al ��oce�ne to P��ocen.e. ?,F?. ?'una ?nd rlltiplano of �'hi1e, �.r�entin�, ri�7;zr;a, �n�? Peru �on+;nnnfi�l rocer.e-Olio�ocene�rOY'OCOrn_}�Uy'� j�C'� 7 S> i T,T� OCf?21P, f;0 I'P,CE'�'1'�; Z*Ol r�rii. Cg 29. Suh-Anr�ean Dara�es of �o1i�T�.a and northPrn .4���ent�na (?r�?oT-lc;an in so�.��h an� n^rt�� �x+,re*nP+;.�s, T�;r���P G,'1ur��n, Ioirv�r T?avoni�n; ('^-1'if�1181'�+`d� PPrmiA71.; ^Ol'1f ittn_�1�� TTT)tlF�l" `^ri���iC`� rnr��,! ,E,r��-.�] �TIC)('�?'1n o��rl P1 i nc�r1P . ��• P?^lt1C.`17)T'=1 !",or�l-i.7 ] era, a�' r'}�i � n aprl ^rp`n+�-f-i17`-i SCt37'rP �Y'PCa7!1�Y'i *�71� Orc?ov;.c; �n, IO�.';��',]+ T12ZT0771 s371� 1'"i cc,i Sci P'�l �21� a11� F�P,"�Y?SVI- 4'd2?"-311j ?!1".7'l"1C, ?Tp�Pr 'T`7'13SS1C 'aT]C� tTO�C3711C'S� m�T'�11.P. �Tl7T"-lSS�_C '�11� 401.C'�ill'CS� 7?1�7""lE', T;+1�nI"l.lA]'1-TTE�OCOTfII�ri 3I7C� VOZC3Y?iC'S� 1�.'r*P SP.YIOT'l�?11 '(;a"E:�1t��'1-�g iri�7'l��P, l�F'G0207.0 SPqttence; SC£3Y'(`e Cnri-�ylnn1-al �a��icy. �Pn0Y1_��'1 a.n�. ?��iocen�-I'l�oc�ne; i?ocege +o ''Ioi�t�,occ�ne ,Tni _:,_�Y,��,� . "1. FrPcor�; � l Pr'3 r,P' Ar�eni;ina((xvi.-�?Ti.i)1 � Sc-�r�e Pre�aml-�r�an; l'�;r�-ile �`amhr�an; ('rdo,-�:.cian; r�iddle �i.7lvr�an• Iotiver �nd . , r�1C�f�1G �P,VOII��I1� TR%?7'1"i0 �Y�C� C011�:?Y?P,17'f'�� 1'?1.S."iSGj.P'�l'3.I1 3I1(� P871'."'SVZ�'�r,�HA� COTl'tl- n�ntal p�,�n;�n; cen+in�ntal T?p-�er Tria:;� .Le, an� �olc��n�.es; cont�neri- a] T1pnPr l'�i o�Ane and F1iocFne 32. Pamn�an ''ea�es ( ixvi. � 1 � T�'-e �Y'2C'F3?�'!l�ri3p� 17'�'�'r•.j��+ Cn'-GT'�PTlE" O? CO"11-�71(;T1'f;c,{1 1t!'15"1S�lp'71r�.ri� }�P,I'�7?S"ZZra"�;_'�p� P�rmi�n, 3nd Trp�,er mri assic on wAs�-ern part; c�nt;�ner1-1-a1 TTpner T"� �c�ne and P13��ene iTl �I'11-r]"7f1(�UT7f3�11 Vr��_�@�rS� ZO(',^'t:�<�21 nf' 7'yl?'�P'P,R 'LS S}1n1�'21 �1V full ZlI1P,S� 171?:P1'V2T1.�T1�' are�s c�ashed _�_. 33. So�� .+,h�rn 1�; � � s ��' �'iaPr�� A� rPs G; A T'.," . � � Scare� l��e PrrcamY�r�an; IotNer S�11zr�an?(rizr�m�ial); I:owPr rev�n,.3r_(�'entaa�a); T^a.r�ne �n�? cor.t.�r_�ntal PP�nian(F�_11�hu�n�o); p�+�hj* coz*Pr�n�- of cor_t�rent�l ?apnF�- T4ioc�nr; contin�n+�i Pl;oc�nP ;r_ +�� ��1]eys �� . T'or+,?�ern hil � s �f Fuenos Air�:s 1:�?;P P!"P,Ct1.*'!�ri �ri� mar�ne PPnrs�rl?�3T17 F�11� C(>?^;'�I1C'Yl� �1 'r�'? OCP21P, �21 a;�"1P z;A�� e'�r5 ;iF. S�lz+'h�.rn 1��ndoz� pe�,inn (',f)ni;irlpp'};cll. SP,11nYl1an.� �71�Y�71(' ��31eC1C,"11P.� Cr"'1ti17E',711;�1 �;OCE11P,� COYI'i.'Yl�Ilt:�] U}�TJ�T' r°'O('P,I'lP, EiT1� $li(�C'?Y1.P.� I�(�hrP.7' `"P.7'{"19T'V f(? 7"P,C'PTlf; VO1C`3Y:1rS :�6. P�taTon� an �orclii' Fr:3 .P�'P.C£iT'l1�Y'�t�ri� SCE,t7'Cerinrt:h Of 4:i� S. I,sLt.3 T014�F'Y' �td.rirl jTpper?�P£i�f;0^n1.C; n1�7'�T1P, Ti�F`'1C',� ,T1�]"�RS'IC volcani�s, r'!fl]"iT1P, "'l't}1CI1��''1-r?�0007!!1�Y1 ?iI1C� ma.rine SC:21711'!3I1 1.T1 southFrn half; roc�ne �*�l.��n�ns i.n +he north; mar�re Focer� �nc� lozrer (?1i.aocene; ]�r�e �_ann�r SPnon�an �ranoc3,'�r�i-P b�+hol�ths �ntru�'d +he T;thoni3n-TTeocom-ian ;�7. Coast �'ordi?1Pr� of t'hile PrP�amti�rian; Pal.eozoic me+.arm�rnh;�s?; marine Juras�•ic anc? mh;+�li�ni�n- "Teocomi.�n north of �oncepc�on, ini-rtac�ed bZT la�e Senon�an p�rQr_odiorites; pat�hv co�•�r'nc� of marinP up-�er Senoni�n an� 1ovrPr Oli�ocen� aion� �vrs.+,Frn bor�'�r :�S . rT�ri-h�rn P�+a�*on� an I+�s�� �� f L•�te? PrP,CE�711�ri�n� �onti_nFnt�l T�D?7G1" Trias: ic and Trolcanirs in north;�i�st; up�-,er .TurasGic valcanic�s; cort�nental upner renom�nian to !'oni�.c,ian; cont:�.ntn+,al !1p?1P.�" Senon�_�n; m�r�*�e nanian-P�leoc�ne alona� e�s+�rn border; con+;_nPni-�1 mid.�le 1t�iocPr,e � n the ivest 34. Soiitrrrn Pat�oni.an (reseado�i ?v�assif Scarc� Prec�ar?t�ri.�n; �on+;nc�n+,31 T?p�er Triass�c anc� volc�zn�cs; upne�r Juras�ic volcanics: c�nt,:n•n+-�1 lapner SPn�nian; contin�nt�1 rocene 4�. ni.p T,';.�crrp '�i�S1ri��XV1i�� C,ont�r,e�tal upner Senon��.n �n thP ?�rPst; mar�n� nanian-PqlPocene; cont:inPnt�l �',OC",71P, t:n 10?h,rFr (lll_FO('P,17P, �?1 +hP. ZnrP_,S't� fiA1'�nP, L�Ut�PI rR1QC'P,11F' 'Yl '�rP. P,c�St; mar�n� P1iocPne in thP e�st and cnnt;�npp+,al ir. j•he cen+re. 41. C.hvbut RaS�n ((xviiili r�:ari21P, T"ig�',iSF�.17T1�?�21� �'�I1T1S,r1�?i�11if1Il� 37!!� ��Y'TT�"aTl '71 {:�'?A .'Vrmg�,j illfil"71P I�ASr?(� 3?�(? 104JF+T' POP'P'CI'; C•'l�i'�rlw?1+;�] Up•�Y' �Op'�"t'1^; CO�'f i_YfPIlf81 r:P,riO7f?E17]�?Tl t0 i'O?1�.�- c� an; c�ont�rent-al upner Senor.i an ����+h *�arzr.P ; n+Prc�l �t; on(P.FaPs+ri cht� s�.nl;mflr�ne D�n' s�n-Palroc=ne�; con+,-inental �ocer..� to lowr,r �1 ��o��ne; -�arinP mid�l.� Oli�o- ePne; c�n+�n�r_t�l izpper O1�a�ocPnP ir+hP ��rt�!east; ront.ir.Pn+al m:i�r'le� r,�io��r_e �n thP --,PSt; *narin� tap'�er r�;n�nnP and Plio�ene inth� ras+, 42. S�nt� rrizz T�asin ?."�rine "�?Pocom� an +o Alt;� an; marin� sznd cont;_��ntal upner ��nor.ian; r.:arine TM����'�e (115o�ocene; cor.t�.nAnte.l un>>er Olir�ocene; cont�.nPnt�l mid�'le hTiocene in "EY1P WP�t _R_ 43. F��klanc� ?slands � SC;�7'CP, Pre�a�br��n(rane ��"er��l�+h), Io�v�r T�ev�n��n; cont��en+.�l P�rmian (I afori.an) . , � _ � • - . ... . , US GS P . 31 PROFESSIONAL PAPER 31 PRELIMINARY REPORT ON THE GEOLOGY OF THE ARBtTCY,:I,E �1ND WICHITA �IOUNTAINS IN INDIl�td TERRITORY AND OKLAHOMA b�r �Toseph A. Tta..f'f wi.th AN APPEfiDIX ON REPORTID ORE DEPOSITS OF THE �ICHITA MOUNTAI'1S b,y H. Foster Bain ITnited States �eolo�ical SurveV ChA_rles n. �"l�.lcott, Director 1904 ((Rib. ref .: Pur. oi th.e �7. S., �+��V 1953: *31. Prelimi.n�ry report on the t�eolv�v o_f' the Arbuc?-]e and '°Tichita mountains, in Indian. Territorlr q.n�. Oklahom�,, by J. .A.. Taff, with an appendix on renor-t:ecl ored�enosits of the TM�Iichi.ta l��ountains, bv H. F. Bai�. 1904. 97 np., 8 pls.)) 'f i �._,.a...,+�_---.�. _ ._ ___...---- --"---_ .. __ .. , ._ . . �... .. _.:�.�__- - - -._—�-- - --'—.'_�.._.._.___.�.._.�---'--. _._'.---- ---- --_.___. __') - - - - _ __. ..--�-- -' �-----__.—___. .,,__ _.._ _..--'-'. .�: -1- US GS P . 31 PRELID��I��RY REPORT OPd THE GEOLOGY OF THE ARBUCKLE AND 'NICHITA AdOUNTAINS IN INDIAN TERRITORY AIrD OKL.9HO�A bY Joseph A. Taff TTnited States Geolo�ical Surrev Charles P. ?��leott, nirector PROI�'FSSIONAL PA.PE�i 31 lgn4 ((abstra�t notes �znd }�rof. paper 1/- Prof. paner f'ootnotes oap�e references)) �.......� - brackets ............................................................................ ((Pa�es 1-10: Title pa�e, contents, �nd lisfi of illus+r�tions)1 GLULOGY GF THE �RBUCKLE PfiOUTvTAIi�S ((17 _,�� � I. INTRODUCTURY RLi7`APxS((11-131� 1. The Arbuc'�le A�oizntains consi.st of a. modera�elv elev�te� +�ble-land c�r pl�teau in the east-cen+ral part of the.Chickasaw rTatior, I'ndi.an Territr�rv. a. The piateau ranp�es in eleva+l.on from 1,30� feet abo�e sea, in its contra�ted we�+ern part� to %5C1 f'P,P,f� at the east encl, t��her? it coalesces with the b�rderin� olain. ?_. Geoloaical]v the 9rbuckle Moi�ntain re�ion consists of a�reat thiekness of rocks, composed chieflv of lime�tones, which ranve in a�e from middle (;ambrian to Tlevonian, an� t��hic•h are succeec�ed on the bor�ers b�r an almost e�ixal thickness of ('arbonifernias conr�lomerates, shsle�, and sandst-ones. 3. In the cer_fral pArt of the di�+.ri �+, unc�nf'ormai�l.v beneath thP �a•nbrian strata, there is a mass of �*ranite, �r3ni+P_poroh�rr�r, c�iahase, and associa.ted cr�rstall�ne ro�ks. 4. The u�liftinp^ and foldinm of the remin+� occurred brevirnas +o the d.dpc�sition of +,he Permian "RP� Rec�s, v�rhi�h tvere deposited. across �+ on the �ves+. 5. ?'he rPar�na� of +.he Arbu�kle unlirt is apnroximAtely 1�T. 70° ?"l. 6. Sixtv miles to the northwest �re thP i.�iichita 1!FotantQins, in southea�tern �klahomq, urhich �.re nh?Tsi.or�ranhicallv in. m�rked contrast to the Arbuekle Plateau, beine composPd of' � ra.ne^e of rur��ed mountair_s �n�? stra��lin� neaks an�. h�l]s, set jn a practicall�r lerel nlain. a. The '�iichit� t�plifi't bears in approxima+ely the same cl�re�tion as the Arbiac�-les, �T, 7po V�T. b. It cons-i sts of a central mass of ir�neous ro�ks Urhich is �artia.11,y stat-t-c�vnde�, unconformably, rv a thick section of �ambr�an and �rdo�ri�ian s�n�stone an� limestone. c. The Str�tj.�rrElp�I is in all essential respects a renetition o�' that of tre Arbuekle u�lift, as far �s colalcl be determined �'rom the rock exr�ost�res. d.'�'he �u+li.ne me.p (fi�. 1, n. 12 ((abst n. lAi 1) shov,rs the geo�ranhic relations of the Arbuckle and '°'ichita. mountains. 8. �ecatise of' the c1o5e strati�r�.phic, litholo�ic, and s+ructural rela+iors of the two recions discitssions o�' their �eolorr,y mav with propriet,y be brou�*ht to�ether in a sin�►le renort.((11)) 7. The name Arruckle I�otmtai.ns, a,s ased in th�s rep�rt, includes t.he elevated conn+r�� -invol.vec� in the Arbuckle Z!�otantq�n uplift.((12)1 �. The name as it is izsed lo�rallzr is a�n�ied to the hie�her western nart of the unlift, �hiefl,T avest. o?' is�a�x'fi�shi.ta n;.�er. 9. F�al7 exoosures of a.11 the o1dAr Paleozoic strate, v�rhich �re found in the m�re elevatec? western part ocnTar also in +he eastern nart s�zrrol�ndin� a core of ie,neovs ro�k. 10. Pe�ori an ?�?lfi �gr110T11f'P,rOt1S roc�ks are involved 1.n t,he vnli �'t, but li e ch� efl,y 5.n a lo�°rer nlain bord_erin� the moi�nt�inoi�s c3is+ric+.,. 11. Qcross the north�estern part of' the Arhvckle A�o»n+,�ins arP l�zte Carbonife_roias an�1 PPrmir�n st.r�t�., �.vhi�.h are sec�ar�+.ed from the o�der rc�eks b�r a�re�t unconf ormi.tv. 1.2. Cre+nCP.Ot�S strata also lap across the southeastern ancl southwes+e?-n sides of the unlift _ 2_ 13. A b'ri-�f discussion of +he �arbonif�r�t�s an�l �retace�,�s �eolo�jr i s also incltar]ed in this report. 14. The t�eolo!*y �f the Atok� ancl Tishomina�o quadranmles h�s been s+ild-i ed in detail, �,n� thP result� have been pu?�lishecl in f'olios 79 and 98 of the GP.O� 02'1C At] AS of t�e tTn i ted States .((121) a. These c�uAdran�lPs exten.r? from lon�:i.tude 96° i'o 97� and from lat�tudee 34° �0 34° 30', anc� include the eas+>ern and central parts of the Arl�uckle re�ion.((12-131) 15. The remainin� portions of the remion, �rclude:i�-in the southern h�lf of the Stonewall anci the northern three�-folarths oi the 4rdmore qua�3ran�*les, h��re been sur�e�red in special reconnaissances.((13)) 16. In this wo.rk the format-ion boun�aries were f''94E32'SP,(j C.11fj m�pped, end the rocks have heen 9tudied in the li�*ht of the classification already establisher? in the surzrev of the ac�,jo�.nin� Tishomin�o and Atoka qiaad.ranples. ]7. nr. G. H. �i.rtv and. R�r. F. 0. TTlri.ch collected and studi.ed fossils in coox�erati.on ��*ith the s+,r�.tiFranhie �vork. ?"di.t�oi�t their _assistance accurate mapp�n� could. no+ h�ne bePn ��complished in mizcr nf the area. 18. La�^ae collections of fossils tvere mac�e from all the limestone formA.ti.ons above +he Camrrian. 19. Less abundan.+, f�t�n.as occiar in the ba�al Caml�r�an san�stone, in the Svl�an shale of the �i.lurian, in the ne�on�.an chert, an� in the Carboniierolas rocks, vet the fossils are amnle for rock �lassif���t�on. 20. mhe �las�i.ficoti_on of the nre-�arbon.if erovs Paleo�.ic rocks snd faun�s �a�s mt��'e bv AAr. Plrich. 2,1. Pr. �. R. Richar�?son ancl �r. �eor�e I. .A�?ams a_s�i.sted in. +he survev of that part o� the 4rhuc�rle uplift �rhi�h ;s in.cluc�ec� in the Atn1_ra qu�dran�le. 22. A l�.r�e nart �f th� survev of the Ti.shominr�o quaclran�le is the work of �Rr. Svdnev H. Aall. . II. PHYSIOGRAF'HY br TFi� ARBUCKL� 1�OUIvTTAINS ((13-17i ) A. G�PT]��RAL TUPOGRAPHIC FEATURES ( (13-14-) ) 1. ?�hen considered in a br�ad sense the Arhu�kle MoTar.+ain di.strict is coextens�.Tre with. the area in rovvhich rocks o7.cier than the net*onian are f �und . a. So considered it forms a rudel,y t.rian�tzl�.r area approxima.telv 30 miles izpon each si.cle, w�i�ih �n a.rm extendina� t�restward from the so��thwest corner. b. It is lonaesi- ffom nnrthwest to so�athw�st, which is the aenera.l d�rection of the uplift c. The botmdaries of the .re�ion mark only in part the limits of' the �an ]. if't. 2. Sinc� the remion was uplifted late rarboniferoias and Cretaceo�ls roelrs have been denosited across it a.ri� nrn�r c�nceal the olc�er roc�s bv tanconformahle overlan totivard the northt�es+_ and southeast. a. The C;retaceolas s+r�ta itnon the southeaet dip te�Tard thP southeast, b. 9nd the ��rboni.ferolas on the opn�si�e sic!e d�t� t��r.�r�rc' the nor�hwest. c. As eros�.on ?�ro�*re�ses these o�erl�pp�ne �enosits u�hi.�h once coRered the re�ion rece�?e, �*��ina_ r� continuA]lv hroader section across the uAlift. 3. Pre�riotas to the denosit�on o�' thP !'rg{;q�.80VS the older rocks in the re�ion oi the upli_ft were warn dovm riP,�rlv to a f7.at plain. a. Si�ce tre Cretaceotas strata ha�e been remo�-ed this pl�in has been nreserved as a lo?�r Al�te�u in the harder rocUs o�' the cen�ral. n�rt of the uplift, while the softer stra+a unon +he sic�es h9?re been eror�ed to lower levels.((1S)) 4. Thus the ePntral ��art of the unlift whinh �_s here +ermed the Arbuc�-le 1!?ountain district remains �.s a lol�v sovtheastwardlv incline�? plar_e, ar�th dist�nct escarpments f acin�* northeast ancl southwest.((13-14)) S. The western nart of th.e .Arbuc�rle ��ov.nt��ns reaches an elevation of about 1,:�F� feet �.nd � s 40� feet 9,�04P, the nl a?ns on each side ((14)1 a. The �ra�e o�' the Arbuckle Plateau toward the s�uth.east is ere�ter than that of the b�r�?erin� nlain. - 3- US GS P. 31 b. As �, result the two plains intersP�+., alona the Gretace�us contact on the southeas+ side 6. �n the northt�restern side +.�,e thicU c�eposits of Carbonifernus con�*lomerate�:�.nd "Re� Reds" sed-i_mPnts continue awav to +re northwest, ' mak�.n�* the brnacl ple�in \�Thi�h passes +,Q anr� arounr� the 1^Tichi?-a R�o�zntains. a..The descent from the Arbucir�.P �.t011T1_f;�31115 �restt�ard to this plain is incosi�er��le 7. Tovrard the southeast the Cretaceo�as pla�n extenc�s with sli�ht chr�n�:e ofl �rade from the Ari�iackle di.stri.c+, tov�r�rd the !'ulf ec�ast. ?. ThP �inor toAor�ra�hic �e���issof the Arbuckle ?�ount?ins are due chiefly to t�e t�ar?=inrr resis+ance of +,he f�rm�tions, ,�rhi.ch hQs resulte�l in diff- erential erosion sin�e the removal of' tt±e �'retaceot�s rocks. 9. Ror�3eri.n� the mountains upon the southwest si�le are five forr_iations exten�inr� f-om the Ordovic�an to the l�asal. formation of the Carb�nif'erat�s, which are composeci of hard limestones enc� soft. shales s+ePpl.v unturned ar_c? dippin�; toward +,he southwest. a. The Svcamnre, Runton, an�l �Ti�l�z l�mes+�nes, the f�rs+, +hird, and iifth for�at�ons, respe�+ivelv, from abo�re, are hard rocks makin� level-toppe� narrow ri�laes with +heir crests nearly in the level of' the Art�izckle ��ount��n nlain. b. iietween these limes.+,one ri.d�*es� the s�fter 1.'Voodford chert of the De�roni�n an�l th.e Svlvan shal.es of the Sill�rian outcron in wonded 4£311PV8. l�. On the r_ortheastern sic�e of the �listric+.. �re similar ri.dp�es ma�e b,y the same forrnations, except�n� the S��camore limestone 17. Retween �hese belts of alternatin� rid�es and valle,ys and tcr�+rard the axial pe.rt of the unli.it the broad plateau proper of the Arbuckle ItRountains is chieflv �n the trun.c�tec� ec��es �f the Ce�mbr�-Ordovician limestone and the reduced nre-Camhri.an �r�nite and. porph,yry. 12. In t?�e more ele��ated nar+ of t-he unlift the small streams, because- of their steep �;ra�es, ha�*e etchecl the border of the plateau into a frill of dPep, short �n3�e�e�. a. This borc��-=r er�sion is esneciallv m�.rlred neAr the anr�e o£ �ashit�. Ri.ver �vhere it crosses tre Arbuckle �oiantains. b. V'dashita �i�Ter w�s, with�ut �ouht� 1.???l�nSPf� upor_ -(-he ro�ks �f' t•he Arbuckle TRo1�n+.,ains asxa�c�a��x��xicia�xm�az�Rxam�na�x�a�a��x�cxn��xisi¢a€v�s�$a$�x(ino omission)) from a former nosition in s+.rata vuh�c.h are nrnv rem��red. B. HISTORY OF THE PHYSI�GRAPI�IC FEATURES((14-171) 1. In +he Arhu�1T1P rdotant�a.�ns +h� rocks from t-.he micidle r�m�ri�n, the loznre�t ?rnnt�m in the, reaion, lap t� micl�3le �'s.rb�n3.ferous, wh3_ch F!�'iP, f�rmed nrevious to and a,rP invol�ed in the unli�'f, are well exnosed.((14�) 2. The �*eneral phvsiot�ra�hic histnry is learned from the extensi�e Coal r�easures cor.�lomPrate in the north�n+est an� s�uthwest sic�es of th.P re�i.on, the later "Ped. Re�s" conalomerate across the wrst er_d, and +he �'re+�_cP�us sedame.nts arr�s� the southeastern si�e ��' +re t�blift. ((14-1�) i �. �n.l�� a rrief �iscussion of this his+or�T can be �i.�-en in 1-his paper. ((15�1 4. From (`�m�r�_an ti•ne lzp to mi�dle �art�on3ferotzs the str�tip�r�hic sucePssian is rePularlv conformable, ahow5nr� that the ro�k beds ram�.i.ned practicallv ?lat dtar�n� sizc�cessi4� neriods. a. There were probarly o�ci.11a.tia�� ��;hich brou�ht the sediments to the starflace of the Pra+er at times, and �^a�*e occas�Qnr�for sli�ht erosion, which will he c�escribed in the discussi.on of the str�ti�raphv 5. Ab�vt the �niddle of +;hP �arboniferous periocl, ne�r the be�innina� of 7�Ri.ssiss- iz��ian ti^�e, the rc�eks of +.he Arbucicle I�:�o��ntain re�i.on were unliited and f.olded, a:nd moiz�t�.inolzs cordi.tions resialted. 6. nlari.np; and followin� the uplif+., and Y�efore the enca of f'�rboniferous time the moiintsins, so far as �an be obsPr?red, were �rorn c�ovm to moderate relief. a. nv.r�.n�' th�s time trick deposits of li�estore �or_r*lomerates, derived from the Sillarian, ('rdo�rician, an� ('ambrian rocks to`�rtarc? thP hPart of the uplift, were lai�l clov�rr_ -in the bor�erin�* f'erbonifProtas seas b. As erveior_ x�ro�*ressed, di�rin!* la+,e Carbonifer�us ti.me foldina and fsu.ltin� oceurrec�, as is shov�.m bv t-he infol�ina and fataltinc� of some of the e�rlier Carboniferoi�s conr�lomern+es wi.th ol.c�er Pal.eozoi� str�+�. c. �?emnan+s of this Carhoniferotas con�;lomer�+e o�ci�r in the present nrbuckle Platea in a numrer oi places and conce�l the v�rh�lP n�rthwesterr� eYtension of the uplift. � �, -4- 7. The nearly flat limestone aon�lomerate, �rits, and_ clays of the ba�al nortion of the "Red Beds" rest unconfor�ablv upott the Coal MPasures c�n�lomera+e an� acr�ss the ex_treme western en� ofl the Arbuc�le 1!'�ol�ntains. � £i. RPtweer_ �-re PPrmian an�' tre rr�taceo�as there is no rec�rd of sed- imen+�tion, anr� it is presumed tht�t lan�i c;onditions nrevailed. g_1; DEVELOPMENT OF' TH�; ARBUCKLE PLATEAU((15-161� 1. The hasal fo*-mafion of the lower (`retaceous li.es acroGs the soia+.heas+- ern sir�e of the A.rruckle uplift, on A. neRrly smooth floor, comnosed of �*r�nite and in+erstratifi.ed �vi+h +hi �k an� hard limest.one an�? thi.r�ner limes+c�ne, saridst�ne, an� sha1P forma+.ions. a. This forma�:�or_, �v�ich is sliahtiv i_n�lined towe.rd the so�atheast, is composeci of the �each and near-Ghore denosi.+s o�' the Cretaceoias sea, which trans�resse�l north�var� a.nd m�s+ likelv l�evond the re�ion of the Art»ackle ARountair�s. b. The nature of trese d.eposits of +,he Cre+aceo,as an� of the fla+ floor ux+on v��h�ch they rest si�r��ests stronr�lY that the lanc� ianon v�rh�ch the Cre+�ceo�?s sea advanced had been re�u�ed to a l�w peneplain. c. i�(h�teverethe conciit;on of the nrP-�retaceous la.r�d, it apne�rs that the Cretaceot�s de�radation reduced all +he rorks from the sof+ shales of the f;arl�onifer�lis to the massi.ve har� li.mestones of +'he Camrro- Or� ovician and the �ras�ite to a nearltr f1 �+ pla�a. d. The basal Cretaceovs formation �rras rapidlv eroded to�r�arc� the south, in the �l�rec+ion of the drainaae and of the din of the strata.((151) 2. After these sands were remosTecl from the roc,k f'loor of �rar��in� hardness on vRhich they haci been denosited, differen+i�l erosior. pro�lt�ced +,he, toz�o�*ranhic forms of +he Arbuckle ?�oun+�;ns and the rordPrin?� Aarallel hi l ls an� �ralle�Ts and etchec� nlateau. ( ilfi-16) i �g, mhe �le.in of the ArbUcirle Ii.Rountains when pro;jecte� southward oasses �er_e�th the Cretaceoias seda.ments, ann.roximatelv in the Cretaceovs floor.((16)1. 4. A.s the soft �"re��.aeous rocks above the Arbuckle Uplif't were remo�red the streams v�rhich flotirpd in them with�»t obs+ruetion toward the south �escen- ded and vvere imnosed upon th.e harci roc�s of +,he Cretaceous floor. a. Thus 1�Ri11 �nd pennin�ton cree�s and. R1iae anrl ?"Tashita Piners were i.mnosed ta�on thP Arbt�ck�le ?�otar_tains. b. A.s �."ill and Pennint�ton creeks and RlltP T'i�*er �re near the eastern end ��' the t�nlift frori U�rich fhe CretacPrn�s ��v�s last remo�red, and do not flow be«on�? +he liriits o? t�e Arhuc?-1e Pl�te�u, they h�ve wic�d, shallow vallev�, Pxt.�ncl-irr� s�U+h����r� 9.n Paleozoi.c an� Creta- ceot�s strata �rith verv sli�ht �ncrease i.n �rade. c. ��Tashi+s� RZQe.r, hou�ever, flo�rs i.n a lower nla.�r for lon�* distances - in +,hP soft r�c�ks beforP reach3nc* and a."ter i+,s nas���-e throumh tre Arbuckle A?ountains. �l. These soft ro�ks were �vorn down mare ra.nicllY th�n the har� limestones, a.nd the r�ver wr�s r��iiirecl t� k'P,PT/ �ace in cuttine� its cleen an�l narrow r�orae acr�ss the Arbuckle �?our�t��ns. B_2; PEPIEPLL�IN OF PROBABLE TERTIARY AGE( ( �.6-17)1 1. Tow»r� the northeast �nd sonthwes+ there is a descen+. af 1�� to 40� fe�t from the nla.teau in the Arbu�kle �ryountains to the �ener�l le�el of the pl�in formed u�on the softer Carbon�f?eroas roeks. ?. The erosion which. prm d,�ced this lower nla.i.n has unc�verec� and ohlit- erated a lar�e part of the riarine Cretace�i�s nlain northeas+ an.d south- v?e�f of the Arl�aekle distr�.et. 3. S�v+,he�stwr�.rd, iT� +,he �eneral �lirection of' i:he �rainap�e tow�rd the f7ulf of T��exi.co, this plain descencls approximatelv wi+h the �r��e of the rivPrs. � a. A1nn� +_,hese ri�rer vallevs there are elet�ate�l remn�nta �f o1�3 channels slir�ht7•r belo�r the le�*el of the nlain b. R'�'IP,1j cont�in deposits of f?'?"f1VP,1 an�l sand, simi.l�r to the ItIRfPrl�l transnorteci ?��r th� ri�er at the present time. 4. These denosits oc�ur tzpon the �orn s»rfaoAs of' C�rhoniferoils, Cretaceoi�s, an� early TP.1't7.f3T'�I rocks . _r_ IJSGS P. �1 5. nr.or_ anproa�hi.na the Terti ar�T b�rc�er �n s�u+,h��stern Ar1�ar.sas and eA.s+,Prn Texa.s thP,SP, �ra�*el denosi+s bP�c�me more an� more a�+ur_dant an� fi_nallv crnnP to �n end or descenc� beneatr la_test Tertiar,y c�enosits bor��nin� +;t,e Gtilf coa�+., 6. Farth�r to�rard the northeast +hesP ele�Ta+ec7 Ghallow and side ri�er ch��nPls l�r�n�: n�arl�r i.n the pene�l�in hs�r� b?en stu�?iecl �n�? manned, al_on� Canac?�an an� Ark�,nsas riv�rs, frnm the �ves+.Prn ?��rder o±' +he Creetr �I9't1.OT1 t� the ?.rl.ransas line i.n Snc�ian Territ�rv. 7. mri_� nenenlain stretches wesi�rrard �n�� l?�lahoma. an�' n�r+h�rrard across Indi.�n `T'e?'].tC�T'V. �. It has a lowPr inc].Snation t�vrard the solitheast than the mar9n� Cret�cenias nlain rovresented_ ir_ +,he Arhl�ekle Pla,ter�u. ((16i ) 9. "'orth�p.*ard the horizon of the latter nla�n nr�,jects abntire ��e lea��; v*hile the f�rr�er �ont�nlaes nearlv flat and. i.s now nreserve�? +hrott��oiat �onthern anc� cer_tr�l In�ian Territor,y in �lmost inmzmerable level-crested ri.de�es and. hills. ((16-17i1 a. Tl�esP r-idaes a.nc� hills are sup�or+ec� usu�llv bv be�s of har� rock, and +heir cre�+-s occt�r a+ eleva+.; nns ��nroximatt�hF �'�n �'Pa+., ((17)1 b. �utsi�le the moi�nta�r_oi�s reu�ions there are fev� h511s �;fhi�h rise abo�e th�s p_�ener�l 1.e�re1. c. The�e �re ustaallv tahle-li.'re and are nrntectec� bv �'] �+., anc� hard strata. 10. In +he east.ern nart of Ind�an ?'err�t�rv the Ouachitq T?�ountains rise above thi5 nlain, As clo �.ls� r,ert�in � sol�ted mountair.s in Ar?��nsas STa.11 e,y. a. Ir_ fihe �uach�+.,� �..���nta.ins t'��s nenPnlain is renres��nfi.ecl by t�ride, f'�i_at �a17 Pvs �,�hi �h ha�*s be�n nroducP� Un�n thP softer roc�ks. h. In Arkan.sas ''a])ev the mol�n+a�ns which risP ar�zTP thP nlain are li*nited are�s �rh���e thP rockC o�riar �r_ hr�a�3, sti�n�la.n?1 �'ol.c?s ��n+a-inin� +he harder and thicker sands+one s+,ra+.e. e. These motantn.ins rise �bove i-hP �l�in, as monac�n�c�1�_li?rP emin�nees r�nd peaks, to e'_t.evations of' 1,7n� to ?,50n fPe+ ab^4e the sea. 11. lhe Uri.de dz�+ribution of the stzrfi��.al �lenosits f�071nP,r,i-,P,�1 tvith �1�' riQPr �.hannPls, btit �1i�1�fl.,y �enresse� �el�w +he pPnPnlA.i.n, t-he;r rPl�.+ions to the rinre ahunr�an+, a�rarPl �e�os+i.s nPa.r the Terti�rs�, as alrea�?V descrirPd, and thP tui.de�preacl d�Prac�.ati.on or the hard an� soft r��ks to the sa.�ne rrener�l lerel supnort t?�e h,ynoi-hesis +h�t the siarfa�e n��a.rlv re�ched sea les�el a.t the time of i+„s redi�ct� on to the pene�lain sta�^e. � �_�; RECEI`�T PENEPI:AI�jATIOI�T IPT THL BROAD VALI:�YS((17)1 1. It woul� an�ear that si.n�e the forma+ion of th�� nrnbable Tertiary neneplain the land has bP�n ti.lted sli�htiv t�t^��.*�' the s�tatheast. 2. In supnort of this it is orser�ed t�a+ tre lare�er streams hr�ve descenr?ec3 in softer stratQ, +,o der,ths approxim�tin� ?�� feet l�elo� +he a�nPra.l lenel of the TP,?'ti.arY nenenla-i.n, cutt-in�; for +�Pmselves wid� an�l f]:a+, valle�rs. 3. These �*i�?e val.levs ma�r be consid�red to form rudelv a lo�rer neneAl�in renrdsent.i.n� the presPn+, sta�e of erosion. 4� ?'he smaller str�e.ms tri�u+arv to the lar�'e creeks and rivers have steeper �r�.das, eSAP�1£i) � V t.o?^sar� thei r snurces, and occun•r �ari.oi7s le�els bet:�veen the two nenenla�ns. III. STt��ATIGRAPHY UF T�-iL ARBU'CKLE r�iOIIP�TAINS((l�_37)) A. IG2?LOITS ROCRS (PRE_CAI�!!BRIAN) ( (17-?,1) ) 1. I�ne�ns r�eks are exnosec3_ in +rtee L!.?'P.,s1.S in+he Ar�+excUle tanlift. 2.. �'he � ar�es+ o�' thesP in �he eas+ern D�r�1C?ri -is comnos�d, f�T +.he m�st nart, of �rsnite, �f a Gr.mall am�i�nt of ro�.]�s related to �*ran-itP, and of int;rtzs�ve dilre rocks, ch9.Pflv di�rasP. 3. The oi-her t�vn areA.s, v:*hi_cr. are situ�+e� nPa.r earh o+h?r in the vrestPrn part of the mountairs, are compos�d of �ranite-pornhvr�� And anorhtT�l.3.te, contain- in� also basic di?res. 4. T!�e ¢ranite occurs in the Px+reme s�iat-he�s+Prn s-i�e �n� �.s narti�lly concealed bv the lovrer Cre+qePc,t�s secli.men+-.s �uhich lie a�ross th� s nori-.ion of +he Ar'�tar��le re�*�.on. ( (1711 5. It occurG i.n a rudelzr t1-��np't�lftrr �rP9 aboiat 2,� mi)e= in ZPriath and 1� miles ?r_ �r-i.dth at its broa.�Pst n�rt, near +he WP,S'FP,i"Yl end .((17-1F?) ) F. Tt is overl�in across the TNP.SfP.�"Yl !?Y!'� an�? at a fevr no;n+s unon the nnrthern side bv znidrile ramrri.�n, the ol�lest s+rp.ti.fied ro�vs of +he rP�ion.(il8)) -6- 7. Thr�u�roizt the northern side, vrith two excentions, the �ran.ite comes in contact wi,+.h t•he sedim��ntarV rocks alor_m linAs of f�ul+,in.�. �i. The two norphvey areas occur in the Arbu�l-1P T��ovn+ains nroper, r_?Q.r the wes+ern part of the unlift. a. I,iUe �he a�ranite, t-he �orphj,rr,V upon the ti�restern and snuthweste,rll si.des is orerlain b� +he middle �aml�r�an sediments, and un�n +he easi:ern and northPastern si.des it comes �n �onta�t ?n�ith the sedimentary rocUs alonr� the 19_n�s �f fat�ltin�. 9. In mic�d.le ��brian time the �rani.tes, nornhvriv�s,an� nther associ.a+ed or inc�l�de� i�ne�i?s r�cl�s were ero�ecl anc�. +he�1' ma+eria.ls denosited As the oldest Caml,r�an sediments, which here rest on i-.hem. 10. '►'heir approximate a�e, ho�e�rer, can no+ be �e+�rmined furtre* th�n is i.ndi�ated bv the trei.r �osition renea+r rmi.dc�] e Cambri an rocks. A-l: GRANITE AP1D ASSOCIATED IGA1EOiJS ROCKS((lg_��11 1. The r�ran�te i.s a rec�dish or p�_?�kish ro�k mo�?eratel�* coarse in te�ture 2. Associ.a+e�l �rith i+ erP numer�us � ikes of �ra�r +o dari�_rlue or h] �ek bas�c roc,k, res9.des +he less rnxmerolas r�ik�s of pale-pi.nk +.o �n�?�ite anlite, and rarelv di.kes of a�rani+e-pornh�Tr�r, 3. ?�}1P.SP, dikes of baGic ror.,k penetrate the �rnni+e in man�� e�i.rect;ons, thola�*h the lara�est nt�mber hasTe �t �@f3T"irP �P.71@�"AJ�V toward 1-he r�rth- �rAst ar_d sovthe�st 4. The surfa�e of +he �ranite is nearl�� fl�t and. is in lare�e 7!tP.nS1a2'P, roncealed bZT materi�.ls resia? .+,in� from �ts o�vn dis�ntea�ration. �nd h,y r residl�al sands from the Trini_tv iorma+ion, so thnf it is not possi.ble � to loc�a.t;e or trace mamr of the dikes hevond the immedia.+e ve.�;ie��rof the streams where the rocks ha�re their best exnosures 5. In the eastern part of the area the basic dikes are few in nizmber, thrn��h the �ranite is ustaallv so concealed b�r surfi�ie.l deposits that s�ti.sfactorv observ�.t3ons colald not. he ma�e 6. Toward t�e west these dikes increase i.n ntamber, t�nti.l in the nicinity oi Tishom-i_np�o thev are of such �'reqvent occnrren.ce and have inereased in size so �reativ �s +o forr� a c�nsiderarle part of th.e iarentis mass. a. In this nart of the area the�* ran�*e fr�r_±. thin strin.�ers to di?res 4Q f'eet in thiokness. 7. �iaartz-monzonite hs�.s h�en foi�ncl tn o�ctxr i.n �ssoc�_ation wi+,h an� appqrgn{;1Zr qq pF1fiSP,S Of 't�'!e �ra.n�te. �. �fi som.e pl��es it h�.s a we�l-defined boun�ar�r, wr.il.e at others it se�ms to ara,�e infio the �ran�.i-e Ei. TTsu�llv the exposures of the r�rr�n.ite ere such tha+ ita true rel�ti�n to the aulite lvas not aeeur�+.elv de+,ermir_ed. �. Ir_ certain fresh exnosures the �,pli+e occurs as d�kes or str�n�ers penPtr�+in� +he �raMite b. �'he« are usuall.v but a few feet. thick, anc� were nc�t found in aasoc- ietion wi.th the basic dikes 9. The p�r�ite-porph,yrv ras fotand ir. hut t;+�vo pldces.((18)) e. It occiars in �r�n�.ite in distir.ctiv defiMed i�ani�s, ?.0 feet �ride, trendina tow�rd each otrer.i(18-19)1 b. 7t i.s probable that thev belonr� to the same dike((191) n�xx��x��x�xa��ai��axisb�a�x��asxx��s�mA�xis�€xisi�axaam�aaxakaicax . e. The �ranite-porphyrv is cut bv a. basic c�i.ke which passes also into the ordinarv pin.k �rt�nite 10. The e�ranitec �nci t�ssociated i�neous rocks i.n thA Arrucl�le re�ion have �CCF7 stud.3.ed by Mr. Ern�st Nowe, of the T�nited States Geolc�rrical Survev, and the petrop�rat�hic descriptions of the i�neous rocks �r� froTa ARr. Nowe's report. A-]-�: GRANITE((191� 1.. Th.e tvuical p�r�nite is 3_n �e�eral a t�iotite-p�ranite, rich in �icrocline ax�� poor in ferromr��Mesian sili�ates. 2. Assoei�tec� with the �!ranite are ne£*m�tite veins, �v?�ich contai.n the sarme minerals as the �ra�ites, but ?.n eo�r�er a.a�rea�ztes. �. The fe]clsnars are nrincipall�r or+hocl�se or microcline, with. p1�.�3_oel�se, albite, �nd oli�*oclase almost alwavs associ.�ted. 4. Titani.te, �vhich ocriars �n ex.tremel�� DP,rfr�t crvstal s, i s, vnder +he micro� scooe, a noteworthv con�t�i.tuent. �. �nrnet, also, occurs ifi sorne sneci.mens as ar► imoort�nt accessorv mineral. -7- ��GS P. 31 A-1-b: QUARTZ_MONZONITE((191) l. �u�rt� monzon�.+es are a�soci�t?� �ith the �rAnite �n� oc�tar �n�arentiv as phnses of it. ?,. As far as ohsPrva�ions coi�l� be m��e, monzonites occtar in sma11 Rreas 3. In most places where this rock evas nni-ec� the expo�t?r�s are p�or ar_c� the relatior_s of the rocks coul� n�t be sQti.s#'ac+orily determined. 4. In all the snecimen� examine�l petroa'r�p1?i ot�] lv� nlar�ioalase, ran�i.nc� i'�rtoa+omposi�io tion f rom oliPoc].ase to labra�o?'ite� is almost. a� nrominent as orthoclase or m�crocli_ne; r�u�zrtz, usua,ll�� in the form of neUm�.+itic intergrc�a�th�, with ortho�lase, is Qlw��rs nresen+, r�zt. nener in abUn��nce. S. '�dith these minerals bioti+e occ��rs almos+ in�rariablv; in all but two o�' the sp�cimPns hornrlenc�e i.s abun��rt 6. One of the rocks contain.s hornbler_d� eaual in a.mot�nt to +he p1A[r10C�.9SP, an�i alkali felclspar, ancl is remar�ahle in i.ts verv eonsiderable development of �uartz. It is a mid�le tt�ne between �ranite and diorite. 7. From this inter*nediat,e tvpe thc +enc�encv seems ir_ the mai�rity of cases to lean to�a.rd the si�e �f the ffranites. P. One of the specimens is Et riP.�?"ZV i�l�Y'e ��Af'1'�P,� COl?S1.St'C77?P lareelv of olaei.o- clase, feldsbar, arcl hornblende, with a�rery little alkali felc�sAer and quartz. 9. Trese ro�vs indi.c�+e a verY 3�+t erestir� series, wor�t�r of mo.re extencled stud,y. A-1-c: APLITB((19�) • 1. .�nlite occurs also in asGocia+ion with the .v_ranite in � m�,nnPr similar to tr�+ �f the diahase ?,. In olaces the exposnres are surh tha+ +he +rue relations betwPen th� aplite ar_c] the a�ranite c�uld not ?�e dei-ermined. �. �'�lher� eross.on hacl remored the di sin+c�gr�+Pc1 rock t-he ��li_+e ttpneArs as v�rel ]- definec� cli��s. 4. Specimens PXUIRI.TIP.C1 petr��ranhicnll�� a.re n�1P n3n� or r_Aarl�r vrh�+e in color, c�ntqinine no ferroma�nesiru� s�lica+es, �nd comnose� almos+ entirely of fel�tspar� ancl quartz, with ver�r li++l� ma?�ne+1+e or hemRt�+e. F� The textlare of the anlites i � ere?� �??� f ittel�* pranU] ar 6. (�rthool.ase, microcl�ne, ancl p1El�'!OrJfiSP. are nresent in al1 �nd are sli�htly �reater than nuartz in �*notant-. A-1-d� �RANITE_POKPHYRY((19-?Ol� 1. Grani_te-porphvrv oc�urs in wel]-�lefi.r�d bands, apparertiv r�s dikes in the conm+on �ranite( il9i ) 2,. The onl�r exposure of' t�i s porphvrv noted is in a sieall tributr�rv of Rock �reek in t�ie evestern ai�e of sec. 1, T. 4 S., R. 5 F.((19-2,r1)1 3. The e�rt�nite-porphvrvs are fine textured nnd brick red. (( 7.(111 4. The phenocrvsts, distribtat�d i.n e der_se r�roundmass, �re irre�vlar in size ancl consist of orth�clase, qt�artz, rsnd some cie,rl� silic�tes, nrobabl�� hornblende, which i.s nou* comnlPtelv altered +,� chlnrite and the��hv�rovs oxides of iron. 5. 'Phe feld.snars and i�rhat remains of the ferrome�e�nesian silicates are in lere;e imt�erf�et crVstnls, �*�i1e the qvar+z is in �erv much smal��r, rounded and dihex�r*onal grains. 6. The �r�vndmass is nartiv �l f'?T!P,ZV t�rr�nu�a.r a��reQa+e of �uartz and felds�ar �ncl part]V a micrope,cmatitic 3.ntPrProwth of these two mi.ner�ls. 7. r�a�*nctite 9s an a�un�ant accrss�rv. A-�-e: DIAAAS� DIKES((20;1 1. �i.kes of cli�ra�e are common +.hrnuahou+, the e�rr�nite, but. increase in e.bun�anee from east to west ?.. T�Te�r +he wPs+-err_ edd of , thP �*ra*�i+e, in the mass north�v�st of Tisho*nin�o, they �re so m�nerot�s a� to form in nl�ces a network of sheets and strin�ers. 3, These d�ke ro�ks heve con�i�erahle nariafion. in +exture, btat a.re all. to be consi.dered as �i.abase. a. They �ary f'rom dense, finelv porphvri+ic conta�t f aoieg to c�arse rocks which mi.�ht a1�o5t be considered �^ahbro. 5. Their comnosation is very unifnrm. 6. qu�ite, labr��ori_te, and ma�netite are alw�vs present; hiotite rarelv occurs; anci in onlv one instance was ol i�*ine foianc�, or, T1!nT'B enrrectiv, nseudomornhs of serpentine after oli�ine. 7. These diare,se dikc�s usuallv �reather more rapic�ly th�n the �ranite, and as a re�ult fresh specim.ens in manv cases can not be obtainac?. £�. The seoondarn minerals--c.hlor9te, kaolin, cal.cite, musc��i+e, anc� epic�ote-- �?'P, trP,rV e�bun�?ant. � -�- 4. Ir� the dense rocks, evidentiv nPar the contact�, the r�ro�xn�mass, a.lthou�h very fine �►r�i.ned, is sti11 dis+in�tiv ophitic. ]0. Delicate ske)eton crvstals of m�Pnetite �c�d ma.teriall,y to the felt-like �nn�+szranee 11. Phenocrvst� are selclom ne,rfect anc� ne�rer lr�r�e 12. The nla�ioclase laths auerape abovt one millimeter in lenAth 13. ThP cnarser snecimens, probab]y f rom the c3entra7 nortions of lar�e dikes, src�w e, tend.enev to �.ssume a�r�nular sl-ructia.re, which, hov+re�er, is never verfec?t; thPir strue+vre would sti.11 be des�ril-�ec1 a� nnhitie. g_?: PORPHYRY AND ASSOCI�iTED BASIC DIKFS((Zp_�l)) 1. Tre *�orphyrv of' the Arback].P 7V!ovntains ocevrs in +,wo ereas, kno�m as the E�st an� '*lest 'JVoodec� Ri.11s, v��hich rise sliahtiv aho�re the PenAral le?rel of the Arbuckle Moun+�i.n table-land. �� 7.. These, ie�neotas masses have th� same relations to the surroiar_�l�ne strati- fied rocks as th.e aran�te aY,o�e descri.hed. 3. The relations are oraphicall�� sh.o�rn on the �'eoloaic map (Pl. I). 4. These i�neotas rocks, of pre-CaM�r�.an a�►e, ron�� s+ of �rani+e-pornhyr�� an� anorhvolite o�' 4�r:i_ous shades of pink, recl, an�i hrown. 5. In so far aG �ovl�l be determin�� b�r a�Pneral sUr4eY the aporhvolite is intrusive throuah the er�n.ite-�ornhyrv.((20)� 6. In nlaces the aporhvoli.te, like the p;ranite-Ao�-i�h�*Y'v� is stror_�lV por�hvr�.tic and sh ows lare�e clearlv �efined nhenocrtrsts of pink ield- spar in a redc�ish and dr�rker fine-�►ro�ar.�1-m�ss.((2.0-21)) 7. Ir� o+her places it is even textured, �i.th�t,t- porphyritic char�cter, �nd shows a be�utifully banded strizcti�re. ((?.,l) ) 8. 7n thZn sectio�s a�flL�ida1, vesicular structlare is shown. 9. '['he base is �;enerallv devitrified, rut certain b�nei_s sho�v nerlitic structure. 1�. I.i.l�e the �ranite in the eastern part of the uplift, the ivneous masG i.s nenPtra+ed by n�amerous di_t�es of' cli�i�Ase, �nrhich �re themselves older than the middle Cambrian, since sediments of that aee rest Unconform- a�ltr unon them. 11. These clike� rocks garv somelvhat in character and in color, from verv dark blue to p�ra�r,bt�t in p�eneral are of' t,he snme nattare as t�ose oceuT�$r1� in the e�ranite area. B. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS((21_��)) 1. In nre-Ca�tnbri�.n tiMe �he re�;ion of the Arl�uckle uz�laft we�s suhmer�ed. a.nd the Rear�an sandstone, the lowest Cambrian sediment, was laid do�n.m vpon the eroded surfa�e of the �ranite anc� nornhvrv as r� beaeh �nr� off-sho.re denosit. 2. The �re-Cambre�in lanc?, composed of ,i.�neoi�s ,rc�eks, possesse�l soma relief at the time oi' the submereence, as is shown bv the uneven contac+ of the ip�neo,?s roe�s w.ith the Rear*an s�nds+one and also bv the v�.?'i.tabl? nature of the s�ndv deposits. 3. The lanc� in the immedinte tricinitv of t-he ux�lift w�s s�on submer�ed, howe:rer, as is sho;�•n ry the presPn�e �f foesi.liferous hori.z�ns representi.n� the same mid-Cambr��n ti^�e �n the up�P.r memher of the Rea��n sandstone wherever it is expose�l. p_1: CA�iBRIAN ROCKS((21-2,2)) 1. R�a�an s�ndstone a. Thi.s sandstone is a variable forMation,as re�arc�s both its thiekness �nd the �aature of its m�.terials b. In the eastern part of the unlift, in cor_tact with the g�ranite, it varies in thickness fr�m a few thin beds to appro�ima�ely 500 feet, with an a�*eraa�e thickness of about '00 feet. c. In its thickest nortian, at the western end. of the p�rani.te, the lov�rest beds are comAosed for the most part of co�rse arkose �ri+.. d. The fol].on�in.t� is a record of the thiclrest sect�.on of the Rr�p�an sand- stone as it occurs at the western end of the �ranite area, bep�in�fiing� at t�e base: Section af Rearr�n Sandstone Feet !�uartz3.te fmd arkose conp�lomea�.te, c�mnosec? of noorlv sorted arani+.ic mater5.e�ls .. .... ....................... ......... 30 r,oarse �r�+, and sand, urith some c1 a�I ��� �'reen s�,nd � in upper p�.rt, �enerally well stratified... ...................... 370 Thin-bedded and laminated sandstone,•hecomin� calcareous in fhe upper p�rt... ....................................... 60 -9- US('�S P. ;�l e. T�is sec+i�n is followe� �$r:�en�3�sllv thin-bedcled silic�e�us limes-t;one and shal� strata throu�h se�*eral hundreci feet to the fon of the mi�dle Cam>>ri an. f. mhe c�l�arern�s be�is at thP ton ar_d ab��c� the ReA.�an ��n+��n numerovs fossi.ls of laell-defined midclle Cs�mrr�.an ?orms. �, ThP ?�ea�;an sQndstone ove,-lti�inr► the �ort�h�rr,V in +he s�tathern sides of the East an�3 ��est laoode�l Hi.� ls has a se�t��r. si_mi] ar to +h�.+ ir c.onta�t with t�e �rani+e.((2111 h. The coarse materiels �*h� rh. ma?�e lenti] s of con�*lomez�#s1-P nA�r i-hP base, ho�vener, are here comAosecl of p�rnh�rrv and associ�ted dike ro��s((2,1-22)1 i. In the upper part of the forma+ion mrP�snish c1a�=s are nrot��blv more abundanfi, An� the �reen sqnc� c�zlt�nnes hi.�'hc�r t�n �in+� the more calca.reous be�3s.ii?,21i j. As in +.he occ�zrrence neqr the �rani.i-e, here 'tY18 Cfl�.C9rP,011S rocks c�ntain ' ni�nPr�us mi��?le r,�,mbrian fossils. R_2; CAh�fiRO_ORDOYICIAN ROCKS((22_23)) 1. +�r?�ixckle limestone a. The Ar'�uckle limestone, with the ex�ention of thin, shalv strata and occasione.l silice���s ar_c� c+her'tv bec�s, 5_s composad entir�slv of lip�ht- blue an� white limestone and cream-colored to TYhi+e cr,rGt-alline dolomi.te. b. The section ran�es in thiekne�s f.rom 4,�00 to 6,000 feet, and includes the whole �f the u��er Ca.mrrian an� the f'a.l c�.iferoi�s o+' the Ordovic� an c. From the base of the fonration urnxar� to the top of the middled Cambrian the ro�ks are �omposeci of thin-be�ded �n�?, in x�art, i.n+r�,fnrmational �onvlo-�Prate and shalv limestone. d. iRThile nursuir_� atratir�raphic field work in cornectior. w�fh the dtnd,v a.nd collection of the Possil�, IV�r. F. (1. TTlr�ch r_�tec� +�,e oc�clarrence of �ah�t ap�aeared to be s�alv len+ils a+ +he toA of +h� mi.�l�'le�?Cam�ri �n, incli.c�tin� to his min�1 an uncon£or�!it�T be�(:�Ieen the upner and lower ('einbr-i_�n. e. RPginnin� with the ut�per �'�mrr�.an the rocks are comnose� of massi�*e and h�rd, pink to yellow cr�rst�lline ]imestone and doloMi.+.e, which we�ther to var5ovs shadd� of brrn�n and a.lmost ble�k. f. Rocks of thi.s chara�ter ha�e a+hickness of 5�0 to 6�0 feet, and are follovred bv li�'hter-colored m��sive �olomi.i-e en�! limestone, t�i+h�nt any ind�ai-ion of ti.me intc�rval, ux� into the Or�o�ic�an a�. Ae�innina apr.r�xima.telv 4F0 feet belo�r� tre'ton of the Ar�lzckle formation the limestones l�ec�ome more �fhinl•r berld_e�l and are asso�iatecl with thi.n and, in �laces, shalv str�ta. h. tTe1"V near the top oc�as�onel s�nd�� be�s oc�ur. i. Tn the ma�s5ne be�is in +�P ce�+,ral �qrt o�' the �'orrna+,ion fossils are founc�, but nrt in vreat abiandance. j. T?Par the t;op, however, where the rocks recome t�.rv'�11t�t:P.ntas� fossils are more COP.1Zt1oA. � � ??� � k. �n accoun+ �f it� th��l�ness �nel its position a�[ the centr�l part of the unlift of the Arbuckle forma+ion, thov�h �v�aer��tiv steenlv unturn�c?, o�cvrs o�.rer brnad s.rea�, and forms a lar�e pa*-t of the tahle-lan� of' thP Arbuckle Movntains, i��a�i ((?�1) 1. It ex+.en�is �'P�m the southeastPrn enci of the Ar?�uckle ]�!ro��ntains, where it is overlAnned �na �.oncealecl �V rrP,'�f��8n�7g Sfl^fi?;Q� to 1-he northwestern end, where it �asses rene�t.h Pennsvlvanian an� "Red Reds" con�lomer�tes. R_3; ORDOVICIAN RUCRS(/23_?7 — 1. Simnson formation((2S-?S11 a. Af'ter the Arbuckle limestone was �CpAS1f':A!� there was a�ener�.l chana�e in the n�tlare of the sed iments b. The ton o�' the limestone seems to h�ve been sli.�htl�r ero�ed locally and �anon t1�e si�rface ��rerP deposite� beds of *��?re san�l. c. At other p]aaes the Arb�a�l�le limestone i.s overla.in t,v shalv and impure lime---the basal beds of t?�e Simnso� form�.tion. �. On these local s�ndv ber?s at +hg base +here we.re �ienosited ereenish shales and trin crvstalline and shellv limestor_es in+erst-rati?ied with � ntamber of be�s of srindstone, maki.n�; a total th3cyness ran�in� fro?n erout 1,200 to 2,000 feet e. F�llowinp� is a�Pneral secti.on o�' the Simnson forma+ior_ on +h.e sou+h side of the Arhlackle upli.ft we�t of Utashita Ri�er, the re�s beina� �iven from al�oT*P drnmward.i(2�)) __. ._ _ _.._ _ . , f' . P• h. �. l• k. -10- Section of 8i*npson Formation on so�ath si�e of Arbuckle TTplift, west of Wa.shita River((?..�)i (1) Th3.n li?�estone ��ri+h �reen shAles i.r_terstratified.. . .. . . . , . In the lower c�art the limest�ne is suhcrvstalline, res- emblin� reds lower in the foz-m�+i.on, while h��her it �F1P,CnTRQS fine �r�ined anci ar�^illa�eo»s, resem�,lina� that of +1�P stzeceedin� Viola form�t.i.on (2) S�ndstone.. .................. .......................... �53� I�imestonPG �n�l shal.es i.ntert�ed�led . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Some of thc� lime�tones are hiahl•r fossi.life,rous: �rthis tricenaria, 0. �ieflect.a, r�onti.���li.�c�roicl Rrvozoa, h3.ahlv ornamental c�!s+,i� plates, anc� spe�i.es of Ct�nocloata. Feet 400 90 4�0 S�n�ls+one...., ........................... ......... . 1�0-2n0 Shalv lime�+one...... .... ................... .. ........ 195 The lo�aer 50 feet hie�hly fossili.fer�us, cont-��nin� �stracod� with numeroia.s �rvo�,oa and bases of erinoi.d columns, maki��� a fauna suffiPciently �eculi�r to be e�Gil�r distin�Uished. S�n�lstane .... .............. ........... ... ......... . .. . .... Thin-bedded limes+one an�l shales interstr�tified.......... Conts�i•ts fossils in �reat abunc�Ance, chiefl�� Ostraco�a. of la.r.e,e ea2cl sm�ll snacies, r_!n�1 numerot�s c�astero�ods, nalec,y�oc�s, brachi�no�ls, and trilobites �reenish shalPs �aith few thin limestone layers............ Thi.n sendstone.((sic)) rran.ular crvstalline 19me�tone ir_ thin bec�s.............. Contains �n abundance of Ostr�.co�a(I�enerditi� chiefl,y) an�1 other fossils so rare as i-o B,ppP*1?' evantina Thin limFs+one and shales interstratifie� v�rith occ�sa.onal 33 295 ?4 5 350 thin sands+one ...........................,................ 29 (11) �Nhite i-o liprt-brown sandstone, occurrin� locally...... 0-700 The sandstone bed No. 4 in.the•SP,C'FlOn is more persistent in its character�sti.cs, i,nclu�lino +�ic�ness, than the others, an�3 ser�es as � convenient datum f�r feferen�e.(�?4�1 Tn +,he rorther port;.on of t.he re�ion, »n�l esnecia7lv on the northern si.c�e of the Ar�tae?rl_e l�oti?'ifains taes+ of' ?,�Iashi+a River, tre Si?!tnsc�n f�rmation is foi�nd to be mueh thinner than in the sou+hPrn. nortion.. 1) This ie due chieflt� to the abser_�e o�' +,he lowes+ beds, which h�ve an a��rer�ate thiclrness of sereral ht�n�re�1 feet 2) The u►�per diviston of the formation i s �'oian�� t-o become th3nner north�nt�rc�� owina to t;he d�crease in +he �n�nt3.tV of lime an�l cl�,y. 31 'Nit� the �ecre�se in. amoun+s of lime anc� �lav riorthvt'&rd +.hPrP ia a p�en�ral ].71CrP.f�SP, in the �1?c�ndance of send, the whole formqt5on becominr� more siliceous. On the no�'fi1'ter1� side of the rea�ion fhe Simvson forma+ion is exnosed much fart�pr east tran on the SOUt��P,?'il s�.�le, u�here i+ is fol�n� in its t.vnical thickness and consi.stencv. T?ear 1-,he east en�, in the �HZ�P,�rS ot' the Rlue Riner and. ne].Rvr�re CrPek, the strta�ture is so �ari.able tha+ a��tar�.+P estimates of thick- nes� cotald no+ b� m�de. 1) I� is anproximatelv 1,?,00 feet thick, and the sand is relat-ivelv more ahunrlant tha� �_n the northern part of +.he Arbuckle TRo�znt�,ins farther west • In �11 �l�ces roted the sand is fine e�r�ine�., an� in man�r n�seesis c,ompletelv S@t�i#Y's�.�;P,�i from cla�r ar_� lime se�limen.ts. ?'he Simpson �'ormation conta.i.ns a ver�r �bunr�r�nt f�iar_a. 1) L:arr�e collec+,i.or_s of fos�ils were ma�e by ARr. TTlrich, especia7.lV f'rom the c�isf.r;�t z�est of �'�ashi_ta R.iver 2) Onl�r a prelimin�r�r study of this faUna has reen ma�e, hut it is sttffi�ient for accvre.te cl assi f�i ca.+.,;.on a.n�3 �ener�l correlation. (( 24)1 -11- US GS P. 31 1. Re1o�r are lis+� of rea�ily reco�nize� florms, senaratad ac�ordina to the two divisi.ons �.f the formation.(�24�1 Fossils of lowPr Simnson Formfltion ((?411 ( i omittecl 1) Fossils of TTnner Si�+nson Formation ((?�11 �?"ost o�' these species known onl.v in f�e unnPr �00 feet. mhose occurrin� als� in the lcmrer nart of the subdirision are �lis- tin�^iaished hv en �sterisk./i(omitte�ii m. The fauna of the lowPr divis�on of the Simpson �'ormation is �eci�e�?l,v similar to that of the f:hr�zv of TTe� York anc� C,ana�a and of tre Poe�onip forma.tion of �reva� a. ( ( .?, Fi ) n. ConsidPrinp�, these eas-and-west conr_ections, it �.s sui-*aris�n� to note th�t the loUrer Simnson faun�, so f�r as known, cont�.i.ns none of +,�e nrolific f�una of +.,re lowPr c1�?ris�on(A�tarfreesboro lim.Pstone) of the Stones River r�roup in m.id�1P T�nnessee, vahi�h is bellevec� t� he ofl eqvi�alent aae. o. _As a whole, +he f�una ofl the unner n�rt of the Simnson is c,losel,y related to +he tapper divis5.on of the StonPs Ri4er �roiip in Tennessee �nd Fentuckv �nd the e�vi.v�lent bec?s 3.n the un�er nart o?' th� A'Iississipni ��71ev. 2. Vi�1e. limestone( ( 2,5-27)1 a. There is a�ra�val transi.tion ±'rom the i-.op of the Simnson form�.tion up into +hP basal oart of the �'iola form�tic�n h. The top l�vers o�' the �imn�on are ��su�.l?v r�rail7a�eota4, are thinner, darker, an� mnre evenlv Str�+if�e� than those �+ +.he hase or fhe �Tiol�, an�? in places c.�ntain partin�s an�i be�s �f cla.v. �. The rocks at +he contact on P_,At`I7 sirle, ho�ve�*er, 4a7'�T somewh�t in different narts of thP field. d. Th� �Tiola formation is �. con+i.mao�as l�ut sli�htly variable �lenosit of li�e- stor_e �0� t� 700 f'ePt thi�k, �rhi�h ust�all�T a�nears massine on �P,rV �'resh exnos�zres . ( i 251) e. iTnon r+reather�nt►, however, the be�ldinc� is nronounce�, showinn lazrers rarely more +han a fevt�'�n thickness.((?F-?,6i) f. In t�e mi�clle and lower pArts esneciRllv thPre are o��asional b�nds �nd no�tal�r masses of chert.((26)1 r�. The Vi�1a limestone is �-i.visit,le into three members, �istinr�ui.shed b�:� var3a- +,{�r.s in be��3-ing, in tex-t;vre, anc� 1-� a less extent in tre color of the lime- stone. 1) The unper ancl mid�le memhers are a�proximatel�r 300 feet thick 2} The lowest memher is somewhat thinner and more variable than the others 3) The lov�est member consists �f li�ht-eolored, eoarse textured, and usuallv roup�hly be�lc]ed limestone. It pr�hal,lv will not exceed 100 fe�t in th3.clrneGs anvwhere, r�n� in pla.ce;s is mU�h less. 4) The middl� msmrer consists of white to li�ht-bltae snc? r*enerally eve�a- and thin-bedded limestone a) On account of the ahizndar.cA �f fossil trilobites o�' the �enus Trima�leus in certai.n l�vPrs i+ rt±9_�ht l�e known a� the Trinuclet?s_ memher. — — — — — b) It is chr�r�.c+erizec� b�t whi+e SvrfRce �here weathered an�l even be�l�lin� 51 The hip�hest member resemt�les in. nart +.he ].owest ir essen+;Al phvsical. Cha?'�o+,el'as�'-� ^� a) In its lower n�rt the beds arP thirker, more e�rthv, and T�'lOT'A uneven than th�se of the miciclle nart b) In t-he mi�7�le part the be�s are +hin A,n� m�re ar�illaceovs. �) ThP Iimest�ne at t.he ton of +ris mem?�er resembles �*erv mvch the lovyest bec�s i.n character of be��ina. dl It i.s more cr�rstalline an� ustaallv 1.i�'hter i.n �olor, �e�_na� lia�ht a�ray an� oc�asior_allv pink. h. �n the Mrhole t-he uiola limestc+ne raries but. sliRhtl�� in thicknes� rin� �^eneral char�cteristics throi�vhout its oc�urrence in the Arbuckle ��otartain r�mion i. An in�restie�ati.on of the fosGi.ls bv T��r. TTlrich, who �ollected and studied the rocl� section, sh�ws .+.hra+ there are thrPe f aunal divisions, which correst�ond to the thrPe litholoffi� mPmbers abo<re described. -12- 1� The TM�ost fossiliferotas developTnent of the b�sal member t+v�s nnted. �t the ex+reme northern occiar.ren�e, in. the re��on a+ the base of Doez�le ]'�!ound, 6 mi.les northenst of '�off. 2) A preliminarv stuc3�� of the fo��ils collected shows the followin�- name� f'orms : ( ( 261) Fos�ils of lo�ver member of' �ii�.la limesf,one. ((26)� ((Otnittedl) 31 1�P.RrlV al1 of th_e above fossils occ,ur in the Phylloporina and Clit�mhonites beds of the Orc�ovician section in t�innesota((27)) 4) These bed� are correlated wi+h l�test Rlack �iver and earliest Trenton. 51 TV��anv oi the sper,ies o�etzpv these hori�.ons i.n TTew vork an� ranac��a and what are re��r�e�? as eqvizTalent nosi+.,ions in mi.d�le Tennessee an<j F�entuckv. 6) .4s a whole the mid.�lle mem�er or Trin.tzclens bed of the tTiola lime- stone is not arunc?antiv fossili.fernus. �) The or�Qni.c remai.rs occtar chzeflv in three hori.��ns, one ne�r the t?ase, ano+her abo�re +,he mi��le, an�l tl�e �-hi.r� near the +op. b� The first- an� second con+a;n an abun�an�e of p'�"�1��"011f".P,B �� ATPx+ to t�he Trintacleus the �rantoli�`es are tre most ch�racteri.sti.c and commonest fossils of' the mid�?le memb�r. Fossils of lhiddle meml�gr(Trintt�let�s bedsl of the �Tiola l imes+one. (727�1 ( ( omifted )1 d) mhese fos�i.ls indicate tha+ the mr5nucleus bec�s were den�s�.+ed dvrin� +,�P 1�ttPr hal�' of the Tren+,on ae�e. 71 The upner meml�er of the it�.ola liMe�t�ne is at��roximatelv 30� feet in t�ickness, but only in the uA�er 2,5 feet is it al�un�antly fossilif�eroias. a� The lobver 50 feet viel�ed no foss-i1s bi In the middlP portZ.on the f'oss�ls are n�t onlv rere, hut poorlY preserve�l c) The foss;ls in the �'ol7owin� dis+., occur onl�r in the zao�er 50 f e�t of t�e £orr�ation: Fossils of L1tJner Tiler!'!�P.�' of iT3.ola l�mestone( � 2711 l ( �imi+ted 11 d) ThPse are �1] s�ecies character��in� the upoer d5.��s�.nns of Richmo�d �.�e in �Rinnesota, �Ad? sconsi sn, Ill inois, In�ia�?a, an� Ohio. e) In Torthern A.rk�.nsas the same �'aia�+a. oc�urs in +-he Polk R�.vou limestone and in mi�dle Te.r_nessee in the �'ern�r�le fnr-�n�+ion fl This i s �ne of 1-r.e �nost wi.de�nrPa� �ori zons, and certqin7v t�e e�siest t� rec��ni?e, of +he �r�o�ici�n roc.Us.((?7)1 13-4: SILIIRIAN ROCKS ( ( ?.,F�-291) 1. Svlv�n sh�1R((?8-?.9)) a, The Gv]van shale ancl 1-he succeedin� 1�l�n+on lime�+ore are comn�r�ztively t�ain f'ormAtions, and re��.t�se of +hP;.r n�rrnw rnatcrop thPv �re ne�esserilv ma�ped tor�etrer b. "Thile th?se formations aresen+ �+rona c��ntrasts litholo�ica]ly thezr helonc� to +he, s�ame sys+em. c. ThP n�ar�u niare limest;one det�osi.ts laid do�m. �t tre close of �Tiola t�.me �vere succeec�ed bv dark-��lue to black �n� p�reen clav in e�pparentiv conformarle st�ccession. � d. The �'epos9+,ion of t�e e�reeni sh Syl�=ar. S}'1zt� P, c�ni-inned 1ryri+ho»+ inter- riaAti.on until it re��hed a thickn�ss of froTr! 60 to 3C10 ±'eet, when it �sas succeeded �.brvptl�� 'h.r trP Nianton limes+�ne. -1 �_ tTS GS P . �1 e. The S�rlvan sr�1e 1Tlc'?"eflSP,S aradual7v in t;Yll('kT1P,SS west�r�r� . f. At the eas+ en� of' +he unlift its thir,�,-ness i s est�m�t.ed ta be 6� feet, zrrhile west of 'fiashita River it is annroxim�telv �(?0 �'eet. e. Re?na� a soft c.lav shale and t�o�ancled r�bo�-e anc� helow bv h�rd, rid�e=makin�; lime�ton.e, .i_t invaria'�7�r mati-es smooth swales or vallet�s, w�ich ar� �rotected rv forests. h. 9s r� rPGtz]t fresh e�po�i�res o�' tre rocks, e�neciall�r �zi-, the �onta�+ wi+,h a�;joi.nir_� f ormat� ons, are rare. i. �nit� �ne P,RDOStl?'P, o�' the shale �� it5 base w�.s no+ed: 11 This is ai�rn�t ?, miles nor+hwes+ of' Uotae�rerty 2) At thi s nl a�e from t.hP base i3pw�r�l throur�h several feet �iRe rock i s a compact , c�ark-i�lue tn t�la�k ��l�areotzs ancl rit��minot�s shale, con�a�t�in� an artandance of �ran+olites s�nd she17 s �l F'lset�rhere in tre sha.l�s fo�s;ls �.re excPedin�l�T rare 4) This basal bi.t�ami.notas shale is h�.r�?er th�in tre si�c�ee�?ir_e� green9sh shale an�? is c]istinc+lv stratifie�l.. 5) Th� �reenish shale hir►her ;.-, +hP form�tior_ i� h�mn�enernas anc� mas�ive and S��r+rs usu�llzr r,�t sli�ht �ndic�i-ion of lamination, par+i�t�larl�r on weather i nt� j. A n.reliminarv s+uc?v of the fos�i_l s occ�arrir_� in t�e ��rk r�as�l srale shoWs t-�P fol]ov�r9n� form.s: Fossils of +re lo��*er pa*-+ or +ho Ssrl�an s�alP((2R1� i �omlt-+e�i11 k. The fauna of thP Sv7v�n shale as �'er as knnwn is �'P,Tler}�I�V remarkal�l�r simils�r +o that �? +he i?tica 1� Th.e snP�ific differences, ho�P�Pr, r�re stach as t� �3istin�taish th.em; 2,� Yet a stla�iv of +he fos�ils �c+n�*inces one tha� tre �'atma of the SVl�r�xl i.s a r�irect develonment from +.he much olcier fauna of +,he tTt;_ca shalP �n� noi- of thP �ntervenin� f�imas o+' the l'i.n�inna+,i a�r�ixb((?.811 :�1 Fr�m +h� s gt*1�P,T1�P, i+ woi�lc? se�m +l�a+ the posifi.or. of tl�e �srlr't�r� sh�.le in the t-ime sevle is prohl PmaticA.l( ( 28-?..91 i 41 The hi r�hPst. l��mm faun� ��' i-re �r�ovi�ian, t�at of 1-he Richmond cro�?p, O��larF at +,�e top of the �iola lime�tone, beneath the S�r].van shale, and the �lint�n o��iars imn+er�ir�tPlv �bo�e the Sv]�ran, in +he h�se of t-he Ti��nt�n 1 imes+ore. ( ( 2911 5� a���rct�ne� to thP nresPr_t classif-icat-ior_, trerefore, the Gvl�an s�ale srot�l� he corrPlate� vai+r tre ]u�ecl�.na, an� the line sen�ra+.in� the �rdoT�i�i.�n an� �ilt�r��n in +he arr»��-1e A`ot?r_i;�airs S�+�vlcl t�e nlaced bP+�^�P�•, 1-he �riol.a I1TT1P,ci-nnP, ar_� t-he S�rlvan s�alP. �_ ,; SILtTRO_DLVONIAN ROC�S ( ( �0_�11) 1. u»n+nn limestnne( (?.,�-:�1� i a.. T'ne areer �1a�r shales �f .+.he G�r1.�*�n �re sta�c,eec�e� arrvp+lv t�« rAr�i, w��i.+_e to l; r�ht-hlt�e limesi-c,ne of +1�e uUnton �'o,-•na+' on b. Trsi�alll� +hP ���+��+ ro�U �+ the ba�e of the uuriton is a m�ss;�re bed of oo7i+i� limestnne c, I o�.allv h�r�l 1'?ZL��S}'] I7.^`P,Sf��P, b��s ars �'rn�n� a+ the �a�P, t1r;,+� ra�e�v���ltrin 7r�v�r �f t�rP.Cc:is�+eci limes.+.onP nr limeet-ore ('CTSa1A^'P,rq+P, in �onta�t t�!ith Svlv�n �hale �, nt thP e��+�rn en� d�f t.he Arbiact�le lanl i�'+ +hP ti�ii.�kness n�' f�P uunton 1 imaci-one � s Ps+.imafPd +.� re arrn,t 16� feet. 8. It; ir_creasPs a�ra�vall�T westwarc� on 1-.hQ ^�r+rPrn si�le of i-h? 1zp15.�'t, l�n$il it rea�hes rearl�r 20n feet in the v��initv of Franits, 1vhe�'e it is concealed bv o�*Prlan o�' �o�l 1:�eA.gt�res con�*lomer.ates. f. �n the soi�+,he?-n sic�e of +he unlift, e�-st of ?+�asrita River, the formation tl ins out an� i.s arsent. for � distance of �bot�t 1(? miles. �. �rhere i.+, is ?bhinnest the beds are m�re or les� siliceoias -14- h. Fart�er �est, �e�•or_ci iNashi.te Ri�er, tY�� f�rmati.or �n�l'PLLSG'S i�n+,l it i.s neRr]y 300 feet thick on the sot�t-hern si_�e of the Arbuckle 1+.Ro»ntairs where it �t�s�Ps t+eneat� tre "R�cl B��s" con�lomerate, n�rth- �e�t of' �1^o�t;'�rd . !4. �n the northern side o�' the Ar�uckle Al�onnta�ns sovth af ',�iashi.ta River it is abo�at 170 feet th� �k. j. The Hlxnton f�rmati�n is CO2?�DOSP,� of rar�, t?�ick cr�rsta.l7ine lime�+ones, thin earth�T limestone, .anc� marl s k. I+ mav he sen�rated �n+.•o three fair]v c�� s+innt memrers a�.cordin�* to l.itrolo�ia ch�rr�cferistics, �nc� +,o a less P,X'YCYl'� accord5n� to �olor. ) � Fxcept i�rhere t�A f�rmat; on i s s*erv t-hin, as on t,he sot�+hern si.�e of the uplift east of '�Tas�itq Ri�*er, +he three mPml�ers can +�lwavs be �ictinmuished. 1. An a�era�e s�ction of the f'c�r!n�t-ion on. t.h.e sola+h side of the qrb�ackle rRountaina w?st o�' �^Tashita River is ��nr�ximatelv qs fo�low�:((2,�11 Se�ti.on of Nt�nton lime�tonei �?,9-?O1 � UPPER r1�Er+�BER � Feet Semicrvs+all?ne limestones, in Ala�es chert.�r, interstr�+;.fied �ri+� occas�onal. thin ^!ar]v la��ers.. .......... •....•...... 30 RRInDI,E 1V�,A�3ER l�arl�r limeGtones anr? calaareo�7s cl.avs, i�*ith some hard li*^estone � avers, more ablandan+ 3_n the lo�ver oart.. ... ......170-190 LOti'��R M�'A?BER Thick_1,edded c�rstalline limestone suecee�ed bv �ard thin limes+.one w�+h oc�a��onal mar1Y lavers. At the base o? th�5 limestone is an oolite, 4 to � feet th� ck, �rrh� ch ldcallv i.s si licified .... .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. .. . .. . .. .. ... 3�-4� m. The upper member contai.ns loca�lv, �+ the ton, he�� �f crvs+�lline an� Rerv chertv anc� fli ntzr limestone. ( l�n11 n. �hi1.P +l�e thi.ckness of {-he �'orma+�on becomes Wreater WCSi;!R/9r!�, trat of +he in�ivi�?ual members does not. in�rease i.n the same bronort9on, as the areatest �ari.ati.on ir thi�Uness of +�P forrnation. is dtae t� the mid�ile memrPr. o. ?"Ie�t of '+�ashit� �l�*P�" the un»er member has �+,h���ne�ss of 10 feet on t1�e t�orthern si!�e o� +he ArbU���le ?�ot�nt�i_ns �nd '�� feet on thR eotithern 81�P. �. F�s+ of +he ss�me ri.ver it �71C t'P,9SPS n�rt-hwer� from *� thin hed �n +he so»thern side to 3� feet on 1-he nortrern si!�.e of i-he �anlif+ near Franks . q. The l_itholor�ic differe�ces bv which the members are disti��u3sY±ed a.re accomp�nie� bv f�.�an�_l �r�r_�es Trrhzch afford a basis for aa�e dis+inet5.ons. ]) The more massi�re c;z�Tst�l] i.ne bec�s in tre 1�Rr?r pA�t of thP basal memher, ranr�inp� $n���hi�lrness ?r�m e. thin bed +o ?.5 fee+, or m�re, conta�n the followin?� forms((omi.tte�)�, ti*�rich are d�Gtinetlzr Clinton. �) ********((foss-i.ls)) s�re ch�ra�ter�stic of the C,linton li.mes+��ne o�' Ohio, anci th.eir horizon occvrs in the St. Clair limestone of northern Arkansas. ?) mhg h�r� thin ] imestc�ne bec�.s in +he Ubper �art o? +he �a�al RIP,'T!�G'T contr�in the fos�ils li�t�� below, ((omit+ec�)) whi_ch in�iic�te TTi a�ara aae' 3) The midc�le member of the Runton lime�+one as a�r�hole i.s ahunc�antiv fo�ssiliferovs, the ('amarocr�nus horizon espe�iall�r, near the mi�l�le of the member, 1�ein� rema.rkahl�r persistent. a) The �'oss�ls listed belo�nr ar� some of tl,e easil�T .reco�*ni?able forms:((omit+e�l)1 i(3(�)1 b� t'�it� a list of snecies like the ebore there c�n be no r�laesti.on as to the Aeld erber�� an a!�e of th9.s MBTn�P,1' of t!�P Nunton fm. (( 31i ) r. The unpermost member of the Hlmton forme+ion i.s orob�t�lv lo-ver (lrisk�r�! �n a�� �n�l equi.na.ler_t to +he Cam2�en �hert of Tennessee 1 The fossils secureci from +his member are no+, now at hand, so i.t mus+. suffice for the nreser_t to sa�r thAt thev consist chieflv of �as+reronods� �n� l�r�e crinoid colt�mns -1�- USGS P. ;�1 2) Accordinp�, to the claGsifies�tion or the Paleozoi� rc��l-s at nresent zn vo�*�ae, t,hi s memr.=r sho�zld be ca11 ed Denon� �n , bu+. ; t is so in+imatelv united, roth fatanallv an�l Sf"•�'V.(`'�17T'8l�tr� zn�;+,h t.he un�lerlvina �elderberp� memher, that, for this ret*ion �t le�z�t, it �rrould be �oinm � vio].en�e to the n�tura.l cla�sif��a.ti.on of the rocks to �raw a l�.ne of s��stP*�!ic i*npor��rce between them. s. AccordinW to a cl.assific��t�.on takin� into acco�,nt both the life h9.st�r�T �nd strur+t�r� of thP str�ta, thi.s �i��isional line sholald be dr��rm ei+her �R'fWPP,n +hP �'lir_t�r be�ls a+ t?�e t�n of +he Hunton lzr�estone And the base of t-hP �'?14Ck shale an� �her+ �f thP otTPrl�rinr� i�nO�f'C)rCi form�tion, or be+a�e�n the PTi_amara and Nelder�?er� meTMhers. t. In the la++Pr �.�.SP +,t�e lower member onlV wotzl� he Silt�.ri�n, an.� the two 1�nnPr merirPrs ne�oni an. ( ( �11) �_6: DEvorrzr�rr Roexs � � ;�1_�;�� 1 1. �"Uoodfo�'� �hert� ( 31-R31 � a. F,x�.ep'!:int� tre flintv C?risYanv � imes�.nne oc�urr�na locally at the to}� of +,hP Ntzn+on limestone ?n� nos�;?�lv +he Helc�er?�er�* member of t-he la�t-1-er, nevo�n- �,n roc��s i.n +�,c� Arru�'r� e T'P,�'i Ar� f�1^A ] im� +A� +o a si.no�l e f'o,-,�,a.+.; on of c}2P,rt anc� rlr��lr �halP, lrnoum as +he ?�loddford �hert. i( 31)1 b. i`rh�lA this c�eri- is a�naren+l�� conforma�le �^ri+h +he limest^ne below in �mT s�nmle lo�al �+-v, i+ �np��r�. +h?+ t-h� s� s nof true zn .q hro�d. s�nse. c�. The tlriskan,y rec�s a.i- the +on of tre Htanton limestonP, consi.sti.n� of se�*er�l. fPPt of �hert�* 13mest�nes, are presen+, in or_e pla�e 1�v.t, do not oc�ur in another d. I+�.+�e northeas+ern n�rt of the uplift, n�tablv near Franks, �her+�r lin+es+ones are nresPn.t �t the tot� of t,hP Hnnton.(�31)) e. �Te�r the �restern en�l o? the unlift, on the s�ut;hPrn sicie of +he Y�lashi+,a �Tali e`�, th-i s upper membAr of hard limestone i s absent and tre thickness o+' tre P,21'Firf? fo�,a+; �n is re�u�ec� to a li+t7 e o�*er 1(1P� feet. ((�1-32,i) f. Tn all nlac�e fhere i.s an �rrlant �h�nr�A in se�imPn�a+;.on fram the top of thP Nvr_+,�n li*^Pstnne to the chert or shale of +,he '"!�oc�ford formation. ( i:i2)) r�. The i�Too�if�rd chert has an es+imA+ec� anera�e thi.�kness o.f 6�0 feet h. It nqries somewhat in lit-hol.o�ic character 1) Tn T?ZA('P.8 mr�c�i�e �hert rests upon +he limest�ne; in oi-her places bl�ck sh.ale occiars a+. the �ase of +.he format�on ?i As a rule, hov�rener, the formation benomes 1Ps� t`hprt�T �'rom the base upvv� rd ;�) It is ustaall,y eRen re�?�eci, o�c;urrin� in lavers frnm a�'evr inches t�ick� to t.h�n lami.nae 4) Tn nla�es, wspPczallv zn tho narthe�s+ si�e of the unlift, +he ?orm- �+,lon i.s c.om�ose� �+lm��t Pnf�re]�r of +hin, fissile, sili�eo►as anc� di s+in�i-lv bitiaminn�?� �,1a�U sh�le. 5) In tri� part of tha re�*i.on, A fc+!�'nl1P.S was+ �+' Ht�n+or_, 1Pnt-ils of �lmost b��rP f'l�.nts were nn+P� �n+erstraf�fied trrith �-he bla�k sh�le n?!�r the hase 6) Tn the wAs�ern part �f' re�*;nn blv;sh �'^a]es were sP�n ;n+e.r�+,rs�+ified ur�+h the 1,1 ack sh�le �n +he tapperc�art�rof the forma.tion 7� A+ �r�r;�i,s pos�tions in +hP sec+;�n, Psneri.�tllv in the mnre che*ty beds, are sma� 1, roi�nded, marhle-1 i�� e CnT1CrP't'? ons o�' Q c�.lcareo��s na+are 8) Tn nlaces thPre are larae sP�re��tions o? a simil�r char�cter, c�n�entrical�zr ban�ed, �^✓hich oc�t�r 7_P�?rSP,�tip.� SP,42ra] l�zrers of c.hertv S�'1��.P.. �_. The '"�o�r�ford chert is nresent throiaPhnv+, t-he P.rt+u�?-1e re�ior_ �vhere�rer i+,s horiznn re�che� +he st�rfa�e ,�. In. t.�e southern p�rt of +hP upli.ft ma��i��e bec�s of Svcam�re limestone o�ciar aroT�e it, �nd t,he e�qiaallv oromin�nt Ntar.tnn lime�+one heneath it, and since thesP rnc]�s �re steeol�r tilt.ecl t;he i'�oo�ford chert �rons in �i,11 ied valle,ys an� rnt��h hi.l]�,r land re+wPen. the nraminen+ ridt*es of 1imestonP,. k, F,lsez.�rhere i+ o�eiars as �uli i.Pcl 51 ot�es an� ro�ar�h �n�oo�? a.nc� bor�'erina Hur�ton. li�es+.ane ri�l_�*es. -16- 1. Foss;1G are �erv r�re in the '"ro��f�r� �hert, �r� those foun� �re not we11 nreserved. I i In the lower n�r{; of th ^ f orm�t; on i r_ the wPs+ern nAr1- of +he reaion a small I�navla of +.he +,me L. sx��+lal�+a. Hall and � few — — — — — — — — — — — — -- conodonts h�sre i'�P,P,71 orser�*ed. 21 In the shale,s of +he upp�r n�r+, the on.lv rec��nizable fossils se�n are two �oncentricallsr plic^te�1 sne�ies o�' Prnr�uc±ella, one of which seems referable t� P. cor_centri�a Tiall. ---- ---- '�l Fra,�rmt3?�i;S �f f�ssil woo�i Urere fo�m� on the starf�ce �n m�nv x�l�_c-es, b�at �vith ore exception it coul�l r�+- he r?et-erminecl �vh.ether the�� belon�-ed wi+h the chert or with the Cret��eouS be�1s which are considered +o ha�e ex+.e�ec� over +he rePion. 4) In one instari�e, hc�rre�*er, ir_ the soiai-hPrn si_de o�' +.he uplif'+ northwes+., of Nor+.,on, a+,reP trvnk approx�matele 15 inches i.n diame+er was £ound emt�Ad�3��3 in thP chert in the lower pQrt oi t!�e formation. 51 The chPrt here is S't:PP_.n]ZT unturned an�3 the fossil tree rests paral�el to the bed�_in� � 61 Thin sections o£ +he wood h��e baen s+u�i.ed microscot�icallv bv lutr. na�id ?''J'hite, of' the TTn�_te� S+ates �eoloPical Siarvev, and �e+.ermined to belona� to `� SDP,r1P,E of �ladoxvlon, a form common to the ne�onaAn((82ii m. This forma.t;on is helieved to be of the a�e of the Chattanoo�a formatinn of Tennessee, +he Ohso ��a.le of Ohio, and Porte�.�e an!� �a� ('hem,ar,e� of �.Te,n� vork. ( ( 3'i�_ n. A+ the top it rtoub+le�s inclia�es stra+�corresnondin� in ��*e with th� rT��l shale of northern 4rkar_sas an� the basal shale of +,re Tull�.hc�g formation of Tennesse�, whi�h are �TP,� IBVP,CI to he of Kin�lerh�ok ap�e, or, �enorc3inr� +� +�+e C1�"P.�P.?l'f" C1t��Sif'-ir�ttj.o�� earliest ('arroniferous o. At nresent iG is no+ �os5ible to c?etermine the exact nari-ina� bPtwP�n t�e Pe�ron,'an �nd �arboniferovs, s�nce there �s no clear s�rati�raph3.c �is+ineti.on in thP EYI�_]P,S� an� fos�ils are ?'�re.((�3)1 R_�S; CARBONIFEROTJS ROCKS((;�?_gg)) R-7-a: NISSISSIYI'IAN SEDIR��'NTS (( 3g_341 i l. Sec��men+;ati�n cont�_nUed throtieh lower f.arhon9ferous ti.•nP �itholat apna.rent c,essation 2� ��J;the 1-he exception of a lime�+�ne ler_til o��t�rrinr� abar t�e hase on the G�vfhern sic�e of t�e Arbucl�•le upli�'t, +.he �nThol� sec+ion ��' A�ississ- ic�nian rocks, annroximatelv 1,600 feet thi�k, �onsi sts o�' h] ac� A.n�1 hlue clav shales :i. The r]�.�k shal.es cor.tain ar�i.11o-calcarPotas an� limestnne concre+ions an�1 se�remations, and the bliae sha.l e C37'r1EjS sme:ll ironstone concretions, ocr�,sional loc�) san�?si-one strat�., an� s�e.l� limP septaria. 4. Sv�amore limes+,�ne((331) - �, Tha limesi-�nP ot�tcrons verv near the base of the rarbonzfernus throu�h- out the �ovthe,-n s5�e of the unlift h. Tt occi�rs �lso on the northe?,n si�e of +he ma�n Arbuckle hTo�,ntain. �nc� ex�enr�s easttuar�l i.nt;o the rentr�.l part of the unlift almost. to the �*ranite e. It is mapnecl and desr_,ribec� in +,he T�shom�n�o fo7io Unc�er +•he T1_9TM'•P,. C�TCQUR02'P.. � 1P?2S'�;n212 d. Thi.s rn�k �s a lia�ht-t�1l�ish to velle�w an� A?'nbgb7V ar�illa�eot�s m�.ssi�re limes+one �. TTpon weai;hPrin� i.t senarates �n�o +hin be�?s,, a foot and les� in th;_ck- n.ess, e,n�? c�an�e� +o shades of vellow. f. TTear the ex+reme western end of thP Arbuckle It4ounta�ns i+. has a t'n;ck- nP�S of nearlv 2�n feet. e. TTPar ?�Iashita R;.ner �n +,he cef�tral nArt of +,h� ArhLiC`�!10 lanlift +he li•ne�t�ne has a t�ick�ess of ab�1�i- FO feet, but �t hir.s �u+ eastw�rd � ne�r +he �*ranite i.n +1�P northeast �o*-ner o�' T. ? S., p. ��;. h. F1SP,V��}18�'8 in the unlift, +ow�r� +hP northeAst, it is a.bsent or renre- serted bv loc,al thi.?i sili renvs 1�mes+nnP s+;rata �t the +on of +he T?evor � e.?� chert . i. T?o fossils have been fo��n�i in +h�.s limes+one.((3'�)1 -17- USGS P. �1 5. rane�,r sr.ale( ( 33-�411 a. `"he remair.in� ll'�i ssissipp�.an s�f`ra+� �t�o<-e the limesi-.^ne are mapped as the Canet� shale in the qtoka and TiGhomir_�o folios. ti� This ?o_rn!ati.on consist-s in fhe basa.l n�rt. of ble.ek 1��'-�am�noias claV shalP c�nta�nin� limeGtone ar_cl ar�*illo-cal��re�t�s eep�s��f�nns c. Thi s black shale 1*r�c�es tanward in+o t�lnish shal e containi�e� sm�.11 cl�v ironstone concretions and oc�asi�nal lime sen+aria.�(33); d. Th.e rvh�1P forr^ation ? s est�m�tecl +o be arout 1,00� feAt +,hick. ((:��- :�411 e. The lim�r �onere+ions a.n�l se�re�ations in the bl��k shale in the lo��er part of +he ('�ne�,� florm�.+=on �ontr�ir a nlnnl�er oi fo�sil shells((�41) 1� The fos�ils of the ��nev shale �ere �ol.le�+e� �nd stu�i;ec3 bv nr. �_. H. ('T1rt�T� 1Fiho c,onclu�?es tha+. thP �'auns� is pa�ttl�.ar and the.t manv of +he snecies are new. 21 The a�e of tris f�.una((om*ni++Pr�il can nrobA�l�� s�fel�r be nl�ced �� nost-neRonian, an� eKi�er_ce thus f'�r obta�ned i� fe��or�b7� to corrdl�t;i�a it with the unner portion of the Al�iseissippian sPriPs. R_7-r. F'EP�TSYLVANIAN SEDIAI!I��P?TSf(:�4_���) _ 1. Frar_�-s con�l�merate ( i 34� 1 a, at thP c�los? o�' the rRissi.ssipnian enoch the Arhl�ckle re�ion, AspPcia]lv the west;ern �Qrt, w�� upli�'ted �n+� 7.anc� an� remaine� so c�vr�nc� a lar�e p�r+ �f p�,.r_n.s��l�an.ian time. b. ?n the western nart o�' the unli�'t the sPdiments from +he +,o� of' i-he T!tfis�issi.ppir,�n �rell �o�m ir_to the C1rd��i�ian, an� prn��hlv to the C�t??hrjgn� were sixr�ect to erosion, anc� lrnver Carboniferoixe limestone �on�lomerAtes �lerived from them �rere spre�d �cr�ss their worn edr�es c. The wes+war� extension of +;hese ol�er rocks, r_�w concealed un�onrormably t,•r t;he lowPr f;arhon.ifProi�S ar�3 "Red Rec�s"(Permi.an) �on�lomer��e, mo�t nro�+�hl�r formed the lAr�*e,- nart of +he upli.ft, s3.nce thP lower cor_�lomerate espec�iall�r incre�ses t�oth in �rolume and in ���rseness we�i-ward d. The rarbonifProias conc�lomerate �aries �re^+lzT in th.i.��-ne�s as v�*ell as in coQrseness of m�+Prael� e. Tn th.e westerr_ p�rt of +.he rePion the c�nalomer�te wi+.h assooiated shale an�? sandst�ne � s manu hvndre�l. feet +,hi�k f. On the norther-n si�e of_' the unli�'tit dec,reases in t�+i�kness eastwarc?, anc3 chan�?es from co?nplete unronfnrmit,� unon the ed�es of thP A�;ssissippian, nevonian, �iltxrjar_, qn� Orc�ovi�ian s+rafa +o ann�,ren+ �onf�r!�itv a�ho�re the �anesT(?��iss; ssipnian) sh�le . e. In the mishomin�o f'olio this con�lomPr�i-e i.s manned in �e�ail and �escribed as the Franks �ont�l.omerate. 2. Wapanucka l ime�+one( 3�--3� . a. From the v1r-ini+.,� of F'T'??'IkS sont�eastt���rd the Franks ��n�lomerate rsU?dl�r �e�reAses ir� th�ckness an� coarseness, r*ir,inp place +o limest-ones, sand- �tones, anc� shales t,. A.t the northwes+, corner of the �ltoka qua�rar_�le, n�*t� ofl Hun+,on, �.s � thin oolit.1� lime5+nne whi ch i.s l�P) i.eve�l to renresPnt 1-1�e Franks �onmlom- P,Y'f�+e� in na�^t �+, l eas+ c. Thi� lime�+�nA has beer ma?�ped hPre 9r_� fart�er e��t, �nc� is des�ribed as i-he �"Jan�m�clra lir.^estone in +rP q+o�� fol io c�. It �s +he lowest- Pennsvlvanian sedim�nt ��no�nrn in Tn�ian '�erri.tory e. Th-is li.me�tnr_e con+.i.nuPs eastw�.rd t�eyond the limits of' the Arbuckle uplift, �ncre�sin� i.n +hiclrn.�ss t.o nearlv 40� feet in the central part o�' the Choctqw r?�z�-ion. ( ( �41 ) f. �ti.11 farther east�Nar� it �e�reases and com�s to an enci ne�r the 4rvans�s-In�lian Terr�+.,or�r line no��h of i-he OuaBhit» AFountair_ ran�,e. (( 3Fi 1 ;�. SanclstonP, shale, �nd co�.l((�F,l� Q.. Abo-=e i'?'1P, zi��fiT3fL71Ul!Sc?� 11me�'f'C�T7P, tll']rl i'ii@ Fr4nks COT!�'�QT^Prn'f'Fj� nort�,?�rard from trP e�s+ern n�rt �f +re Arbucl�:le unlift, knov�m Penn;;rl��nia.n sediment;s a��rer�r�te a thic�-ness of 1�,�0� to 11,OC?� feet. b. The ro�?�s of t:nis sect�on, romnrisir_� mar_v for�ati.ons o£ the san.dstones and �hales, h�vA �een manned ir �etail and c�es�r�bPd i� the �oal��te and �toi�a fol i os c� . The � O"re$i' �oal-re�r� n� rortrs o�ciar H.?�nrOXlmai-.pltT ;�,�n(1 .f eA+ a.�jnTrP. t�e Wap�nta�ka limestone, anc� olz-!-cron �.n +he extreme sola+heas+ en�l of +,he -1�- Croctavr coal field, Aa�inst. the east en�l of the Arb�ar,k7.e izplift. �. These ro�.ks �onsi st Pnti rel�T of san�l stones, shales, an� cor�l. e. The c���-hearir.� str�ta c.omprise �.1�D7^OX'LTnr�fP.1V 3,000 feet of. sanclstone �n� shale, wi_th ei�ht to then worUable beds of �oal, hesi�es man�r thin co�l seams. f. mhese rock� outc.r�p �.cross the �hoc+�rw Na+; on �n�? northu�ard to K�nsas e;. Continv�.ns* �restwarc3 these ro�l �?east�res .ro�ks, e�PPo1a17�r 1n +he lower na.rt, �re o�*erlanped ur.conforma.bl.�r an� c.oncealed h�J the lafer "RPc3 Re�s" of the la+e Pennsvl����an an� Pe*�m�an h. Tn ��e �a.me d-i.rection +hP coal seams become thinner and �P,CrE�aSP. in numbPr, so that; no coal of importance i� kn�wn Urest oi the v3cin.itv of Stonewa7l, n�rth o�' the ce*�tral nar+,, of the Arbuckle vnlift. 4. The Pennsvlv�nian dex�osits sot�th of thc� Arbucl�le h�oi�n+ains �iffer cons�c3era'�lv from th�se nor+hend east of the uplift a. T►�ev occur onlv south of the Arbuckle ry'f�vnta�ns nrc+per, heir_� conce+�led bv orerl�p of thP �reta�eoias rocks on the ea.st an� sor.th, an�l of the "Red Redstt on +he v�est. b. They r,onsist-. oi shales, san�i�+ones, thin limesi-ones, �n� lime- stnne conr�lomer�te c. ?Tnlike the roclTs of the �ame �t�e nnrth o�' the Arhuck�le re��on, +hP 1-h�ek denosits of lim�stnne �onmlomPra+e �3o no+ acclar at +he base, but are found at �*ar-i otas nositions in +he secti on la� to the coal-bearinp� strata in the �icinit�r of qrdmnre �?. These limes+,one-eo�s*lomera.+e t�eds are relativelt� thin an�] an�e�.r as lenti�s interbbdde�] with shale an� limec+one 5. CoArse con�lomer�te denosite occu,- in c�ntact vrith the older rocks in the north sic�e of the Crip.Pr ui11s sov+h�ves+ of Ar�.m�re, a. �n s�c�oian+ of the ex�essi�Te f'olc�i.nc t�ae thicl-nPss of +he Pennsvl- ni n sediments in this di_stric+ c�n no+ now be estim�ted.. R_�_�., ������Ata � � � ��_�s) ) l. "Red Reds" �5-36�) a. poc�s of ,�ery late Penr_sul�ar±.i an er earlv Permian as�e ha�re been deposited across thP western en�3 0�' the Arbucl-le uplift b. The vn�onf'orm't�T of these sedimen+s with the lower rocks in +,he V/PS'�P,?`71 part of the unlfit ��s been discvssed unc�er the headi.n� "Phvs Z��raphv."( i 4bGt. n�a�e 2) ) ((?�i 1 c�. Thev lie in a ne�.rlv flat nos;tion across t'he ero�ec� e�3des of sP•-reral thotasand feet of the Pennsvlranian, a17 of the 7tRississ�iopian, ne4oni an, Silurian, a.nc� a lare�e bart of the Ordovi.�ian roclrs( ( 3F-�6)1 e. ThesP older formations were sh�rnlv folded and eroded nrior to the deposit� on of +,he "�?ed Reds". (('�611 f. Near the hflSP, t�ie ��pP,� Re�'s" �enosi+s c,onsis+. of local limes+one conr�lomer�te comnoser� of well-worn limestone nebbles in a calcar- eolas anc� usta�.11v re� cl av ma+.rix, re�l �n� h11�i sh cl avs, r�rit, and san.d . s�. Tre limP�+�nc� oornclOmPrt�+.e o�c�ars on]�r al,oT*e a�cl i.n +.he vi��nitv of the Silurian anc� �r�o�Tician l�mest�nes and C�rhonifP.roi�s lime- stone cnnclomera+.es fr�m �rri.hch its limes+,one perbles WP,rA CiPrl�'P,t�. h. i�estward, awav �'rom tre PntlYrP, of +he denosi+s, the limes+-one conr�lomera+e chanr�es mr�.�?taallv �o �. bed of mas�i�9, �;o�a�h ara'illareovs limest.one �. In the vininitv of the OUtCTOA o{ the ne�*onzen chert a]�r�e nart of +.h.e r�sql �enosits of' the "Red Reds" consists of f�•a�?nental cher+,, sand, �r+d �.] a,y j, qb��-e t�P Car�onifero�as strata of s�n��tone an� shale +he '�asal �enosi.+s are nomnosec? of �rittv sanr's+one, sand, and bluish and red cla.V k. These "Re� Re�s" cler�osits are exnosed on the nl.ain from the �rbiackle ARovnt�ins westward to and around +.;he ��Tichita �S�onn+ains, an� �re des�ribed more fullv in the discu�si�n of +he r�eolo€�T of t.he irrich�+q 2�o»nta�ns (pn. 72-76) . �_g� CRETACFOUS RUCKS((36-37)1 1. '['hP, rel. ati ons of the �.-etaceoias sed iments �o the ol�er rocks o�' the Artiiacl�le rerinn have bPPn exnlainPc� un�er the hea�line� "Physioeranhy -19- USGS P. 31 of the Ar'�uc�le ��oun�ains"(pp. 1:�-16�: Z� R'�'LP. CT'G'?:9..C�'n��S 7'(1(%�'S rest t11�011 a ne�rizT fltl'}'% f�00I'� SZ]o'hf:l,y 1]1C17.2].?Cj sonthwarcl fr�m the soi�+hPrn edpe of the qrbu�kle re�i.on 'i. The �a�al forn!ation o�' +he ('rp{;a,Ce�l7S is �anovm �s +.he ?'r�nitY a. It h�s a thi.ekneGs aonroximq+i_rc 2,40 feet �n� �nnsist;s of snnd with local ��n�*1 omera�-e at +he hottom 4, mhe Tr�n;+�r sand is follo�+red h,� a nearlv T1taT'P, Z�mPc'F�171P, form�t;on, 2q +,o �0 feet in t�iclrness, ►rn�wn as the rno�llan�l l��+estone ,�i. .�'i12(!CP,A�irlo �h1iP 'aUy'P�' limes+�ne +�'1P,'"P, fl.r'o 1�1t�P t'19�r *ns�r�S� ,r..h3.+P limeGfones �nc� marls, ferrup�innt�s r.l���s v�rith t-�+in shel� �?'T�E2S'f'OY1P.5, �r_d finallv a t��n fossiliferni�s limestnne Q+ +hP +on of +h� lower � rre+aceo„S. 6. T�"1PSP. f'07'P?H'�'" 0215 � k21'IYJTl Fi� the �7 �17f!l'f'i � CZ A�r� rR.f��(1 11TnP,6�'nI'_G� Rokchi+o formation, and Renn�n�t.�n lime.s+nne, resnPe+�vel�r, a�'�'rev�af.e r_earlv P40 f'P,P,'t in thicknes� a. Fa�h is c�nforrr+�b1P �rith �ts co?i+��t formations, ?nd all �ib tcn�*A.rc� fhe sotxth-soiat.he�st at r� �*rade apn?-e,•im�+;n� 40 feet t� +he mile 7. At the close of +.he 1cx�rPr �retaceotas the sedimPn+s were lif�ed a�o�e the Sea, �i�t no+., folded. P. Sli�ht erosion w�s follolaed bV �epression an�3 f.he �enosition of the exi:ensi��e fPrrur�inous sand and clay �rhich o�nstitutetl�e basal formation of t1�e ut�ner CretaoPolas 9. This b�s31 formflf-ion of +he unnPr f're+��eous is ��nc�wn as the Silo s�nristone, an�? is in nA.rt at- le=�s+ of Da�o+a a,�.e, 1�. These f'retaceot�s form�t;ions have been carefullV m�.�necl an� arP describe� i.n detail 1n the .4toka +�nd Tishomin�o folios. 11. fiouth oi' 14is� R�+3er abo�e +he Silo sr�ndstone �s a thick f'ormqtion com�osed of Y�lue clav shales.((�61) 12. T1'�P,SP are su�ceec3e�3 b�! tah�te, �halkv limestones, anc� these ir_ t.u.rn bv bltie m�rl s, ��hich ex+enc� t� the +o� of the upner f'rPi-aceoiis i,n sottfihe��tArp rhoc+aw TT�+.1,on and nor+.heastern �'P,XAS � rP»nnd_ the l�mit o�' the �.rea s�,orm on t��?P a��omnan�Tir� map •(P1.. I� .(� 371 � IV. STRtTCTURE OF THL ARBUCKI�E �SOUNTAINS ((�7_g611 A. ((INTRODZTCTION)) ' 1. In c�i.s�i�ssir_t� +he nhvsioRrr�nh�.� of the remion -it. w�s ne����arv +.,o m�ke hr� ef mPn+i �n of thP �r�aPnir moT=AmPnts invo] nerl �r +he Q.rhucl�lP unlift. i(�7) 2, ThP hi�t�r�r of +he �*eolnmie s+rt��+tare wil_1 i�e cles�rirec� more ?ullv in the fol.lowi.np� baces. �. 7n �iscu�sina� tMe s+ratiRranhv it hRs bPen sl-o�m t.?,�t fhe forination5 rem�in�� in an a*��?�roxi.*n�t-.?1V f1 �+ rositi or. from +he aarl i est ��mbr?.an t� +he enc� of A`ississinnian ti�+e 4. Tha.t i-.here urere osci.11ations of +he ocean bed, �n� nrol��rlv P1A�T�tions of thP se�l�men+s into lovrlandG �t times, is shown bv the va.rtrina nature of the rocks 5. A stur��r o�' the fossils b�r I�Qr. tTlrich has sho�m �pri.tho��t mvch do>>bt thAt com�ar9+;�re1,r short 1.nter�rals of n�nc�eposit�on an�l nrora�lsr o�' sli�-ht erosion�x��a�xxa��dxi���a��ax��scasxxa�ao��ma�i�ax�a�a3aaz�xisa�va� ha�*e occurred 6. The �'�rst chane;e in s�dimentati�n, an� nrob���7tr s1i Rh+- erosion, occurred bet.ween lov�rer And middle Cambrian time, tivhen art��.11aceous li-�estones, intraf���tional c�n�lomPrates, and clavs evere succeede� by massive limestone 7. Another chana�e occizrred a.t the Pnd of the Arbt�ckle limestone denosition, as ther� i.s �n abrunt- 1-r�nsition f'T!nm 4rbuckle li.mestnne to the basal s�n�lst.one o�' the Simpsonnformgt,� on, w�iich i.s of �h�zv a�;e. i�. Other breaks occvrred �t the c�bse of the Si�poson for�aation, where there is a char.�e fro*n silioernzs to �urer limestone sed.iments; af the top of the ?�iola forR+ati.on, v�here ?;YIP,�"P. is �n ql�ru�t ch�nv�P from 7imesfones to c]aVs; �nd at the �losP of the �u)�»n, where there is �n e�u�.11v �.brlapt re+��rn to limes+one of t�e Hunton f�rr��+ion, wh.ic� vras introc�,ane�' locall,y by de�osi_ts of c^n�lomete�te. g. The ro�k bec��inm, }'IOZNP.�*P,?"� remaired nraeticall.v n�ral.lel , anci +.he sec�iments, ..�r;th. the P,XCeD'�"1nnS noted, are f;nel�� c?ivi�e� ar_�? e�*Anlv ��s+rihta+ed, ahov�ir_r� th�t the oscilla+i�ns of t�P sea bnt+�m werP of broa� exi-,en+ �n� � that if' erosion oactarre�l i+. z�*as in �*e�T l�w and f]et land. � � _..�________ - - ---..__. _ ._._ __ ______ _____--_ ___ -------.._____.__ --_ --- --- -- - --__._�.--� - 20- ](�. It is r.Pither i.mnosible nor imnQobable that. a hreal� in +he +'a1anA. a���^!n�r;e� b�r q ch���e in se���+Pntati.on majr re �»e +o mari.n�e conr]iti.ons, a nrominPnt part be�n�* nerformed bv ocean cUrrents. 11. A bel+ of �hallow sPa b�i-tom swept by �r. o�ean CL1r'"P.n+'� it is ��nsidered, wou]� receive neither 1-he fauna nor +he sec�iments he'27m �lenoGite�l in a district of more q�aiPt waters. 1?,. TTear +�e be�*innin� o�' the Penns��l�*ani!�xi �r ne�r the c�ose of fhe Mississipnian, the rocks of the Arbucl�le re�*i.on were fol�ed �nc� the western part ti�ras el �s�rat.ed #ntb��;dnd, z�rohahlv into mountai.ns . ±�, The formations �nvolved in this uplift are R,00� to 10,000 feet in thickness, and are composPd ehi_efl�r of massiTe limes+nne. r. Favlt;n� on a lar�'e scale also occUrred, involtrine� the whole Paleozoj.c sec+.i.�n belou� +he +op of thP 2Ri.ssi ssippiar., besides +he nre-Cambrs_an �*rArite and nornh�rr-��. ( � 37)1 c. q�'ter the ele�*a+.,; �n ;nto 1 and t�erP was extensi�e er�s� on, which P,XnOSP,(� the rocksec+.i on dor�m to the �ambrian �.n the tivestern part �f t1�e ,qr�?uckle N!ountains. ( (37-:�8) ) 1�. �x F���?r b�r erosion or bv erosi_�r_ �nd stabsidence �oml�ined the weGterr T1s_�rt; a+ le�st �i t�e unl i�'t 1vA.s siarmer�ed and 1_ar�e �enosits of C�rronifProus ��n�lomera+,e v�rere snread ��ross the ed�es of +�,P OZdP,r f'�talted �nd folded strata((3R)) 14. pt a sti.11 la+er +ime, before t�±e �losP of t�e Carl�oniferoi�s, +.he sP�imen+s we�e ac►��n folded an� ele�Tated in+.o la.nd a. Th;s �'olc3in.r� affecte� the re�entiv forme� conalomer�tee as �re]] as all the rocir prev3.ov�l�r c�enasi+ed h. Fa.ultin.�* x�a�x�€�e��cx��� o�etarred a] so af'ter tre �lenositor_ of +he con�l omer»te. 15. Nee.r t�e close of Carbonifer�t?s time annt�her nerio� of si�bsidence ocetarred and the "Red RedG" se� encros�hed i�oon the re�i�n fr�m the tnre st a. The extent of thi� encroachment e�.s+����r� i.s nc�t nol�r detPrminAble bevond the tricin�tv o�' +he nreseni- oc,currer_�P of +.he �eposits. 16. At a 7�ter 1�E�rZOd� between Permir�n and earlie�+ Cr�taceous ti.TM�es, the �!hol� rP�i.on was P,ZP�Iti'�8(� int� land 17. Follo�*r�n� t��s re�i�n�l e.le�r�t�on +herA ���as depressi�n and a rec�t�ction �8 +he surfa�e to a rel�tivelv f1A+• nlair 1P. Thr,n fol7.owPd a siihmPr�ence �n� +he �enosi+lon of +he f'retace�t?s SP,� 1TItP,?lt'.S . 19. Af+,�r �r�taceo�ls t�.me t'•�e reRi.on w�s t�roadlv vplifted i.nto lan�, �.ai.+,h�.iat. �lef�rm�.+ion, anc? has so �'P,ms.tln@(� to the nresent time. ?.�. The deform�ti.on of' +he rocks nrnx exTosed in +,he Arbticl-le rea^i.on commence�l near t,he �e�inn�n� of unner C�r�oniferons time ancl enc�e�3 before i+s close. B. CHARAC'TFF OF �'OI:DII�G .AND FAUI,TITSG((;�F�_4.g11 1. The Arttuc>>�e unl.t'it inclv�es a mamber of lo�r, wic3e anticlines and corru�9+e� faultec� svn�linP�, ,r,h;�h 1-oPe+her •r�kP a hroa�l �Pantirl.�ne, the t�ordPr� o�' �.r��ch arP flexed stePnlv do�rmward,((�811 ?, ns exn7a�n�d i.n di�ci�ssina� the strat�ffraphv, erosi�n hQs rc�bved the roclrs down +o +he hPart of the np] if+, PYnos;r_m ��.i thP SP,C3JP'�E:�'�'�;£i2`V ro�lTs as we7l as the nre-Cam�rian arani.+e 9n� t�ornhvr�r �. 7n tY�e f�a.ulted svnclinal foldsin the cen�-rc�) p�rt o�' the ianlfit, �nr},zch ravP c?enresse� an�1 nreserved l�+er SOftP,r and thinner ?nrnla1ia�S� there are i.n�li�^+��ns of m�re c�mnli�a.+P� f'olcl'n� than occur� i.n +,�A massi�.e f'aml�lho-Or�nvician limes+ones. 4. The aeol o�i_� seati on� a��ompan�!i.nm +t�e m�n(Pl. I) sho�v the hroa�l �zs well as 1he �le+�i].ed structv.rP af t;hP Arbvc?-1e unlfi.t - F. The cetral p�.rt; of the upli�'t e��t �f 1'Ja.sh�+. a Riz�er is comnosed of se?*Aral broa�, shallow folds 6. In the axial parts of thP ar+ic] �ne� �*rc�at th,'.cl�nesses of m�ssi��e Camhro-Or�lovi.c.�_an limestnnPs are exnosa� and are �enerallv but sli�htly f]exed 7. The thinner and snfter Silurian, Devoniar_, an� !',arbnnif�rot�s rocks in +,he in-Ferveninr� s�rnclines hane heen �rim�!n1Pd int-o manr small folds USGS P. ;�1 �. These S�.r71C`Z�nFg s�re i'11'Olrpn� ir, o�-��'1P,'"�1 1071c*1?;?1(�l?'lyt���l� �V Tfla11V f'qUl'�;5.��:���� 9. Sinc,e the faultin�; erosi�n hAs so remosred the strata thr�t onitr narts or +,hese ntraerous iol�ls �n the �r�ac�er svnclines are n��� �areserved. ((:��_:�gll 10. The essenti.al f'PBtUrP,S of the fol�in�' An�? f�a.tx]finu ro�i11 be desorihed, re�*;nnint� �n��th the no�i;h side.((39ii R-1: Nian+on �nticl�ne(��91� 1. C'n the northern side of +he Arruc�l.e Ut�li.ft, be?�innin�* i.n +,he �icinit-y of Hunton anc� exi-en�inp nori-hU�esi-e�ard, +�P ,-n�ks he.T*e bPen ren+ into a bro�d ar_d loU� t�p��rard fold, tivhich is sharply flexed and £eulted on +he northern sicle ancl f at�lted throtac�hoiat the sou+hern si�?e. 2. In i+� wes�-ern �art it. is 15 r.!�leG in t�reAc�th ar_d BYtP,r1r�S ozrer alr.most h�lf the �ri�3th of t�e qrbuckle A?oiznt^�n dis+ri�t :�. �;��i:�ja.r� +he fol� �rrnvs �r�c�l�all�,r nar�-ov�rer�or 20 miles, v�he?'e if is �on+.,ra�ted mor� abrupt]v b�r the axi.al� pitch af' the rocks an�3 bv the oblique faUlti.nu 4. The fatalt�no vpon t,he nor+hern s�c�e of t�i.s fold Zs loca,l, the fra�ti�res be�r�ne� Pener�.11v e�st ana �vest a+ n�riovs an�les to tre �xi�l +rend of the main anti.cline, btat in mos+ c�.ses e.�ross or oblique to the s+.rike of the f�rrn�+.ions 5. The lnr�*esf of +hese faults, �o�rre�*Pr, follows i-.hP st-ril�e of the beds in the northwest side of the fold 6. ThP c?�splacement of the �ec�s aa due to �S�i�s faul+, �3e�.reases northwP�t.���ard. 7. �TPar t�e sov+he�s+ern erd tre 1�*ho1P o+' +,t,e �imneen f�rma+ion i.s disnl.�ced, brin�in� +he �riol� limesi-one aa�a�nsi- the Arbvrkle P. c�me of' thPse lor.al faults exi-enc? from trP thick (1rd_ovi.c�an limestones, �C7'OSS �i�+ari�n an�l nevor_i�n stra'-a, ini-� t;he f�arron.i�'erous shales, an�3 the ror.ks t�non. i-he north are �enerallv �enrPGse� vrith resnert +� trose up�n the soi�th in the cl; re�+; on of the c� in o�' +hP st;ra+a. g, 2n T. 2, rT., R. 6�,, nA^r the extreTne northern I.imi.t of +hA unlift, +here ia a tr3.ana�ular bas�n of rarbonifPr�tas limestonP conmJ�meT•a+e restins� unconform- arlv across ol�er P�leo7.oic ro�ks 1�. ThP becl� are steenlv un+.urnec�. unon the n�rth�■rPs+ern an� �ota+Y�western si�ies, an�i fai�l+�na� has o�curre�? a+ +hP c�nta�t ofl +-re con�] omera+e with older rocks, 5� +��+, 1-he ro�lrs are derressed h�r f�.taltin� as well as bv �'oldin�. 17. The fatzl+in?� u�ion the soi�fhern si�e i.s T^n7'P, P,XfeY!SZNP,� wz+h d�x*nthrow f01'VAI'CI the sot�+. h 1?. mhe ro�)-s on the sovfhern si.de of the ��unton ant_c�line: are i.nr��ir_ec3 at low ar_�les exc.en+ locallv near i-he �'aults, 'fRI1P,?'P, +.�,e ci;ns are �asv�l7�r increased. 13. In thP axiai ng,-t, a.nd ne�r +h�, �vestern enci of tt�e anticlinc�, v�rhere i+, is o�-er- lapned anci con��aled b,y la+,er C,arboniferoi�s strata, there are local shallow rasins, +�ncl at +.he ex+-reme WE'SfP,rp en� a local rasin con.i-a3ninr� rocks of +,he Si�^ns�n f'ormat,ion ha� reen falalte� ciown �,s a triar_r�ular hlock in +he Arbuckle. limestone. 14. FOr +�e most nart the f�.ul+,s hor�ierinp' +his c?eoressed block bear e�st and NP,Si'� vr�th displacements to�,1T�,.rd. the soiath l�. A sine�le fatzlt bearin� northeast interseets the faults in the axial trend and displac�es the rocks dovv�rward to�vard the west B-2. �'lapamacka svnrline( ( �9-40i) 1. A f��t and eas+warcl-pi.tchint� syncline occu.rs immediatelv soUth of the Aunton �nticline 2,. In thP t�roa�, �'lat vallev of �apanu�k� �rePk, from �vhic.h it has received its name, its axial pa.ri: is occuniecl by �dississip�i�n shale((3911 3. This fold becom�s broq�ler and flatter eastwe.rd, ��n+.il it is lost in the Coal 1��e�sures nort�east of the Arbtac�le uplift. (('�9-40) � 4. To�v�ar� t�±e west it contra�ts b�T fa�zltin� Unon each side lantil it nr��ticslly ce�ses as a fold in +�e nor+hern DRrt of T. ?, S., R. 7 E.((4011 5. Parts o�' the s�rncline m�v be s�.i.d to o�cur alort�' the fault which extends throu�'h fhe unlift on tl�e solith side of +,he Hunton antic,l-ine 6. The so��th limb of the tne '�Papanu�ka s�.mcll.ne is in+.ersec+ec� hv man,y iaults, wh-ich have strikes T�arvin�* frnm �ra.ns�*erse to di.rer_.t9.ons narallel ��rith th� trend of £he ��'n�din� 7. A strikine� ch�racteristi.� of +he faultine� is t-h9+ the older and harder rocks, -��- in.�lu��n� thP �ranite, are di.splace� to a arP.fl+.P.r exten+ +han +he soft Carboniierovs shales. 8. On the sout�ern side of thP �9�nanuck� syncline the faul.ts are more num�roias than on the northern. side, and with the ex�eption of a Iocal +.ra.nsverse fault v�rest of Wananucka the depnession of thP stratQ due to f aultin� is in all cases 1-o�uard the axial part of the s�mcline. 9. �x�luc�ina the transverse fat�]1- referreci to, the fr�ults ma�� he eonsi!�ered in +wo classes, viz, those �uhich b��r 11P,flrl�T e�st an�? west, and th�se whi.ch trend in northwesi--soiatheast direc+ions, more nearlY with the strike.of +he rocks. 10. mhese t-Ro classes of faults, ho�e�rer, co�lesce, ancl by their junction ati�?!.en+., the �' 3 snl a�e*nPnt of the strata 11. Manv of the la.r�er faults ha�re vertica7 disnlac�ments of sereral thousand feet, an�, where tevo suc.h anproach, the +,hrow is drnar:lv �reat. 12. 'r'wo ne�rlv narallel falalts anoroa�h each other so��th of V�apanuc►�a, and their comh;r_ed throw brin�s De�onian shales almost in conta�t with the �ranite, eoncealine 8,000 feet of C�mbrian, Orr�ovici.an, and Siliarian strata. 13. The faialtin� in the northe?-n side of the stm_cline bears ne�rlv N. ?0° E., inf.ersectin� the older rocks almost at ri�ht anC�les to their stril�e, and the rocka in all cases are depres�ed. soi�thwerd +ou�ar� +�e A.xis of th_e svncline 14. The �?�.splacement due to fa.ultin� in the nnrthern lim.b of +.he ?�(anQnucka svnc,line is lesG than that on the sou+,hern sirie, and as a conseqtience the reslz].+,ant throw west of their iune�ion ie dowr_warc� tonvarc� �k-he nor+h, alonp� the axial trend o.f the fold. B-3. Relfon anticl�.ne(i40-41)) 1. The elona��ted �rani+e areA. which extencls from th? southeast end of the Arbvc�le uplift northv!�estward bPvonr� Rel+;on oocupies the axi al nart of a noorlv defined anticlin�l fold. 2. Aoth sides of this fold have been f aulted i.n such manner th�+ the rocks represente�l in it occi�pv onl�� +he axial part �. The stratified rocks now in this fol� above the �rsnite consist of mas�ive Camhrian and Ordo�Tici.�n limestones wl�ich are �'olcled onl,y to a moder�.te demree anci which strike toward t�e fault at var�oizs ane�les 4. �?ear 1-he faults on either si.de of +,he fold the beds are vsuallY more st�Pnitr �nclin�d towarcl the fault or locally folded 5. In nlaces, however, onlv a slie�ht increase in dip is al] +he �istur'�ance tn he noted on accoiant of the fault((40)) 6. The conta�ts betwe�n the a�r�nite an� limestones, ivith the exce�tion n�ss�.bly of �shat �t- thP ��est end, are ma_rked bv faults, and on both. nort.hern and sotatrern sirles the s+r�tifiecl roel�s are c�epressed wi+,h res�ec+ t� the iuneao��s mass, an�l the �i.p near the f ault is usuallv t c�ward th e� ov,mthrow. i( 40-41) ) 7, The faults markin� the lim-its beri;ween +he �rani.te ar_� �t-he limestone at the e�st end of +re ant� eline extend vvestwarc� an� �otanci t�e lont� block of Arhuckle limeg+nne whicr consfittates the axial par+., of +,he fold. ((411) � R. The rocl�s un�n each side o�' this fatalte� ant.i�linal block Ya�ve been c�enressed with respect +_o the rocks within 9. The Bel+on anticline i.s conceale!� bjT Cre+,�ceoi�s deposits to�vard the so�atheast t�nd b�r Carhoniferoias c�n�lomerates toward th.e n.�rthwest. B-4. T+Rill Creek s��ncline((�1-42)) 1. ThP �i strict of most intr�.r.a+e folc�ina� and �'atxltin� in the qrbue�rle re�ion is a n�rrow strip of countrv i�+edia+elzr sou+h of +.he Relton ant�cline in the central part of the Arbuckle uplfit ?.. The belt �arzes fr�m one-he.�f mile to 3-1�2 mileG in width and is � v�hole svnc;linal. 3. The fo�rm. of ?!ill Creek, for which the svncline is named, is locatecl near its cent.er. � 4. The svncline consists oi' parts of manv surordinatP f olds, �Parin�; , �enerallv n�rthtvest and southPast, 9.n the trPn� of the Arbuckl.e uplift, ancl i.s bourided u�on each sic�e h�T well-c�efined fr�ul.ts. 5. These bo�m�lina f�ults, as well as most of those in the interior of the svncline, trend Penearllv parallel with the main foldin� of the uolfit. -?3- USGS �+. ?I� 6. In no case, hotverer, �o t.hP f�talts fol7.o�� St7'�1ahf lir.es f�r anv considerable distance. 7. "lhile t�e fault lines +ake the a�Pneral directinn of the ma�nr fol.r�in�, the bec�s usuallv st-rike ag�ains+ them �n �ne S1�P Ar +he nther, an� in r�iaces on both si�es, �t ana�les between �0� ar_r� 9��. 8. The rocks occurrinc� a+. i-he starfa�e an�l ;mr�lve�3 in +he ±'�lclin?� and faulting ?.nclta�?P +,hP �ntire seetion ?'rOm the Cambrian +o the i'�a.l IMP�SUT�S a.n� h��e a t}�i�kne5� an�roxima+inp� 1�,000 feet. 9. '�he rorks exposed in the satall er fold_s are for +,hP -�ost n�rt the i;hinner and softer fnrma+,ion� of the Silurian, �e?oni�n, and Carboniferotas. 10. It is nrobahle th�t, these f'ol�s in the hi�*her rocl�s are mi.nor crumplinp�s which were deRe].oneci in +�+� axi_al part of the s�,mcline, abo�-P, fY1P broa�?er tr�i?gh of +he thick and harcl de�p-�e�zted limestone, be�'ore +he faUltin.c� oc�l?.rred. 11. These massi.�=� lime�tones exposP�l i.n +he P,ASf'P,�"L� x�art of thc� fold are for the most �art r�en+.Iy inclined, annroachinp� the fau]..ts uoon eanh side at �vide aneles. 1?. The faultin�*, especiall,y in each side of the fold, is �er�� extensi4e, and in �laces brinps the Carboni.fer�us rocks in contact ar�th the (?rdovician ancl the unper �rd���rician strata at�ainst the �ran�te, sh�winP disnlacements oi several thousand feet. 1:�. For +,he Mos+ nart +}�e foldin� and fa.ulti.n� OCCLT7'TPf� before +he �lez�osition of the Carboniferoi�s CO21P,ZOr'IP,ra{-P, which extends across the western enc� of the fold. la. �ertain faults in the 41.�1.ri1'�:V of A�ill rreek and near Ru�vhorn, howetrer, occurrecl sinre +,he denosition of the con�lomerate, v�rhi�h ?.s inz*olveci in the d isttirhances . 15. PAr1-S of fol�ls �n raml�rian an� �rdoRician limest�ne occvr fatzl+ed a��inst +hA �ranite at the P,7C+rpMP, 5017'I'1'lP,aSfP,T'21 Prr� ofl the unl.ift.��4111 16. So lara�e an area is onerlanped and c�on�ealed b�� rretaceo�as strata that the re7a+,ions o" +hPSP ��r+s of f'olc�s t-o �t-r.er strt�cttzres cAn not he dei-ermined. ((41-�2)) 17. Parts of t�•o fla+, irre�ular svn�linc�s are renresen+e�. and the faul�in� �t�nPars to follo��� +..heir axi�l trends.((42)) 1P. TTear +►,e e�s+ en� of +.he limes+�ne exnosnres the �,000 to 6,000 feet o�' Ar}�uei-le � 1P1P,SfnnP. � s cvi- at ri �*h+, ann].es t� +,he be�� �nr* anc� �rrn�c�Y�t a?�ainst tr� �*rani+e. R_5. Tishomir_�o anti c13r_e( (421i 1. finn+h nf the r�i11 �reelr svn�line an� forminm the s�+rern nart �f �-he .0.rbuc�rle lUrot�nta�n re�i�n �s a hroc�cl, fl�t f�1�3 call�d the Tzsh.omina�o ant�cl-ine ?. ThP lare�e �rani+e area lvin� n�rthwes+ o�' Tzshomin�*n o�cu��es the axial nart �f t1,is an+i.c] ine �. Aho��P, f'.�'lP, �r�n�te anc� unon its wesi-ern. sicie the �rrholP see+��n from lrn+rer rambrian to �t�rhoniferotas is e�pose�3, nit�hi.r.? �nrPs+ward at an n.n�1e of abotat 18° . ' 4. The northern limb o£ thi.s �,nticli.ne is f�r +he mos+., n�rt �'i.snlace� �nd �oncealed bv f�laltine� �. 4 lar�e n�rt of thP SAt�'t'1'1P,2'71 �.��b o�'�•the fol� is also c�r_cealed b,y faUltin� fro.n +he �ricinitv of ?!?vatt e�st�r�rd 6. Ror�erinv� the srranite on +�e south side, this fAult c�tts the whole sPcti.on of �tr»tif'�i.e� rocks from �amh�-�an to Carbon�.fProixs, and disAlaces them in such manner th�a+ the f'ormat�ons rest consecuta.nelt* ae�a�nst thP �;ranite 7. ?�?orth of thiG �'�.ta7t, �rrhich e.�ctends al�n� the s+rike of the rocks from the �;rr�nit� westv���rd t� l�as'�ita R�4er, +.he ro��s di.p �enPra)lv at low an�les trn�rard +hP west and sotithwest R. fln the s�vthern s i�' e the ro�ks s+r� �-e q�*�r�ximatelv wit;h t-he trenci of the f�i�l+, an�l dip steenlv t�rar� +re sot�+.hwest- 9. �T�rtheast of ilotl�*hertv the Tish�mirr�o anticl i.ne contrac+s an� deparates into �t-tiRro minor folds, 1-he nn1^{-hEjrrtmnS+ of wh� �h ni+. ��!es r�n�c�.l�;r c�!rum�vs�rd tow�rd fhe n�,-thtnre�+ an� ;s los+., ber_Pat•h 1a+P Carboniferrnas con�lor�e��ate which o�erlans ol�e� sP�ime�ts 1n, m�e sP�ond fo1c1 is the ��ves.+,ern EtX'FA►'!S1�T! of th.e cen+ral n3rt of +�+? onti�l�ne 7.1. The rocks in +he axi�l psrt pitch nnrthwe�+war�l at an enr�le of al�out 2,0° eas+ of nov�he�, �nd r� sP aa�in a+.. aho,a+ the S9?P1P qno��P nnrthvNest of the same pl.ace. -24- 1?, mhi s fold continiaes nori-hwesi;�varc�, expan�inr� sli�*htly, until �_t alsn �s concealed h.r late Carboniferrn?s az�d recent river deposits. 13. Two t� 5 miles northnrest of nou�*hert�r, s�nd so»th of the ��PstPrn c.ontracted. end of the T�shomine�o anticline, �s a neculiqr dome-like anticline less than a mile in width, with n�,-th-so»th a.xis. 14. The OCCLlrrPrir� o? +,his local fold (�G'f1P,rf5 the T-i.shomin�*o ant�cline sli��i;lv northward l�. (ln the nor+hwestern and southeas+Prn sic�essof this do?*!e-17.ke anticline there are small svncli.nes, and their sharn n�rth en�s .r�se in +he s�vth S;�P �f the Tishomine�o ant�cline 76. The Fouthern nart of this dome-like anticline is concealed by the sand and si]t denosits ir. +he vallev of ?.�Tashita Ri�er. R-6. '"lashita st�ncline(�4?,-43)) 1. Just sout.h of the Ti shomi.n�o ant-i �� ine, n�ar the n�int where 1+11i11 Creek �rosses t�e lqrr�e fa,�lt, is � fa��l+eci soia+,hern limb of a s�rn�lir_e. ((42�,1 2. It is alsn a part of the northern limh �f a narrov�r anticline whi�h trends to�rard +he northwes+ and approaches ard is clat i�v the fA.tal+ ea�t oi the center of T. 5 S., R. 4 E.((4?-4S)) 3. Thi.s broken ant9.cline is nrobahlv a b�rt of the Arbuckle anti�line �?es�ribed t�elow( i4�) ) 4. A lo�al narrow st�c�linal fold occurs �n the northern si�1e of' the sqme fault in sec. 2., T. 3 S., R. 3 E., and its so�athPrn limh ie faultPd dn•mrnr•rs�rd and ooncealed F. These two Aarts of synclines are si.m3.la*-l�r rel,a.ted to the mish�min�o antioline �nc� trenc� in the sazne �irection, but the fault c�n�eals {;heir trve rel �tions 6. The se�ond sm�l1 svncline rises to�!arcl the w�st anc� tren clescends ne�r the western side of T. 2. S., R. 3 F., becomin� a nart of the deep �'Pashita syncline, wt�ich lies beneath the valle?T of �"7ashi+� River nort.h�rest of the �or�e in the Arbuckle bRounta�ns. 7. The sauthern limb of t�e '�,�ashi_ta s�rncline i_s steeply uoturneci. i?. The bec� s exnosec� so»t� of the ri�er val l ev dip toward the northeast at Anales narvin� Y�etween 40� an�l 70�. 4. Tn the nori-hwestern si�e of the fold, east of the c�ome-like anticline cl�scri?�ed in connecti on tiuith the Tishomin�o anticline, the rocks �are inclinecl tov!�ar�7 the SouthT+�es+ at aneles of abaut 30°. 1�. ATorthwest of tre dome-like fol� the dips are eterper 11. It is beli.eQe�? that the sovthern extension of the dome-like anticline does not p�ss be�ronr� the axis of +he syncli.ne, since the exnose� rocks in the so�t+h.ern limb sroTv no indic�fion �f trans�e.rse stresses. 12? The s�nd. anc� silt deno�its of �'lasrita p�.4er con�eal the �xi.Rl nar+ of the fol�, which cont�ains a th�_ct� section of C�.rboniferous shale 1�. The norh+wes+�arc� extension an� nrob�hl�r a 1arp�e nart of t-he i�T�shi+.,a s�mcline is �oTrerPd bv overl�.n of 1R+e �arboniferous cor_alamerate, which conceals the westward P.7c'I'P.nS�OYt of all thP larae folds of +he Arhuc�-le upli.f't � B-7. Arbta�kle anti�line((43-4611 1. Sovth �nd we�t. of i'��sh�t� �i.��er is � broed an�? stee�-sided Qr_+i cline lvhirh is o�cunied. b�� the Arbuck�e ��ounta �n5 nroper ?,� The fold converp�es nra�+ica11Y to a noint east of Vdashita pi�*er, and nitches steenl�t east�rrar� be+,ween c.�n�era�ino- fa.ults. �. ATorthwe�tward the fol� exoan�is izr_til it rggChP,S a vyidth of 1� miles �t +,he western en.d of the mounta�ns, �rhere the ro�ks invol�*e� i.n the foldin� are overlapped and cor_ceQled b�r Pennsvl�anian and "Red Rec�s" c. on n7 ome rate 4. Seci-.ion .0.R on the map(Pl. I�, drav�m �.cr�s� the west end of the fol�, ill.ustrates the eh�.ra�+er of the s+ru�+ure. �. The rocks ne�r the northern and sout'-�ern borders dip at �.np�les of 30° to 7��, while in the a�ial n�.r+.. of the fold, es�e�ial]v +.hrou�*h the broader �.�res+ern nortion, +,he incl inat; or_ of the t�i ck eamb_ro-�rd ovic. � an rocks is usually much lower, thouah locally variable. 6. Tn the eastern part, near the ?°�Tashi+� Ri�rer aoro�e, the fol�3inP h.as been more intense. -2F- U3GS P. ;�1 7. (�n].�T the �PnPra.l fe�tiares of +re St;r1]('t11rP, hAve �PP,21 b�r�rked oit+. �nd shovvn on f.he a�r,rnnp�nvinP� small—S('A.ZP, map. 8. In the axi�l ��rt of +he an+,lc�line, near the cen+er �n�l �uestern eai.d, are t.wo uns�rr7r.�etric�l d�me-li1Te str�a.�+�+res in whzch nre-�ambri an i p�ne�l�s roclrs are P,7C7�0 S P, (� 9. ThP rocks in +he.northeastern sides of �hPsP �omes �.re more steenlv in�lined, re�ic�es beinr� falzl+,ed. i i43i) l�. The more P,�.S+Brl�r of these elev�+� ons, 1�n��rn lo�al l�r ns the .F,ast �'�oo�ied Hills, i.s i-he smaller, anc? is bovnded on +he r_�rtheas+ hy a �iar�e�7 f�,ult, r���rin� the i�neous arPa A rgr�Bl�T CrP,6rP,Y!i--fiYlEL�P,� outline. (�4�-4411 1]. The r.�asG;.�e CamY,r�an limestone on +he east. side ��ns �,w�,v from the iv�neol�s m�ss ir the �irection of th? �nv,mwArd disnla�e+nent-.((4411 �?� The m�re WP,SfP,r1.V dome-li�P E'JAZ'f��1.0?'1 of +he s+.r�ta in the 4rbtaokle anticline, known lo��llj,� as th.e ':YPs+• Wo��ied Hil1s, is brokPn on thP n�rihhern sid.e b�� a ntzmber of' f'aizlts �rhich h�.�*e avnroxi?�ai-.elv +he st�me dira�t-i.on as the +rend of d�i3e fold., an� on thP eoi�t'�wPst-ern side h�r a s�ngle iaixlt nPar thP wes+ern end. 1�. Fo�ar �'�tal.ts ha�e bPPn locatec� on the northeas+ern sid�. 14, The two fal�lts v�rhir,h bor�ier the �ranite are e�entiv �urved or fluted �n�l the Cambrie.n limes+�ne is disnlace�l cio�xrnuard to�rrard the n�rth 1�. The vertical th�ow can n�+ be aec�zra+el�* Ps+�mate�, but i� is �robabl,y not less thr�n �n� fP,P,'f: tivherP the T�eac�an 8�tY1C1S-F011P, is �on�ealed 16. The sPcnn� +wo f�vlts have causPc3 �r?a+er di.snlacemen+ of the s+r��a 17. Thev �re near to�ether, are neaily narallel, �nr� con�*er�e at the e�restern si.de of Se�. 1?, T. 1 S., R]. ��. � 1R. RPt;�treen these faults a na.rroUr �reci�e of +.he 9imns�n f�rma+ion is thrcn+�m dc�vsn retUreen ma��i�e str�ta -ir_ the lcnvPr nar+ of the Arbuckle limestone 19. A_ faalt in 1-he s+.ri�e an�1 soi�+h.Aas1- a? +hP dPnresse� wec�u�e of Simnson li�estor_e ciats +he sotathen5tern lobe �f +hP i�r_�ovs mass, +hrOwjri�' +re Camrrian limest-nne �own nn +..he southwestern si�e o�' r� ton�ae of pnrph«rtr ?.�. It is nresumed tha� thi. s is the sol��hwestwar�l P,Xf.P,ri510n �f +t�P more northerl,y of the t�o faul+s above rP.fP,7'TP,c� to. 21. The f�ialt on thA SAl�f�1t'VPg'�?rp side of t�A �,*est 1"�Inn�P� 7i�lis has a more east.erlv bes�ri�� th�n +hose �n thP nort-hPas+ern side 22. Towarrl the eaGt it en+,ers thP �ranite an�t i_s lost to vi.ew. 23. moTrrar� the wbst it nasses into +�P t���.k rambro-Ordonciar_ limes+one anc9 prohably beneath the ovPrlax�r�inp� C�rbonifernus ��ne�lor?erate ?4. The bearin� of +ht�s f�.ult is 0�711ry11P, to +he st.r�l-e nf thP r�cl�s, �n�3 +he disnl acement of the strr�ta � s d�tivnw�r� twarcl +he �ov+Y�, c�nr.�P�7 �n� +he Re��an sandstone ZF, The be�s on e�eh side, �'SAP,C'! �.] ly +hosP ne�r +he hase of +.he sPction, St;T'1kP, ae�a.inst +he �'aizlt at hi�h anples. 26. Ional fol�inv ancl fa«lt�n�* have oc��urred near the bor�er �f thP Car��ni.fermis c�n�l�me.ra+e ea�t of the "�Pst 1r.Too�ec� Hills 2.,7. A str9.ke fault in +,h�s c�istri�+ se�arates the Vibla limesi-one from olc�er form�+ions on the �est 2p. I+, is evider_t that the !�isnl�cemPnt of +.he rarks on thP r_�rthP�st side 5s �?oj�vnward vai+h. resnent to those on the o�noslt-e ai�e 2Q. S(?l?'��'P,FG+ward +,hP �'�vlt a�.sses rPne�+h an �ra� o�' f'Arl�OriifPrOtas limes+ane c�nPlomerate, �hich �r3s dPnos�.te� �n erodec3 edPes of t.he Cambrian ancl Ordovician ro�l�s after +he �'ol�in� an� fai�l+..�n� i.n tr�s �?�stric+, occurre� �0. F�ri-hPr tov�r�rd the soiatheast. an� ex+.Pn�lin? to �`�ia.shi+a River it is bel�etTed that 1-.he s�mP �'a.ialt conf�mae,s in +he s+r;.�re �f +.he �ir!��on fo�-TM�ation. 31 . T+.s exa�t loc�+; on, hrnve��e,r, i s �i ffi.cul+ to �ietermine. (( nn �� :�?. The �is��acement 9t�'�A�i7'S +.� 1.n�rP,�SA so,?theas'�ward, sin�e the Simpson f'ormation bPcomes �*ra�ltxa] lv +hinner in +his �i_rPc'-ion hv +he lo�c �f lcswer beds, until onlv a remnant. of its thi�kness is nresent where i+.s �l�+�rop a�n*-oa�h.es �"�fa�hi+a Ri�*er. ( (a�_45i � :��. Tn the rivAr val1e`* the falalt cu+s a�ro�s +he �'r�.shi+� svn�line, rrinoin� stacressi�elv �ili�ri an, ne�ronian, �n� rArr�niferous ro�ks in �on�-e�t wi+h the t',ambro-Or�ovi �ian Arhiackle f'ormat ion. ((45) i �4. Fast of �"Tash-ita piver +he thro�rr f�9C►'P,9,SP.S� and nra�+��fl1�vi ceases near the -�s- s�ta+ra�st c�rr_er of sec. 29, T. 2 S., R��;. 3F. From apnr�x5matel�r the s�amP pl�ce a t'avl.+ �lrea�l�T des�ribed extends t,hraue�h the so�ath limb �f the Tishomin�o anti.cline ;�6. ThP c�i.snlacement of +he rocks of this fai�l+, ho�erer, i s d.nv�mw�rd towerd �he sovth 37. A secnn� fault occurs in the rocks nor+h of the ��zst zAToncied Hills ;�P. I+ j�ins tre first near the western side of sec. 24, T. 1 S., R. 1 F., �r_c� l�ea*-s to�Tar�l +,he t+vest, v��ich downthrow toward the eovt;h 39. Thus b�+.4veen the tv�ro faults t.here is an ol�tuse WAr_�f*P, of olc�er rocks whi.ch has bPen e1e�a+ed with resT�ect to the form�zti.ons that oa�iar on op�os�te sides oi t.he faults. 4�, It has bPen exnl��necl that the A*'l�tar�le s�nti.r,line ne�r the corssinp� of iNashita RitTer and bevon� towarc� +he SOUi"!lP,£i$t is much contr�c+.ed. an� s+ron�ly folde� an� faulted on both sides. 41. The faialts on +he northern side have bePn descri??ed 42.. On tl�e sou+hern sid_e t.he� (�?S'+'Ltr�gtl(!P,S are more comnlex Anc? are difficult to i nterx�ret 4�. Two an� nossi_blv more faults cross 1Rashat.a �'iRer nParly i?i +..he +renr� of foldina;, anc� connert�e tOl"7?iT'� the southeast nesr the �outhert� side of' se�. ?1, T. 2 S, R. $ F; . 44. The restal+ire' �isplacement, when +,he�r �on�=era'e, is sl�ch +�.�t f'Arl�oniferol�s shales are +hron�m �o�!n on the sou+,h an� rroi��*ht-. in con+ac.+ wi_th Ordo�rician 7ime�tones 4�. In secti ons :�2, ari� :�� of thi_s trn�mship the same shales �re f�ul+ed auainst Orc�ov�_cian ro�}�s, but on the northern si�?e. 46. A fault transec+s the fold obliavelv to its tren�, bearin� sotathPast from the n�rtrern side, an� apnroaches anc� seems t.o .�ni_n +he above-na.med con?fero�irP fatal+..s near the southeast corner of seci-ion 32. 47. Rere it turns eastUrard i.n the south si�e of the n�rrow }�itchin� end �f +he Arbia�kle �nticline, clividin� Carboniferous ro�.ks lyinr� on the north from Ordovician lim�s+..one on the sot�th. 48. T?�ar the soiz+hern si�!e of secti.on 34 a narrow framnent of massi�re Arbvekle limestone a half mile ir_ lenr�th i s ap��rently Aro jected int� the �!ississip�ian shal es 49. The limeet�nes are steenlv upturned an� the shales in exposl�res n��ar bv are intiTM�+elzr crtamnled and sli�l+'ensided. F0. An e.+temnt at exnlanat,on of the forces which nro�viced the �listurbances of the rncks woul� not be sa+i�fa�tor,v withov+ ftarther ci�+ailed work, but i+ apne�rs +,hRt +here have been mo�re*nents of the strata lon� i-he fault planes in the trend of +he foldin�^ an�? t�,a+ the lon� and nA.rrov� we�lae of limestone referred to above hes been thrus+ into the �arboniferous shales.((�4F}1 �B. T�e rocks in the soii+hern limb o�' the A�buokle �n+icline h��e �Pen �r,�mnled to a sma71 extent, �pnar�n+lV 1'?V fpr�P.S ac+�n� in the direction of the trend of the fo1�1. ( �46i 1 F?. Loca.]. t.r�ns�rerse fol�s occvr i_n. the s+ron�l�* t3_lted so��thern limb of the anta.cline, ar_� +wo oi the�e are fatalted F:�, �n� i.n:=t,a��e �rraG +���ted near Z�Poor3f�rd r�n� t�?P o+her 6 miles Aast F4. TrP trPn�l of +.he one is towarc� the n�rthe��t, v�rhile +t��+ of the �ther is towar�3 the northv�est 55. In e���1 �FisP. the f�lalts are +r�.ceable ±'r�m +he r�,.rron�fer.ous shales on +,he sou+h into +he t�i.ck �rdo�rician lime�+ones or_ +he nort;h btr me�ns of +rP d5.sc�r�ant cont�ets and local crumnling of the str�ta, �ue to +hc� l�+P_*al dra� or either sic�e 56. AetwePn t-hese fault-s, which avnroach eash n+.her almost at ri�ht �na�les, the tr� �n��ilar bloc]r of' strata has m��red south�sra�,, �r upward, with resnec+. to +he rocyG on the onno�ite sides of the f aults. i�. NOTES ON THE OCCURt��P10E OF ORE DEPOSITS OR 1�RECIOUS M�TAIS IP7 TiiE ARBUCKLE MOTJNTAIh,TS ( ( 46)1 1. It has heen sh �rn in the discussion of the strati.�raphv of the Arbuckle 1V�ounta�ns that all of the ie�n.eo»s roel�s, inaluc?inp� the c�ikes, were f�rn+ed in earlv ramrrian or nre-�amt�rian time, anrl that thev prob�bly suffered lon � erosion befare +�e ol�es+ sedimentarv rocks w�re deposited. 2. mhe �arioias cls�sses of ie�neoi�s rocks, in�li�di.n� the dilres, show no inc�ic�tion of f�ultinP� fissurin�^, or sheari.n� alon�* their conte.cts wi.th one another _?�_ USGS P. �l 3. �n the cnntrar,y, there is e�e1-tr in��c�tion th9+ t.he in+rus�or_s of �rani+,P-pornh.�rrv, �p17.f:?� O?` �liahase �s r�o��� ex��sed o�ctarre� a� PrA�+ c�erths, �n� th�t no oc�ca�inn ha.� �PPn �i.�*en for thP n�s�a,r�e of ineteori� waters Zvhirh t�ro�zlc� ��1zsP rPnlacPment o_r minerali�a+,ion of t-he raclrs alon� their cnntacts. 4. It is trt�e th�t +he i�nearn�s rn�ks, as ti��Pl] as the stratifiP.(� rn�1rS� of +he Arhuckle ro�*ion ha�e rePn exi-Pnsi�rPl�T faial+Pr�, b��+ +hP�P faiali-s oc�urred lonp� s-ince tr.e foa+ana+ion of thP iane��tas ron�s, an� +hPv harP nc?+rina +o �o with +he rel at; ons of the d if f'erpr�+ ki p� s of i s�nPo,�S rnck5 with �ne H.nother �. All the �'aialt r,�nt-.��ts be+�uPen +.hP i mreotas 9n� SfrA+'!f1P.� r���-s haTMe bPen c�refullv traceri, �v+, na inr�i�P+ion �f +re m�nPrali.��+�on �f +he rocks or fhe oc��arren�e of ore �Pno�i+� �f' �nv c��hsPquPn�e �] �nc +.hem hatTe been n�ted. 6. There i� n�thin� in +he to�or�ranhy to ai� one in tr��;n� linPs of favlti.n� in the i.r�r_Pous rocks, anc� the�T �rP so �ePnl�r weathereci or �nncPaled bv soil �r starfic� al sand t,hat. � s+riic+taral featizre can n�t bP +.ra�ed for an,y �onsic� � rable � i st�znce 7. MamT of +.hP dikes, chis?lv +h�sP ofl �ia�asP cut.+1n?� the �ran�.te, have reen nr�snec+e� �+ �TPr;rn,s +;-�Ps for thP brecio�as mPt�ls i4�3thot�t an•r sro•nr of nrofit, anrl the siam of al7 infor^nation ohts�n�ble �itres no �G�uran�se �hnt ore or mete.l �enositg of' �mr �fi1llP, cAr be foi�nd in +he rea�ion. ((46) ) STZ. NOTES ON TgE Gt+.OLOGY OF THE CRIN��R HILLS ((47-Fn) i A.((IT]TRODUCTION�)((47)l 1. Fifteen miles so,�t:h of the Ar?�ta�kle T�.�ol�nta�ns anc� 6 miles southtve��t of Ar�?more �.s a small ta�lift, lo�all�r 1rnon�m as f�!� �*'1Y1P1' u�lls, ir_ which are exposed alJ the forma+i�ns orci�rr�nr� in the Ar�t�ek_lP ianlift exePpt th� nrc',-('flml�r�s�ri i�neoi?� mass, 1-he neA��r san�lst�ne, an�? +-he lnv�rer nart o�' +he A*bta�?�le limestone B. STRATIGRAYHY( (a711 1. The formati_nns o�enrin� i.n +hP rriner H;lls in�lv�le R CA?I?pIC9+P, ser.t�_on from ne?r t.he top of +l�e �&mbr-ign, up fio the �arhonifArrnas, a�d t.het► are fo»nd to cont��n in a].1 resnP�+-s the �h�racfers �nnParina� i.n the sar�e fo.�-?na+.i.ons in the Ar�vetr].e ARot�n+a�ns, �e�cr�.hecl ab��re. 2,. A detRiled des�ri}�ti on of their li Tholoa�V, +hPref�re, � s not �onsi�lered ne��ssarv in thi.s nlane. :�. ThP loc�tion �n� are�.]. Pxi-en� of t►,c� �'�rmat�ons maT* be sPen on the map. C . TOYOGRAF'iiY( (47-4?�)1 1. PhvsioPraphi�al?�r th� �`riner uills a.r� t�P Ar��uck1P 1V�ount;a.ins i� min�attare. 2. F''omnosPd of +h.e same ?orma+��ns ste�nlzr fol�'ed �nc� exnose�l +o ero�ion in e�zrlv �rPtaaeoias +i�^e, t.hP �; s+ri r+ iras rP�lia�eci to a l�v�r plain an� st�hmer�ed 3. In co*n�ar�tiRelv recent, �*eolo�ic time the (;rP,tflCP,Ot?S �enosit-s wPre removed, a��in expos�n!� thP older roclrs to th.e net,, on of erosior_ 4. It will be obsernPd tha+. +hP rriner Ni17s lie ir_ an anmlP formed t�,y Ni�yorv CreeU anc� its tri?�t�+�r;es, and are boun�ed on the northeast and sovthwest by C,ret-3ceous san�i, +he l,ase of tvhich, i�' r�ntintious, �ollld fall t�racticall_v in a t�1�in ctatt�;n� th� crPsts ��' the hills �. In fact, a remnant o�' the !'reta�eovs a�nd ma.v V�f bP,P, SP,np on f'arboniferous rocti-s st the southeast en�3 of (`r171er Hills 6. Si_n�A the remo�ral of thP �',rP�"�.CA(1t1S sar�3 erosi.�n has P021P, on more ac.+ively in +.he soft Ca.rbonifer�tzs rocks th�n �.n thP ol�1Pr an� har��er roeks, there- bY develoninr� the hil�s. 7. The nla�n at +he base of +.he f'retaceoia� r�rr� ch f�.1� s i.n +he cres+� of the l',riner Hz.]ls is fhe Game �s +ha+ �vh?nh mr�r?Ts +he hi�h lP�*Pls of the ArbUcl�le T+^ov�t ai ns F�. It was nroc�ucec� by the hasP-le�el�n� erosion whi�h A��r�nne� n�rfhw�.r� vPith the sPa acr�ss the r?�*ion S.n ��.rl�r CrPtace�i�s t,-ime, 9. Iil�e the l�r�er st.rP�ms in thP Arhia�kle rer�ion, Ri�korv rr�ek an� i+s l�r�er tri�i�+arie� in thP ni.cinii-y of +he �rirer Hills were imnosP� on tre ol�ier and �*Ar� �blv h�r� rocks �'r�m f'n?�P.?'lv estA�l-i shed drainaae �ha*�nels �n +hP m�rP homo�*enac,tas s�u+reas+,,,��r�il�T �n�linP�i rr�ta�9oi�s �ra+,a 1(�. Thms, like "�Tash�.t� piver in t-hP Arbvc1rle 1�?ount•a�r_s, Ti;.nlr�ru f',reek �vt i.n+o t�he ro�Us of +he �'7'7.nP.7' xfills, a*�c� is si-i.11 deenen-inc� i1-S P'nT^�'P, aeross fhe h�r� �rd_os�ici.an limestones as erosi.on of the so?i-er s+ra+e of the siarroun�iinr� re�*inn cont�nuPs 1-� lower it-.s s�arface below i-hP nl�in of the Criner H�_lls.((47)) - ��- 11. The minor �etails of �riner fiills tonor�rabhy c�enend upon i;he chAra��Pr of the rocks com�osin�* the ex-�osed forme+,� ons. i(4�) 1 12, As in. +.hA Arbuc�le ]V�our_ta�ns, the A,r1���c�r1P limestone, heinrr a massive �nd cort�aratitrely �'10'�'OE*P,T1P,017S f�r!nati on, 7f1Pl�rP.c irr��t�l�r �+onv hi lls, wh;lP +..he �Ti.ola and Hunton li*ne�tnn.es, consistin� of thi.nner +,hot�ah �mm��r�+lirelV hard.er beds, m�!�e o�al �n� Gmoo+h hills an�' ric��es. 1�. The S�Tlran shsle is in�ari�blv �n va1lA�rs or iswales, an� +he Si�^pson form�+'nn, vvhSch �.s �.n lar�,P nart co�nosed of soft rocks, is usuallv oc��+niecl r�r va]levs �n� lo�rer hill slones. D. STRUCTURE Or CRIN�R HILLS((r�a_50�1 1. The relatio�s �f +hP PAnnsyl��an�an l�eds to the older rocks are essentiallv the same as in +he A.rblarkle A�ount�ins, so fqr �9 covld be �eterminecl b�r a c�ener�l surzrev. 2. The �vcam�re ].imes+�ne �n� �a.ne�r sh.ale of the ]��ississipni�n occiar i_nf'ol�ed mrzth the oa�er rocks, and ;+ seems Pn1(�P,T1'I' +ha+ ir thi.s area., a� elseti�here in +he Arbuckle NMour_t�i.n re�i�n, acti�re di�tur�- ances of +-he ro�bs r�i� not OCCI]r UTt?:11 4��taf mid-�'•[i7'�Jn111'!'P]"nl7S time �. Sv£ficient f�ssils, how@ver, �rrere not obta�r_P!� +o determine the nnsi+� on �f the lo�n�est Pennsvl�rani an be�?s exnosed in +he �� S�"T'] �f. 4, Trere is a nronovnced l�nconformitv �+ +�e rasP of +he roal Measlares si-r��a acr�ss the nnrthwestern end, in a 19r�e port.i�r o+' +he nor+h- eastern side, and a+, the southeas+-ern end, of +he hills F. The lowest ex�osed beds of the !`oal 1��Pa�ures a�nsis+. of �r�++v sili�eovs limest-one, se.ndstone, and shale in.+erbec��ed, an� n��rse lim.estone con�lomerai-.es. 6. The entire soiathwestern side, howeTer, an�? a*�art of the n�rtheas+ern sic�� are marUed bv fa.talts. 7. The ex+en.t of_' clisp�.aeement on the sovtheastern side is not cleterminable. 8. The older rocks of the hills end abrlintl,y ir_ a definii-e bvt low es�a_rp= ment, a+, the base of �vhi ch a number of 1�.��P snr3no�s issiie. g. qs s�n�m bv the exnosures, the ro�lrs ir_ co-�tAct at +he base of the es- c�rnment consists of Coal Measnres sh�,les, ca.lcareous arits, and sands+ones, anc� dip usuall�r tovrard the s�uthv�est. 10. Tn +.he 9rP,�1 west of uick"orv (',reek, excent that ��rt borderina� +he s+ream, � fla+, fertile nl�.in ex+en�s i;o the base oi the escar'nment. 11. The rocYs of the Criner Hills s+ruci-iarallv c�mnnse narts of f�i�r folds. 1?. All these folds are 9ntersectec7 by faults an�l �re hotandPd on one or more si�les by an over� �n of rarboni.fernl�s �enosits. 1�. The ler�er of these �'ol�ls in�,lu�les +.he nori�hwes+ern ��lf o±' the hilJs ar_d is ». nor+heastward-dinnina� mon�cl ine �r the hrolren s��a�hern limb of a svncli.ne 14. Alon� an�3 n.e�r +he sonthwesi-.ern side the lowest exnosP�? be�ts nf the Arbuckle limesi-one �a.re ne�rl�� fl�i- and are locallv def'le�+. ed dcrnmw�rd at low ane�les towar�l the fa�zlt wh� �r r�i�n�ls +-he hills. ((4P� i 1F. It is ;ntPr�reted th�t this local southwestv7ard deflection of +;he rocks is due to +�e (�rfl�' in +,he downward disp�acem�nt on +he obposi+e side of the f�ult.(i4R-49)1 16. There are no means l�v w�; ch +he exi-Prt o�' � i sn7 ��ement- o� the stra+a al�n� the southwest side of the fold can be d.e.+ermined.((49)1 17. It is reasonable, hrnvever, to �on�i�er +ha+ the +hrow is not so �reat as th.e dis�ordar_ce in strata nodv in con+�ct at. the feult w�u7.d indicate, btat tha+, i.t is, in nart at least, dve to an unconfn.rmable overlap of Ca.rboni.f erous ubon the _fol�ed and eroded olr�er rocks befnre th� �'aultin� ocevrre�. 18. q fanit also boiands the northeas+ern side of' this fold. ]9, 7+ l+ears S. 2,�° to 30° F. from thP *�nrthwest rorner of the hi?ls, obliniae to +he s+f�ike of tre rocks a.n� to the +rend of the hills. ?0. The strafa on the east side of the fanit hav� been thro�m d.ov�m with res�ect to those on the mrest side 21. The axi.al nart af a s�m�l;ne oc�t�r� eaG+ oi +�is faalt, near the ►�nrth end o�' the hill s 22, mhP lrnve�t ro�ks exnosed. here are ne�onit�n(i�V��d?�rd) �hertv shales, which oc�t�r in oon+ac+. with Orc�oni�ie,n(��iola) limestone on the onposi.te si�le of the faialt. 23. Near the nor+h si�r of se�. 22, T� F S., R. 1 F., +he f�,�lt �rosse8 +he �[xis of thi.s s�*n�line, e.nd towar�l the sota+heas+ su�eessivelv l��rer form- -�9- USGS P. ;zl a+ions anrroach t.he f'aul+ or_ eanh side. 24, rnhi.s fault ,���.ns +h�+ i_r +he so��thern �O�?n�R]'�r or t.hP hi1.1s near the orosGine� nP Ni_(�k��� ('Y'P,E'k `j,�. T}'1P. (�OFR'11Vgir�i ri_�gX�].c`1.C811'1P..IItS Of' f'�'1P,�P f's11��'�c �7'P. 1T1 OU'?�Sl'FP �irP,(`1-iOriS� yl.]'1� i�: i.e ev�dent th�.t in +he lat+,er fai.�l+., tre disp��cem�nt is ,c.rP�ter, sin�e it con+inlaes dowr_�rard towr�rd the soiathevea+, be�T�n� the 1unc+i�n of the faults, �nd to the solzt_h_Past Pnd oi the hil ] s � 26. From H�cvnrv C�"F'P,k solatheast.t�tard the �n.cl�n�+;on of +he oir�Pr rocks o`' th� hills is 45° to 50° T�TF, whi_le t�,e r�rronifer«us rocka dip ?,5� to 3�° S��l. 2,7. F'ast of' t,h^ aboti•e-c��scrihed farlt, v�rhich �»+s the hill.r �iA��nall�r, the olc�er ro��s c.cm�pr�se a remr.�nt- c�f an ant.�cl�.n�l folcl, U�hi�h trPn�ls an-�roxi^��telv R?. 20° 1N. , 28. The vpper nart of the Gimpson formation is exposed in nla�es �io1-h east anc3 west. o? Nic�kor�• rreek, an� t.he six�ceec�in� �Tiola lime�t.�ne c?utcrons in ]�re�e bodies �r_ each side, makin�; the soiatheas+,ern nart of .+,he Cri.ner Hills. 29. fi+il l h� r*!�er format� or_s, the S�rl�ra.n shale.and tre fiunton limFs+one, o��ur et the north�ve�+ern �n� sovt�.heastern Pnr� s of thi s broken f olc� . :�0. In the n�rtwes+ern enc3 the�r arP +erminRt.ec� hv f aultin� anc� nrarl�p of the r�.rr�nif'er�us c�n�lom�ra+,e, an� a.+, thP opn�si+e end ann�rPn+lv onlv h?r overlap. �1. F�,vltine h�s oc��arred in +,he ax�r�l nar+, of this fold also :�2. at thP cross;r.�* �f N;c�orv �reP?�, �.n thP SW 1/4 sec. 3�, T. 6 S., R. 2 F., the Si?r.nson f�i^*na+,ion is Pxnose� on.ltr in +hP sotzthern limb o�' th? fold 3�. It ap��e.rs that +,he fal�lt foll ows an�rog�mafel�� 1-he stri.ke of the fold, an�?tha.t the ea�tern li�b has reen +hra�r.m �rnn*n �+rii-h resne�t +.o +h� n+her '�4� The �in o�' +,he ro�ks in the Gim��on form�t;or her� ,'� 80° fi'"�, while on the onposii;e si_�1e +,hP �riol a limPGt'nrle i s n��rlv as s+,�epl�r in�l ineci i.n the opnosite �irec+i�n ((49�) �F. In the ea�+ern h�1f of sP�. ;i6, T. � S., R. 2, F., thPre i.s a sr�al] area of S� 1 ziri an, neTon� an, and Rtii.ss�.ssinni an r�cl�s, svrroim�?ed t�nconf�rr±afil�T bv Coe.l MPa�tares str�tq. ( (49-F�11 ( ( FO) ) ;�6. Ti- �t71�P..qrS to be a nA.rt of the n�r+hPr� l�mb o�' the an+; �] ine ahovP des�rired;� �?. The rncks di.p t�warc� thP n-r+hP��t-,an� are nearlv in s+r;kP �ri+.h +he same �'orma+� �ns �+ the snl�+.heas+.Prn end o�' +he rrinPr u1� 1s ��. ThP rarhoniferoi�s ro�lrs on the n�rth.Pa�+ sir�e of t�`is anti��ine h��e suffered fold.in�, �nd ne�r the cnn+e�t �ri+h +he ol�er rocks �1rP, �enPra� lv steen]�,r inclined. and d i t� +o��rard the n nrthP a st . :�4. F�st. �f H;ek�rv CrPek dins of �arronifer�u� rocks a+ an!� ne�r �he n�nt��t $arv f'rom ?fi� +0 40°, wri1P +he ol�er 7'nc`ks di.x� a�; mreat.�r an�].es an�l in places in diffPrent or on�osit-e di.re�t�_ons, in�i��+,n� a�re�t landnn�'or*ni.fv. �0. lmmediatelv eas+ o�' the roa� a+ i�s crnssinu af Nicl�nrv �reek, nAar the we�t si.�s of sec. :��, T. � S., R?, �., the c�nf-,�ct is enidentiv unon a fault 41. At th-i.G nlaee +he �im�son forma+ion d5.ns trnv�rc� t-.he son+hwest, while the ciip o�' the rar�onifer�tas is 4�° in thP.o�poaite dire�tion. 4?. Far+her sovthe�st, ancl in. the opposit-e si.de of +he a.xi s of +,he fo1d, +,he zr; ola., Svl�an, an� Hlanton f�rm�tions �l�.p nortrPa�t, in +.he ��me �?irec+,�on as, �ut at hi�*h?r ancles +har_, do the o�erljrin� ('arh�n.ifProlas str�+a. 4?l. irlest of Rictrnrv Cree1-, at the h��e nf i-,he roal 1+��aaares denosi+s, i� a stron� »ncnnf�rm�fiv �vh�ch �.s nrol�ablv in z�art dt�e t� fanl+,'.n�. 44. The heds ne�r the base are 49rlA��P, in oh�racter al�n� +�,.zs contact. 4�. In somP n1 aces +,hP�= anpP±�r +,o be c.riPfl�r shale, whi le in o+hPrs, esveci�ll,y in se�+.i �n� �2 �nr� ?,7, are coarse limes+nne c�n�] om��ra+Ps ��ns� s+in� oi nel�blPs of thP sam? 11P,.f.l)rP, as thP limes+nnPs of the �rinPr Ai7 i s. E. ARDP��GRr' BASIZJ((��11 1. The rP..PiOTl �?P'fWP.Ati t�F �ri.nPr N�.11s and Arbiankle rRoi�n+��ns mflsr be characi-erized as the A7'C�mnrP, ia��[�x��exjsx��t[� trn�a�'h or hasi.n; 2. The rocks consi s+, �f sh�,le, 1�mo��t-�nP, 1 i�nestnne c�onmlomer�+e, anr' san�st�ne, of �oal AR��.si�rPs 9P'P,� a�d ha�*p ?�Pen s+r�n�lv f�lded. �. ThP tren� of +he �'ol�s in n�r+hinrPst an� soi�the�st, PPnP-s�I),y nArallel with +hP Arhu�.kle �nd rriner N;11s axes. 4. The clet-�i.ls of +.he �'ol�?�nv hs�ve n�+ t,ePr_ worke�? ot�+, bu+ svffiej.ent abser�ati�ns ha�*e r�Pn m.ae�e +.o �ei-erminP +�A+ �t;he ro�ks h�ve b�er �rtm,nlPd into manv falcls, �zrr,:c� fnPP..fhP,?' constitta+e a�?e�� ('07'rUQ'�fPr� szrncl;nP or tr�ta�h. ti. I�1-e the Arbla�?�le ?+�our_+�;n anc� !'riner Nills unli?'ts, �;}'1P. ,i�r(j7(?Qre +-ro��c�h is orerlat�ped anr? c�nce�led tnvr�rcl_ t.he nnrthvyP�t b�! Penns��ltran�an or "i�ed Bec�s" _ 3n_ denos;t,s, anc� on tt,P southeast ��• P�rlv CrP+�ceo��s aand. 6. Toward the s��ath +.,he �arl�onifProi�s ro�ks are als� concealed b`T !`retaceous de�osi+.s separatine^ them from roct�s of the same ar�e in t�e n��rth mexas co�7. field. ((50i 1 GEOLOGY OF THE �lICHITA MUtTAtTA1NS ( f 51-81) ) I . PREF'ATORY RET�IARhS ( ( 51- �811 A. PREVIOZTS �;VORK( ( �1-�31) ]� Tre ��i�h�.+s rRotzr+s�;n rP�ion was fi.rst hisited b�� scien+lfi� obser�rers in 1i�5?, when nr. Geor+�e �. Shumar�i, v�rho was phvsi.ciar to +he exnidi- tion, co�*nande�3 bv �nnt. n. B. X�!ar��r, tha+., explored t�e r?nrth Fork of Re� piver, a�n�ted the O�Curre?'1Ce of +,he i�neoi�s roc'�s of the mountains an� +hP Sf-r�i"Ifjp�l S�d1men+s �f.the surround�n� �lai±�s. a 51�enat.e Fx. no.r.,. nTo. .�ia, :��d �nn?�., �d SPSS., 'J�as�ira�t.on, 1�'5'�. Anoendix D. ?,. The exne�li+ion to�ached manv poi�ts al�n� 1-he sntai-hern si�1P �r_c� crossecl the northv!rPstern and southe�zs+ern en�s �f t.he r�n�P. �, l's�of.u.ir. MArcv m�p�ed a p�rt- of t1�e rana�e, ris map in�ic^+ino +.h�+ the r�n�e ha.d � n�rthea�t-southwest direct3on, when in fa�+ it tren�ls so�,tY?eas+ and nor+.hwest. 4. The mounta�.ns and streams with one excep�ion, st�_11 rp+aiTp thP names then annli?d �. Tene C'reek vvqG �esi.�n�t,ec� Snrinv �reek, an� Tene` Tdfo!mtain is eRiclent.l_y the emir_ence n�med T�our_t ?'Rebs+er hu Can+a.in. ARc�lel.lan. 6. The n�mes now locallv USP.C�. f'O?' th; s stream ar�d mountain are 1-0o w@1] es+a.blished +.,o adm�+ chan�*e 7. n�ctor Srtimard neted th�t the s�n�s.+,ones and_ red rla�T siarrovnd�n� the m�unta�ns were h�r�,zontal, anr� +.,ha+ the sandstone heds, v�rrere theu ap�roached ,+.he 1TIolant�iMB, r,ontained fr��ental i�neovs 2ft�.'�"P,7'1�1. P. He �.lso ohser�P�i +hA+ the r�ranite an�l nornhvey tsere wi�esnread in the motantains an� that +hA�� containPd "Re�ns" of �rePnstone ar_c3 nu�rtz'. 9. Tn 1R99 nr. T� R. Coms+ocl� an.!� T.Rr. T'�. F. C,limmins mac3e a reconnaissan�e of a nart �f +.hP '�ichi.ta Tt?otmtai.ns. � b Fl Firs+, Ann. ne*�t. Texas C,eol. Slar�rev, 1889, n�. 319-528. a. no�+�r romstock ha� recentl�� S117'?rP�rp� t,re "rentral Min�ral T�e�ion" of m@xas, �n �r�hich tr:e olc?er ianeoi�s an�' Paleozoi� roel-s o��iar, and his internrP+•at�nr_s of s+.riac+.Ure anr� �eol�f*i.c rel�t�nns ma�e the.re were eY+en�lec� to the �Tich�+a �rer�ion. b. He assl+*�e�l +he+ the r�eolo�r �f the central Texas re�*i�n -- �E00 miles d�ta�ant from thP '"7inh�t� Ran�e an�' SP.t�F1rg+��] fro*n i+ r�r li++-]P �i;.si-nr+,ad f;erl�on;fPrrnac anr3 P�rmi�n strcz+:a -- was � tre•r t� ,;.t-� Peolocic 777t,grprC;'ifl'�"'�1071 ��F]_�� . c. In fhe i�nP�t�s masses of the T�i�?��+.a Movn+,a.ins p�s+-l`arhon��'Pr�tis struc+t�res W2''P, a�narently recoc�ni ze�l rorresponc� � nc* �.�rith t.��s� ��ri �h wer� claimed tn oc�vr in the Texas re�� �n, 1MhP,re undi stur�ec� Perrni an s+.rata Sllrrpt]7t�R +�e mo�an-i-�;ns �n�? no C�p+a.eP�ias r�c��s �re kno�rm. (( 51- ��i i d, noc+.or �oms+o�k �lassPd the e�ran�te-pornhvr�ies of the (',arltnn lt"o��n+,ains, +he �abbro, e.n�? the �i.abase as lazTas renreser_t;n� s+.A�es of eruo+i.on, �nc� si-ated that tshere were flo�.vs an�' rem�+�ants of volcanic C7'9.'f;P.Y'S. 8. Ne correctiv noted the occur.rence of ol�er stratif-i.ed rocks which e►ere in�rolned �r the ��ri�hii-a unl�.ft, bu+ failed to see +l,at +.he dial�asP dikes Trrh�ch nenetra+P the ��bbro an�? p�ranite-pnrphvrv as �.ve1J as lhe �ranite are ol�er +,han the ol�est strat.i._fied rocks, which �.re oi m;d�le ra�hri±�n sa�e. f. noctor f'oms+�ck named m�n�r o�' the mount-a-ns, lo.r,�t-in� them bV numbers or_ his sket�h rriap. �. �f these on1,y Carlton, l'umm �ns, �iaana, an�? TTA?%£ijOP, ��.n be definitelv located. _;�l_ USGS P. �1 l�. In 1R91 �?r. R� T. Ni.11 ma�P somP a�enera7. org�rvati.ons on t-he nafure of thP '"tichitr� AJrountains, e./ at+P�:�tinp to conr_ecf +.hem st;r���turallv with the cluachita 1�`otan.tains oi ea,s+Prr.. Tnd i_an Terri+orv. a �2 TT�+es on a reconna�ssance o�' +h� Oue.�hi#a mo�in+�;n svs+Pm in Tnc�ian merri+orv: 4m. <Tot,r. Sci.., :�� ser., vol. 42, lR�?1, nn . 122.-12:�. �. Ne n�i-.es +,�e nertaliar +ono�ranh5�. fe�tt�r�s of �-he m�l�r'-A;ns anci c�n�lu�Ps "t�at +heir a?e is not �ei-ermin.ed," ri�t 1-ha.t t�P�� are nost-Si]ta.ri.an and hane dezreloped in n�rt. sin�P {-�P �enn�l+i�n �f the +'Re�l" Re�ls" 11. In +,he fai? oi 1R96 rRr. T. '�ia.vlan� �T�ta�*han, in makin� � reconn�iss�n�e of' rnar+,G �f' ��nsas ancl �klahoma, ir_SreGtiPQ+P� +hP ol�er P�leozOir str�+a on the n�rt�ern si.�e of +hP ranve �nd m.ar�e a colle�i-.ion nf snP��mens represent�ne� the nr1nci.pal t�rnes of ia�neous roclrs of +re b�Iichi+a Ranae. a. Thesr> �.011 e�.{;; ons wer� stu�7-i ed an�l reporte�l unon r« nr. .a. C. Snen��r. t�� b ( 52 TTavmh�n� ��lahoma, ar_� the the 7 �?�e�vs rorlrs nn . 44-a.ri . T. '��a�r] �*,�, reolo�;.� no+,Ps or_ thP j'7i�hi+� �Aoiint��ns, ?r��aclrle Ni11s, Ind�an Terr�tnrv, with re�ort on bv Dr. A_. C. SnPncer: Am. ('Te�l., nol. 2.4, 1899, b. Fo�sils wer� �.oll�rt�,d from ePrt��n lime�+.ones r_nrthP�st o�' Tvmat;e �!Rol�nt �� n, tnrh i rh prOtiTer� +.o he of (?rd o�-i ci an a[*e . c. rTo e�'f�rt 1^ras ma�?e 1?�r r,�r. �rave�h�n to se�*re�a+e or mao fhe r.la.�ses of i�neolas ro�ks, rut his �olle�+;c,ns P.nlare�ec� �rPa+l�T +res sz�A�ies of i o�neot�s ro�i-s bef�r� knoUm i-� ocetzr � n the re�*i nr_. d. noctb�rSnenePr rero�ni �P� aabbro, P'T'P171�'FP,� �*r�ni+e-p�rnh�Trv, s�nort;hosite, an� tmotol�.+e. e. '."Tith +he �id of a, lo��l siar�evor Rir. �rR.li�kan w�s ablP t.o lo�.�t-e, �y referPn.�P to l�ncl S17�P,�rS� pr��tic'�llV a1] the moiantains of tre re�;on whi�h ha� been mamPcl, b�ai- none Z^TP,'."P m�noe�l. 1?. Ir_ +he �nrin? o? 1t�Q9 nr. u, F. R��n deveted a month's +ime t-� a rPconr_ais- sar_ce �f thP ,",rich�ta r�onntains, �i�r;.�m a++Pn+,ion �hieflv +,� a sttadv of +he mineral res�tzr�es a. ��� s rPpart c/ o% +he �eneral a�eolo�v is 7?lOrP, �omnle+e than nrevi otas ;�1a�llf;fi"�1C�ttS Of' i'Yip rPv1n71. c F?,��,ec�loRv of the �nr; chi.ta Mountains: BU11 , rre�l. So�. AmPri�a, i�ol. 1�, 19��, pp. 127-144. noc�tor R8,1.71 fl].f�P,rP.nfj�a,fP,(I and r'eseribe� the m».;n cle.sses of a.r�r_eoias ro��, inclta�i.n? +-he �»ar+z �*eins, Tuh-i �h in one instan�e he found were ct�t b�T �reen�t-one(d-iabasel r�i.kes. He cons;�ered that the �r�n�.te �v�s ert�bted throt�a�h +hP nornhvrv and E�f''eP,C'�P,C� the C'�mhr�.an a.n� (?r�i�vician strata( (�211 This con�li�G� on seems to �'lA.T7P, ori �in�tec� from a m� s�n+erpref,�tion of Sf'T'1]Ct;U�'Fl1 rf)Tl(�i.Sf;� O77S 1.2'l R1ve ('?'P.P.k �anvon. ����—��� � Tn +.�+�s c�n«on the l.lmes+.nne is f�ulted a�a;ns+ +,rP �ranite-norphvrv 1riS�P,E1A nf �aiy�c (`ll�; �V 9�'�1!rP, n? Sir?il&r ro�k.������ ��mbri�n rocks �rP re�av�ni?e� besides t?�e se�ven�e �f sn�cee��.ne� �r�ogician lir� �.+.nnes o�' mrP�f +,hi�l-ness. T�,e clas�if'i�q+��n �s sta��+an+5a$ec� b•� fossi.l �?P+ermina+?�ns i'e"�'A.�P (',nno1OTr1P.r�afPS (`77"'�Ocaf� Of' f*rflTll.fP� hnPAh�T7'rr� s�nci � imP,Si'O?'?P. �nterhe�cled w�+h shales an� sticcee�e� b�� sh�1e anc� san��r limest;one near the aa�terr_ P??� CIf '�"1'!.8 tail(yli�F-g T�Rnll►l�fl,']'�S AT'P ('nrrAri-]�t CZf�SSP.C� 171 &P'C'� as "later +hsn the Trenton," but �nst�a�? of beina olc�er +h�,n the '"Red. Re�s" (Perm�ani �enos�ts t�+ezr are e�i.dentl�,* c�n�emnor�neovr �uith +,hem a.n� f�rm 1-hP.i?^ near-s?�ore nhase I�ke���ise thP conr�lomer�+As of limes+�ne a.n� R�r;nu� i mrPoias ro�vs in the l�x�e �r�llevs �n� al�nv the bor�er� nf +,he ��i�hi+� an� �t�an� �roi�ns of motan+.a�r_s arP Permian, if the "Red Recls" �rP +� be so classe�3. .�,,.�,-- -.�-�..._.._ �- -:�?- i. Rene�+h a zone of saeafherina� 1-hese denoGits �re p�rtisl�v c�nsolid��t-ed anc� in z�laces associate�l wifh red �lqvs and crits, as explained in the ai 5!'t? dis�Ussion of Permi.an rocks in thP na�?s f�l� o�iine�. k. Alon� the �outh s;�?e of �uana T�ovntain, ir the t*alle��s of +hP laraer s+reams, are recent slarfi�i�l denosi.+s of �*r3Rel and sand, worked 04P,r in Uff7'f; f'7'O*�1 +Yl� "peci Reds�� COY!o'�O7RP,''f�+'A� W�'11r�'t mf3�r ti1P, Til'I�t�ken for t.rP c�nPlomerates in a�eneral *econnaissar_ce. B. WORK OF THE UI�TITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SIIRVEY((�3i1 1. The writer, asGiste�l �v 1��r. C. TT. �ot�ld an� R�r. EoO. TTlri ch, mapned the �eolo�*�r o�' the i�ti�hit+� 1_tRovntain re�*inn �n the la+ter nart of the season. of 1901 . ?. The 1�n�? had l�een cleare� of a11 imnr��emen+,s, excen+ the occaisi�nal inclosiares on the allotments to +�e TrrliAns, nre�arqtor�r +_� +he onenine �f {-t�A ��Un+�r +� }�nmRS�:A3(� Se+,tlers �. It w�s de�roid of inhar���nts o��tsidP of +he f'eVr small t,oµms, Pr.cent occa�si�nal In�?�ans an�l nrosnectors. 4. Rec�entl« +he n�aarter-sec+.i�n and sect;on �onners h�� ree� rees+a�]ished for +�e n�arnose o�' rea.dv location of homesteA�s. F. Thi s re�ion, otats��e �f +he moiin+a;n.s, i.s e.n onen an� nracticalln feature- less nit�in, �n� the moi7n+. a.;ns 9rP, almost bara, co +ha+ rnn!�;_tio�� fvr ranid And acmar�te �eolom�c mapr��.n� were �?r�r s�tisf��torv 6. �'�it}r the assistance of D�r. rTould all +,'ne kr_�wn i�neoias a.reas an� +he contacts bett��e�n the i.�aeot�s r.masses an�a the forn+a.+i_ons of s+.ratif�ed rO(`1rS l�lAi"P, m�.Hped 1'tV �'7'fi'�1P.7'SA SU.i'ZT?Z!S� checke�3 tJ�7 ZO�Af� nl'1S C�II SP,(:'f i 011 QL71f1 r�ll+�.?"?2�"-SP,Ci"].Q7t Cn7'71P,T' 9't'OT1P,S ' 7. Mr. T71?"lrli !�8V0'�P� his time to a sttadv of tl�e rambrian a.n�1 �r�lonician ro�ks. t�. An al,tanc�a.nt collec+,i�r, of fossils e�ane me�ns hv which the rocks were cor�-ectiv classi�'ied, �s v�rell as �orrP1 �,te�l �ith the Cambrian an.�l ()r�lo�ician formnt�c�rs of thP Arbuckle I'l�OlantginS. �. The l.i_tholor�� c sim� l arit`• of thes.� rocks to +�e for-r�ations of +he A7'buc',lrle ret�ion, an�l the di�nlic�+,i�n of fossi.l rem.ains, are so nearly cnmplete that fatanal lists of the �ambrian and Ordo�rici.�n of the �ri�hita luioun+.,ains �re not cnnsi�l"7'P,C� neoes�arv.(�`zi� II. PHYSIOGRAPHY UF �f�ICHITA 1�OUI�ITAIN RP�GION((Fa.-591) A. ( ( zzzTPo�t,cTzorr) ) ( ( s4) ) � 1. The ''.�ichita TJ�oizr_ta,i.n reaion consi sts of colleci-ior.� o? mo»n+ains, hills, ancl knobs P,X'f'pYi�l.n�' from F�rt Sill, �n the Apaehe Ir_c�ian Reservation, north�re�+,ward to bevond �ranite, in �reer �'�•'n+v, C�kla., a c�istanc�e of 6F mile�. 7. From the vi�in-i.t�% of Fort �ill t.he nor+��rn e.nc� sot�t�ern limits of this nP�i?liar �o11,ec+ior_ of moianl-�ir.s �izrer�e t�ni-il, r_ear +�A center, +hF ot�tl�Ti�� ?�n�bs unon ea�h si�e �re �0 mi.les ap�.rt :�. rontinuine� nnr+hv�restm�ard tre rent�e �'rfl�U3.�.1~r con+rac+s an� en�s in sma11 rol] ect� or� of lo�w m�lan+ai�s or vnnt�G rnrth���Psf, of t�e to�rrm of ��rani+e 4. The reeion is thtas s�rmme+ri cal � r. �*ene*-e.l. ovtl ine, but n�+ so �.n t�^e arrane�emPnt, size, an� f�*-� of the mpl7nt;aiT1S �n�hi�h c�nstitl�te +�±e r�n�e, or, ?nore nron?rlv �nPakin�, +,he r�roups of moLintains. F. `T'}1C' �r^un� O� ?�'LOU77ffl771S COTTIT?08ipm t:}'iP. T'+��'1fiP. iA�i'('�'! n712 P,FC@O'f;1021� m�t7!V �f +t,P �.n�3.�-�.�'ta�.l moimtei.ns, ar_� m�m�rnus 1rno�s �zn� noin+s of �r�ni�e an� other i.�neous rocl-s are surrounded �nc� senarated b�� +he ne�rl�r le��el ar.d sm^o+h nl ain of the "Rec� Red s" l�rh i ch ex+en�? s sot�+hti��ard across Okl ahoma int� l�res-�-,ern Texes. B. VdICHITA 1'dOUNTAIN GP.OLTP (( 54- 5F) ) l. The lar�est of the p�rrnans of moi�n+ains +.h�t comnose the 'qichita Ra.n�e i s the "Ti.chit� p'T'�tzp� from U*�i �h t1�e r�n�e ha� rece��red its name �. T.+, ex+,en�s from near the northUrest corner of thP .Ao�zche T�eser�9tion npr�-ht�testl�r�rc� abot.�t 2�,miles, an� consis+s of mamr rum�e�i ar_d irrePular �r�n.�+e mour.tains, t.he mo�t nrom�.r±e_n+ of �Hhich �rP r�ount Scott �nc� AFlITAT, ne�r the �o»tre�s+ern an� n�rthr?estern en�s, respec- +ivel,y. �. Thoit�h the hi.o�he5+ nec�Ys in thi� r�r�un rise +o ele.�r�ti�ns n�t excPe�lin�^ 1,500 feet, abnne +he horderin� �la.in, trev are d�ffi�ult of ascenl- bec�.i.�sP of th� ste�n ar_� rt�r*�e�3 slo�es, w�i�h arP s+.re�m vai+h l�re�e �ne�ular �r�n�+,e r�u7ders.((54)1 _;��_ USGS P. ;�l C . �,iTANA P�iOtTNT(ilrT GROtTP ( ( ��) ) 1. ThP '�,L�ana. �*roup, like +hP T�Tirhits�� is an el�n�ated c�llection of ar�nite mo��n+ains �nd lovn nPaks al��t?t 14 miles in 1PnPth ?. 'T'hot�ch Jive +re �l-ichitq �rc�vp in charact-er of ro�k �n� tono�ranhi� fPatures, the individual moia?itains are InwPr� an�i. n��e nf them, i+ is 11P,I1P,1TP,(�.� rise more +��n ��n f'P,P,t aho�e +he �*�neral lenel ��' the nlain hordPrinr� the mot�n+.qin� iabor. +�e �nt�-Fh D. CAPLTOTd PrOi.�NTAI2� GRCUP( ( ��_ ,611 l. T�� ('arlton �roiin con5;�+� of lo�n� mnt�ntai.ns an�' �Psl1rS wri�h lie hetzveen +he ea.st en�ls of +he �"dichita an� �uana ��r�ups end extend east�•�ard to wi.thzn a m�le of Fort �ill. 2. The topoe�rabhic f89.tUrP,s of thA Carlton A�otar_+a�n� arP m�rkedly different from those of the '°Ti cri.+.a anc� �t�ana mo��r?tains ?.. mhe �'arlton ARol�nt�ins �onsist of �*ranit-,e-porph�rries an�l ol� rhvolites, which, vnl.ikP the r�ranii-e, brP�1r into small an�izl?r ie���x�ae� bc�wlders and fr�crments �zpon we�ther�n.e^, e�i�rin� rovndeci a.n� c�mn�ra+�.nely smooth top�Pranhic forms. 4. The e�enPral effect i.G like �h�+ nro�)L�ced r�r a+opo�ranhi.callv �rotinp� 7'P,f*lOYl Cn^1T?OSP.(j. O'F' �'!O^�O�*PnP,OttE s�ft rOCkS--T?tn17Yi'{'�i r]S �omposed. of rn�±nerous r� �l�e� an� snvrs seperated ?�v n-shan?�l val levs. (���) i F. The out7 -ine o�' th.i s�rrn�n, 3s weJ 1�G of i+s sepera.te�l �bers, like +,h�+ of al J the o+he�^ �r�»ns of +he rPr�i �n., �rraG est�bl i�he�? rv marine dear��tati on at A firnF tnrhen +he Perni an se€� si;��r� w;t,h i+s shore� a+ fhe annroxim�te nositi�n �f +l�e "Red Rec�s" and x�ornhvrv c�n+�ct.((F6ii 6. From nec�r the �en+,Ar of +hP Pr^1�n Rn arm T�Dm,jP.(','F5 s��at}n„rard anrl en�ls in Si�ns�� 1�Rol�r.+-+�in, +he hi �hP�+ 1�P,Alr� v,rhi c.h risF� �hrn�+ �0� feet ah�nP the nlain 7. A sin�l e me.s� of h171 s i c ���a,-A+,P� �'rnm +he ma3.n o�rnun on +,he south- v��Pstern side l�v �n inlA+ of +he "??Pc� Reds" pl�i.n tivhich ex+e,nds ur� t-.he vallevs of' '!!�plf C.reek an� ioins +�P '�r��� lznl an� �r�11 P�r betvvePn the �,aana and T"zi chi+a moun+ein� . E. RAGGEDY i��OU'��TAIA�S ( (,r,6-F71 � 1. ?";est o? the '�;chit� an� �iaana motin+?;�s an� ex+en�inm sou+h,r�ect .+,o T?�va,��e, in the �al l ev o�' the Nnrt.h Fnrk oi T?ed R14er, i s Q scat+. erPd �'T"nt)1� of moi�nt���ns an� h�l�s, +he in��v�.�tx�ls ofl ��rh;�h �zre �P.T1f�!''?ted t�tr t.l1P "Refi F3Alis" l�lfil.?l. 2. ?'o +his �*rni�n +�P ns�mP of �?���e�iv hRolantains h�s be�n apnlied. 3. �ont;rartir +o +,?,e 9.rranoement of the ��lichit�., �izana, and ��rlton grott�s, Urhi�h h��re northe�si--srn�+r�ve�t hPar�nas �*o�e.rne�] �.� a mPasiirP hv +.he str,.�cture, the pav�p�ed�r �Rolar_ta�ns are ] on�es� Tt. �1'tlh an� soi�th, e.nryarrance- mer_t wh��h sP�ms to be a�ciaPntal 4. RP+wePn tt,e 'nlicr�ta auana ar�txn �n� +hP Ra��ed�r T�lr�untair_s tre fl a_t nlain is ian�hs�l-ructed F. "�'hil e�at��r� rocks �ome to i-he siarface across 1-h� s nl a.in an�l conne�t the ��hhro o�' the �entral mas� o�' t�+P T?a�e�P!?<,r r*rnup v�a�th the ��r�_�hita, theV ac��e w�re comnletelv vuorra c��Tvn �n� �uhmPr�ec� �n pArmia.n t�me and s+�nd ��,.nr in the level of thP sm��+h "Red Reds" plain. 6. Sot,+hwPs+ from the �ua.na I��ol�n++� �ns thP,rA is a broken s+r �ne� ��' p;rani+e lrnohs and hill� �nnnec�t-�n�* �n�i+h t-he ��i�i-r enc? ��' +.re na.�aec�=.T �roizn. 7. The cPnt.ral mas� �f the nA.a�er��r ]Vfoim+ains is �omnosec� �f �*ah3�ro, �n� i� tha onlv arPa of thi G rock P,FT)ASP� �r_ +-h.e r�v; on whi �h hAs !1^t. �P,P,?7 rP�?u�Pd �a1moG+ +.n +he nresen+ �_P`rel pf +he "?�e�i RP,�S�� pla.in. a. The�e �ount���ns of �ahbro lie eas+- an� �^v+he�s+, of' �o�se�e7t, on both si�es �f (?tter CrPek. ( � F611 �. The h7a'}�F+s+ p��.rhro movn+a'nG 1-ie on �ach si�e of +}�P trnn.a,,- TT�.rrows an� r; sP t� P1 e�a+,; �ns of 60� to An� fe�+ �hoTT� +�e le�Pl of t;he nl ai.n. ((�7) i 7. �n disir_+.et�r�tina� the �a��ro �rP�ks �nto rourl�ers ir. � manner S�milAr to +he �r�nite, bia� t.hev �re PPner�llV smal.ler �n� roiar.!�e� 3n� �*ive r�tiznc� +,ono!�r�nhic fnrms �imi.l�r i-o +he nornhtTr�.r topo�*ranr�* �f the rarl+on A6oiin+R�ns. P, The nor+rern 9n� snn+hern '�nr�FC of t-he Da��e�it� r*r��?n ar� comn�se�l of isola+e� �ranite mount.a�ns an.� '-r_�bs se+. ;r +he sm��th "R�d Re�s" nlain. a. I!�amr of the sma) � Pr on�s rise �rruntiv lOn feet, a�xxa!�x� more or less, ab��? +he red se�iments of the p1a1n, wit,h evenly curved bolanc3aries �nd S'f"P,P,1J 81!jP,S � a.n� ha�*c� +he annearanre of nPar]�,r st�bmerPec� pe�l-s . _ '�4 - b. Tn �'art, +,hev Ur�re islar�� ;_n PArm�.an t�me, �n� m�.n,r--nr�r�ablv qll �— WP,1'P. SV.�'??CIP,Y'P'PCl. C. �'YIP.7'e � S I70 T'e�fS0T1_ t;n (�017�7'F 'f'}'1��' �"�1P,RP, l SO1 �+P.(� �7'F£�S � 9S Wel�. 3S IROI.II1�'r']]]� r�rrnans o�' ��nec,��s rocks, �[re conne�tPd beneat�h the '��?ec� Reds" and f�rme� nea?rs an� �nobs of a s�_rr�]P �r�a� ranv�e wh�ch are p�.�'t;IV or whollv s»rmerc�ed an� sPnar�ted btr the Permi.an sP�liments. F. DFVILS CANYON GROUP((57-5811 1. The waters�ed betwPen Elk and O't:'t;P,r �reP,ks is a l o�^� an�l alm^st � imnAr�entib]e �wel7 in the plain 2. mh; s r�;.z-i �e sPnara+es the D���e��T Mrn�r_+a;.n �rni.lrl frOm the consi�iArab].e collection of ?�r�n�+e mnunte.ins and hills, in�iu�?inv� Iittle �ow, F'lk, nome, meene, '�,�Ar+z, Siai-+les, r�na ne�ils ��n�ron mou?�ta.�ns, besi�es man�T iznnam�rl moun+.a�ns and hills, v,�hi�h mav be Jrno•M1m r�s +he neni �s r.anvon nr�tap. � f F7i i '�. These mntm.t�.'ns 7 ie in the z*al.] ev o�' +hP Tt�rth Fork of �e�? niver, �r_d the channel of thP ri�Ter mPan�ers �mon� t,�em, t-otach�nc �. ntamher ��' +re ] �.r�Pr ones . ( ( FR) � �. The T?evil� �a.n�ror_ E�rOLlp i.s compose� �lmosf- eni-ire]v of �*rQni+e, �nrhich nrotruc�es t$rovuh the TTAP,(� Re�s". F, The rock is the satne kind as th�.t of' the TATZ.�hi+a �nd �ia�na moi�nta�ns and nresents 1-he same ton�r�ranhic forms. G. HEAi7�,tTARTERS �ttULTl`dTAIPd GROUP ( ( Fg) ) l. At the ex+re�e nor+,hwestern en� o�' +,he �`Tirhi+,� n�n�e is a small �rrnan of �r�ni+e mountains ��rhich 13_e entirely �.vest of Re� River sn�' northwPst o�' the town of �r,-anzte. 2,. The ] arn;eGt of +,he�P is �Tea�!�uar+Prs I��o�,n+a�n, �a�hich cotrers an. are� o�' nearlv :� s��a�re mi 1_es an � r; ses �teeplv t� an ovel cr?st abotat 600 fe�t abozre +he nlain. ?.. T}iP,SP monnta.ins are co-�posed of' re�' �ranite simil�r to that oi +.he mJic�h.-ita Rroup, hut t-he mo��nt-�.�n neaks anr� lrnohs h�ne a ro��nded f �rm, +,hoi?�h t�e sloves are sf-re�vn ���+h lare�e �hotal�lers. H. LIP.SESTUNE HILLS ( ( 5F_591) '� . qnni-her monr_+»i-n cro�zp of the '�Ti�h�.ta re�i �n is th.e Plona�a+e�i �Ol� P,rf1071 ��' lim�s+onP an� t�nY'Dhtrr�r hill S ancl lcm�r m.otanta�.ns ,��hi �h 1 i es nortt�g�,gt, of 1-rP ��r; �h�+.a �rrn�� nn� i � sez�ara+ec� +'rom it 1�« a 7on� s+rin of roll;.nr� plein 2 t� 6 m;1��s in ��r��th. ?,. mhi s e^r�tin, v�r1�i ch ha�: re�.Pi��c� n.o ��Aa»at.e n�me, ex+en�s f'•-rnr! a. n�;,nt 7 mil es n�rfh �f' F'ort S i 1 1 nnrthwes�hut�r�l , wi +h tre d'P_.Y18�"fi� Str7ke of the t'oCks� to '��in�, raot�r+a;n a+ �ai_n1r ?�ot�ntain T+?i ss;.on. �. 7t P�r��va1 � V exnan�s in �►'Uf�P.I'�r tr; anRl�.l ar fnr,n a.n� T'Pq(`}1PS a?�ric�th o_f ��ovt 7 miles in thP �entral or�rt.((581i 4. The c�et�ched massP� nf li�nes.+�ne an�' ��rnh�rrv �rP S1)rr�l�1'1�P,(i thro�.��rot�t t'�;� rP,miOn bv the onen �r+� 1e�Pl „Ra�? Re�s" nlein.((59�1 F. ThP +onor�ra.nhic detai.] � of +he �ornh�rl'�r hi ] 1 g in thi.s �rnup are o±' t.he same char�ri-er as in t�e �oroh�rr-�� hi l l s �mm�ri sir�* the !'3r1ton ?,�ounta� ns . a. The starfa�e �� l�.rokPn an�1 �»+ rv m�mT �*tzlchPs en� �h�_rn �efi�Ps, hut tre hi.1 � e are a�ereral ]v �mooth ores+ed �r_� r�r.e rn�a�ncied or OTTA.l S)'Lf3�P.,S. 6. ThP lime�+.c,r,e h� 7.7 s hare +�,A s�me tono�ranhic ?9€�11�rg5 as +he nornhvrv hil�s, �.n� mam� �f +he thei.r cres+s are no,nr 40� to 600 f'P,P,t abot7e +he b1a9.n. 7. T ilr� al]. other moiani-ains o�' the re�� on, tl�e lo��+i on, r*er.er�l n1 qn, qn� r.�}3totar of the hilis are �i�Q +;o a ��Tele of dep�racR�tion �lzlmi.n- at-�ns� 9n PPrmian time an.� +,o la+er minnr m��ifica+;.ons. III. STRATIGRAPHY OF WICHITA MOiTNTAINS((Fg-7711 A. IGNEOi?S ROCKS (( 5.9-67) 1 1. Tn the mener�l surrey o�' the inli.ch�+-a rFot�ntai.ns or.l�r s�affi �ient time was atrailable to stiladv the saliert fea+iare� of the i�nernas rocks. 2. The k�hnds of i.cne�us roLks �¢ai,� whi�h O��t1r a�+ian�a.r.tly or in lar�e masses wPre di s+.;n�i» shec� , cl ass; f;_er� i.n resbec+ +-o ac�e as far as enn��t�or_s wovlc� nermit, an� ma�^ed.(�591) 3. I�ocal �ari_a+ions of' t,he �.S?'FP,I' mas�es an�l �*Ariol�s nheses o{' the c�i.ke rocks were n^te�3 an�' sne�imens r0]�P,rf'.P,Cj, �u+ a s+�_z�v of tl�e�r _;�5- USGS P. ;�1 � rel.at-i �ns in �letei.l �ra.s n�+ �++emn+Pci .(( F�-6Qi 1 4. ThP rn�ks colle��er� were suhm�++P� +n �!rr. Frnes+ NnUre, o�' t-�e r?o7o�i�a7 �U.*"PP,V� f�r staudy, and the pei-r��ranhin �P,F.('�"l?�"F'IQ71S are �'rom his report((6011 F R'Y1P. i ane�n� r�cys ��' +hP "�ic?��+a rRoi�ntA�ns �re se�qr�ted in+o �'o»r . p�PnPral c1�ss�G, �?istlna�aishe�7 hu +�Pir larffP m��5 �r ��i�n�ar_+. ocol�rr�nce, anr� :�lso b,y their aa�e rP19t;ons. g. ThesP, in ordPr of apn�rPnt �ape, ur� �ahhro anc� rela+P�l �n�rthosi+�, e�ranit.e a.nd rPlatecl anli+�;s, a^rar;+P-��rnhvrv an� �ss��i 9+er� anorhyolii-e, an�3 �iabase di�P r��ks. q_l; GABBRO AR�i RELATED ANO.P,THUSITE((6�-6111 l. For the moG+, nar+, the e�abrro �� axnosec� i.n v�lle�rs �r in �he nlain which surrni�n�ls the m�t�n+�;rs. 7... ThP *�rPv�ilin�, phvs;c�l ��ne�+ of the ��hbro is that of 9��rk-a�rq�r +o b�ack, rqthP.r Cntirse�`r CrZrgfqi�.�p1A� rock. z. The ��.bbro rrener �on�ist� of l�l�raclnr�+e, alat��+P, �r_�1 ma.�neti+e tvith a l;+tle bi.o�f;ite an� �.�ces�orv titan;te. 4. Tt i s a t�,m; c�l �abY,ro, f'�; rl�r �'rPsh, or wi.+h +he auPite �l+ered to ur�lit�c� hernblende.(�6011 q_?; GRANITE ATdD ASSOCIATED APLITE((61-631i ]_. �Tranite is the nrin�ipal mounta�n-mat-;n�* rock in the ?'di�hits re�ion((61)1 ?,. Its a,_rP� � s �*r?a+,er t.har_ that nf �,].] +t�P �+,her i�'neol?G rocks �oml»nec�, and ie �rolat enual to +h�t of thP o+hPrs an�' 1-he ol�Pr Paleozo�.� se�liments. '�. The rP] A+; �ns of the mr�nitP +� +�e �^ahl�ro � r.c� i �ate t},a+ +re �ran;+e is vmm�Pr an� t1��+. i+ �n+rrdes +he �abhro. 4. Rni-h �c�c��r �n l�re�e m�s�Ps, as shoti�m, an�1 +re �*ar?�ro is cia+., rz* ��'reat mam.ber of �ranitP �r an] i+P cl{Ues, �a�hir�h in ma.ny �asAs c�n '�e fra�e� from fha, Rran;tP *nass. 5. In nhvs?.�a1. asnec+ +h;s �r�n�+P �r9Y'�PF frcm� ��artr re�l t.� limht• n�nk �n�3 from mo�er�+P1v co�rse to f;nel.r nramzl�r. 6. mhe c�r»n�t-e in 9+.s srarirn�s n��ses is ri�h in �ri�h���ase en� nvartz, vNit.r Y'P,1�.f��'P.�V SU�^t'(�117flfP s1T11n1a1'1�S nf' +Y�P. rls�rlr sili�a+es, hornhlende, H.U�'7.+P,� nr �hj 01'1t;P.. � �sl i i A-�: GRf1NITE_YORPHYRY At�IT) ASS(>CI?TI�,D AF'G�HYOLITE((6�-6411 1. A class o�' roclrs �npa,-Pn+lv close7�! rel�+ed t� +hP ar�nite �nmTf�SP,B nra�+;�al]v a]� of the �arlt�n T!�olan+a�ns, t-he i�n?nt�s mas� l�T�n� bPtw@en +he l�m.es+or_P hills in the ri��nitzT of n].txP ramron, nor�-h of 1!�ount S�ott, an�l sorne hi 1� G near the northwest en�? of' thP 1-imes+nnP areas P,A,4'}' of Ra;.ny P��o,anta,n An9 ��ion. �� mhPv v�zrv from l,rick rec? to shades of lio�ht nink ;�. mh?. p�rnhvritic �harac+.er is �variahle, an� sne�imPns mav re SP]8�'fP,C� which. h�nP �?��ar resamh]ance to �ert��n perts of +,he mran�te, but on +.he whole +�e ma�ses dPGi�natPc� p�ranite-nornhvre are diffPrPnt from +h�se de�cribecl as �ranite. 4. l��eaa5cor�ic.el]v +rP r��k annPars to be a rAther Cnfi�'SP,—PY`ti1P_P,(j anc� larv�elt� felc?snat.hi.c nornhvrv. a. �'Vi+h 1-he excPptior.� of +r� feld�nar ph.enocrsTsts, there seem fo ??e tzsual]v nn rP�l cr�r�tal �rair_s, thP raTltR'1nCiP,]' o�' 1-hP ro�y r,onsi s+i+�� o�' a �lense �'Pl_sitic� mroi�ndm�ss 1�. Ra.1^Pl�r q SnP�imAn ;_g �'otm� -"rh�c'h shntvs OCC�7.s�^T1?1 S^��a�1 �ta£iT'tz f'_'P3insi�6� �xxi4A?���ar:xx��x��x�xa�aa�s�a�ai�Y�x�+�! xi��a�-k �xx 9��aaexa3�maa�x�tr; �RRx� 5. 4n�+hPr p�rnhvr�r, c�is+.zn�+ fT-nm +1��+ -jils+. c�.es�r-ibP�, �s f�l�r_d ;r_ the east end of +�P ��rl+�n Hi]�s, �i- +hP PtLG+' Pn� ��' A�a�-icinP �1��ff. a. Tt i s a dull-nink rock, �r;+l� nher.n�rzr�+s n? f P1 �Snar an� �t�artz, 5n a �lensP nr f�nPlv ar�ma�.ar �*r�l�ric�mass, h. The ?e1�3SDars are a�l f'�'1A7'aPr? Zv�+h � f�nP re�l�]�sh dust, nrnh�rlv hPm�+,ite.�i6�11 6. 7n Rll,e r,-epi� ��nvon, sPr. 11, m. 4 T?,, p. 1� ,•,,, a r�ek is e�-n�sPci ��vhich w��= helsr,--�c� +o t,e � n�ase of the �ran�+e-n�rnhvrv, ru�` �hi�h on microsconic examinafii on nro�*P�l +� rP an�rh�rol i+e. ( i 6?-64i 1 �, q� ;n +.hP d,r?�ucvle Tfoi�-�ta�ns, +hP �pnrhv�li+e o�ct�rs in. close a�socia+ion w�+h t?�e p�ranite-norph�Trv, hi�+ +he r,nn+�c+. rel�t� ors were not mad.e �i�t. i( 64) ) - 86- q_n.; DIAi3ASE( ( 64-65� ) 1� The p��bbro, aran'+;e, �n� �rani�e-oor�h.rr�r, t�e onl�� iare�ias rneks ;n the '�ashita ra�ion c��h�ch are ?�r_nwn to occt.�r in ]ar�e masses, are �tat. �v �rea+, numbers of' cl i a�ase �iUe� . ?, Trese �ikes ran�e in thi �k-necs �'rom serPr�l feet to thin ct.-ir_aers �. `r}'lP,V �ross the contact between +.he P_'rg7'1�fP, an+� the t�abbro �nc� intersec+ the a�ranite dikes in-the �abbro. 4., mY�P �i_A�,��P ranaes from a modera+elv �'ine-�rai.ne�l �ark—n'?'AV to fine- +Pxtnre�l bluish-black rock. F. As e rule, �re lar�*er +.he �i_�Ps +,hP (!OlqrSP,T' +he �;P,X'�U1'P.((64�1 6. A�tm�rer of �iaba�e ��kes �uere nn+Pd intru�lins� +he �r�ni+e-norph.rr•T of +t�a �i]��e �ree)- ��mron �rea near the Camrrian �onta�t, an�? nebrles, both of e�r�ni+e-porArvrv and of diahase, m�1-e rOnalor!erste becls in +.he T'eaa�n f�T'mnfipn� �RT�ic1�i i� the ol�est se�imen+.ar�T denoGi+ of +he re�ion, hP;nm m9��le �ambrian in ��e.i�6511 . 7. Th1�G al l+,he e'�T] � P..nCP, of the a�e of +.he i�nee+as� rocks so �'ar obtai.n- �hlP �r.�'�c�+es that +.hev are Older than.mi�?�le rambrian, e.n�, sin.ce c�ran;te� form �nlv at c'07187.(�P,Y'���P, �lenths or unc3�*- �rea.+ nre�st?re, fhe in�'eren�e � s th�t tre�r �re mt��h ol �1er t�an mi.d�1 e �amhrian. A- ,: �UARTZ�sMOrT20r?ITE( ( 65-66� � 1. rer+�-i_n rocks o��urrins� in aGsociation �i+.r ar9ni+e-porphvrv, �ranite, or varrro, an�l i� +he fiel� r.on�id�rec� to re o}�e5es of 'f'�]P,SP, roi!ks, Ori m1G2'OSCOp1C Si"t]�iv �n7P.1'P. �'Otattc� i:n bG' �u�rtz-monzonite. 2. It i � �?ense, T'F11-hP,Y' f'-i ne-�*rained, nornh��ri+i c, deep red in color, qnc� ` has a aeners�l phvsica7 resemblan�e to mt��h of the �rani+P-porphvrv of the reaion :�. The nrPdominant cons+ituents of +he monzoni+.e are or+hoclase �n� some pla�ioclase feldsnar, whioh is dif'f';cu7t ta dFtPrm�ne on acc�ovn+ �f its de�ompos?� condition.i�6�11 a. 4coees�rv minFr�ls ar� inco�snicuons.((6611 q_g; �TTARTZ VLI?TS OR DI�FS (( ggl 1 1. Tl,e lara�P ia�neo»s mas�e� ai�o�Te desorirPc? �ontain here �n�l there v�ins or aiUe� of tnrhite nue.rtz 7. Probablv the mos+ extens��re deno�ite of �uAr+z occur in ne�rlv east_ west lea�� in +he central nar+ of +he �a�+Y+rn arc�a of +1�te Ravae�lv A'�o�ant� in mrolap . �. ?+ has �een gho,am tha+ the �'rani+F_no•-nhvrv �n� thP (�i�]�£iSP diyPs �vhicr �.ntria�le i+ were fo,^necl prior +-� m;r��1P f'ambr�an +�ime. 4. ThP rel ati ors of �uar+z ro�-i es an� �li abaGe rli_�es ;n +he rr�,-l+on rRo�in+��n� an� +he t�renvlar s+ru�+u,-e o�' +►�� �u�r+z su��es+ s+rnn�*lv +,h�+ a+, l�ast one of fhe quartz rod�es is a+rt�e dil�e a„� nn+ � ve�r_ denosi+. A_�; GRORTIDIT�f (66-6711 ]. 't'v��o dikes of' t�e�tal7.�r nature, cu+tins* �a�hr�, were locr�+Pd, one ir +�,P Sr. 1�4 se�. 4, T. 'i TT. , p 1�?�i. ,�,n�? the o+h�r ne�r +he cen+er of' s�c. Q of +he samP t�tvnship.((6611 ?. mhis ��kP ro�k i s rer�c�i sh t;o �rePn� sh a�rc�,y, ancl r�r�nul ar in �exture( (6711 ' B. SEDII�4�NTARY ROCKS (( g�_�7 j 1 ]. In the '"�rich't� rP�ion an�' +-he Arl�tic�rle 1iRourt.ain re�ion the fnrmQ.+-ions belo�� +re "pe� Re�s" a�ree in all eGser_+i.als, ro+,h in li.+.holo�ic r�'tqra�tprg an� in a�e, �n so f�r as thev a.re exnosed, an� �re of essentia�]v the same thickness.((671� 2. TherPfore the classifi�a+ion an� +.he formation ncimes emploved for +he Arb»clrle .re��on are tasPd al4o for t,he''��chi+a �-�o�anta�ns.((6t';� R-1 : CAlu1BRIAN RUCKS ( ( gB_6911 1 . T'eaaan sanc3stonP( �6P-691) a. The pea�'an sand�+,one i.s the low�G+, rAmbr; �n f�rr���� on in the '!�ichita re�ion, �n� it rests on. the eroded ianeven s��rfAce of +he �ranite- porph�rrv, from ivhich mos+ of ZfG materi.als ha.ve bPen der-i�*ec�. b. The �'orma+ion i s �,noi�.m to oiat�r�n i n+�,; c r��; nn in btat f�Ur �reas .(� 68i 1 c• `T'�'IP, z'P,�tc*qr! ��n��i-one ; s s1�*1rnY•imatP.� V�00 feet th� ck �n� i s ecr.rpesPd of har� an� �oft sand Gt�nP, a�ri+, c�na�] nmera+e, sh�l es, �r_ri sillce�iis shell ].�mestones.((6Q1� d. T�e SP.�i:1On of the format-ion z s eGs�nt_,:_q17v +he s�me aG in the PTP,St"P,?'T1 end of +he Arbu��] e r�o��n+ei:ns .(( 69i ` _z�_ USCS p :�1 R_2; CAI�''BRO_ORDOVICIAN P,OCKS((69-7011 1. Arbv.ekl e 1 imes+one i� 69-70i � a. Arozie +.he i'e�,ean form�+ion �.r_ �onformable sv�.c.essior_ 9s ��reat 7imestonP section essent-i�l]�� +he s�me as the Arbu�vle fo_rma.tion in +,he Arruckle I�"ountains, vvhere the lower nart, �racticallv the loti�rer thir!�, was founc� to t�e �amrri�n, �nd the 1?��P,r' two-thirds Ordovi�ian in a�e. b. r?�ar the transi.tinn zone, hetwPen the rocks of' the ttvo neriods, ver,y few fossils hr�ve been rotmcl, so t�a+; pre�ise dist-in�ti�ns as to ar�e can not be ma�3e ai- +.he preGer.t timP. �. The snme �ondi+ions of denosi.tion seem i-�o have ocmarred in the "�ichi+a rePion e.s in +he Arr�a�kles, an�? the rocks mus+, be �lassifi�d in the same manner . c� . Ther = sPems to �P no rea��n +,o cl ot�bt t-ha+ t.he �ormation is eontinuous +'ron! �ne rea��nn to the o+her hpr_ea.th "T�ed Reds" denosi.ts.(i69�) e. There are �iaa�a �ertain th;n limtr s+r�,ta in thP "�e� Re�s" vvhi�h �o not resemble +he ol.der limeGt�nPs ar� ���*P n�+ hPen mqpnp(�.((�nll f. The .Ar�t��kl.e limestone is oomnosed o�' a nrac+icaZlv �nntinu�tas succeG.sion of limes+,onP 1-�e�s, ll�l]b]Z��T les� +l�atisicli fi fee+., in thi�Une�S an�7 aP^o�rerratinP_' 4,OOt� to �6,l1f)0 f'ee+. �, ThP in�iri�iaal re�s lv��,rv Prom �ense, fine-�r�ina�, rrhi+a limestone to cre�m-colored dolomi t.i� 'l imP�tores int-ers+r�t; f; Pd ,A� t-r s] i A�+-1,r ar�il- FiC'P(�US ar.d sila_�eot�s lime he�'s, Urh�.c�h arP ustaa�l�� no+ so h�rd. h. Occa�innal �hert�r li*�Ps+�nes, an� �nnre r�trPl`T f�+in rP�s ��' C}"1P.ri�� occlar. i. qs � re�,i�lf ��' +he TTflr1��IG' harc�ne�s of the re�ls, the mo,-A re�isf,�nt- OrP,� ���*e a reliPf ,��hich rarel.tr P.X('P.PfiS F or 6 fe�t. ,j. .A comnlPte sec��an nf thP �'orm�t�or. is r_ot- axposed in fre re�i�n. R_�z; GRDOVICIAt�; ROCkS((�0_71i1 1. Tn the Arbla�kle R�oianta�ns th�re is a format�or_ 1,50� to 1,£?�� fe�t thi�k, COfi'�OSAC� Of' 11P?P,G't;OY?A� S1_'1silP.� 3Ti(� StiT1C�Sf;Ot1P� �'YIOlN21 A,S t:�1R G]Ti1pSOri f'OTRPB'�1Q71� wn�i�h o�ciars 1�et�rPPn 1-he �rbuclrle �n�? Tr; o1a lime�+.ones. ((7�11 ?,. T1�e ro�ks of thi5 forma+3.on are f'or +he ,nos+ nflr+ so?+er +han the ��nt; :-1�ou� 7 imesi-one unon e�.ch si�e, ancl �rP +,here�'nre It?n�"P, easiltir �ear��ed an�i vsual'�� form low lan�ls or vallevs.((��-�111 3. In �he "dichi+.� rev�ion th�.s formati�n, i�' it oc��zrs, i.s entirely concealed t+�r +he "�?e� Re�is" �lenosit.s 1n��;�r stirro,an�l i-hP Ar1�+»�kle �nr' ��i.ola limestone exnostaresi(71�i 4. ��iol� limestonei(7111 A. Th;.s f���+; on, �vhi �.h o�nitrrs -i n fta11 exnosvres throu�hoiat the Ar�vekle �011Yt'�-A.171 rP.�'1071� is fm,r..c� here in {-rseee isola+ed are�s, v��hich form �,n��l r��zn�?P� l�i_1�G risin� f'r(1m +he le�*el o�' i-,r� "Red Rer�s" plain in +.he vi��.ni+sr of T'ainv �Rouni-ain T�iscion b. Thev are �n a].i�nment, Qn� P.X+P,1'lf� northl.�uest-so,�+he�st, in the �PnPral si-rike of the lime�+�ne:= �f +�+is re�ion. �.. The t�i�kne5s n? the forma+.��n, whe*e it i5 ltn��vn �r_ +he A*rla�kle re�i_on, is 50� to 7�n fePt; �v+ ;n t;hP '"�1ch;ta re�?�n onlv ?_.�tl-to :i0� fee+, �f '�;�'1.P. m�.f�r�1P pprj-.i ntl si?'P P,Xt�OSP,(�. • �. Tr,P form�tion is composed entir�lv of ]�mPGt.�nPs, w-itr occasion�l thin ]er+il-like ban�s an� no�3iale� �f chert e. T+s litl,o���i� �har�eter, inrltad�ne� +.re rheri-, qn� +�P abvn�?ant nr�mri.r,i�n falm�, are nra�t�callv t�e same hPrP as in t�e A�►bu�kle ����o„n+�in co»ntrv. � f. Arc�rdir_m +o its nosii-ion �r_ +„re sec+9on +r�s limes+�ne shoulci OCrUi' l�e?�Aa�h thP "Re� Re�'s'� n�rthes+�+ of +Y�P mrnttp of limPstone hi1 � ��P�.rina n�•-tht*le�+war�1 from t-h.e TMi cini+�� ��' Aic�.�rdG, and �also solath of tre eas+ern en� o�' +he A,rb,��kle 7.iTM�e�tone sot�+,�? �n� sovthwest of Fort fiill. a. The Zriola. f�?^r�a+;or+ is thinner �n� more easi7�r erroded +.,hor +1�P 4rbu�kle 1imPs+nne, �nd a� � result has beer_ aradiac�llv worn cio�m to lower levels and �onceqled hv t��a "ped Re�sn ciex��sits. h. A"nst, likelv it wil] not- �+e foiand ir_ +he re�ion be�rond �he limi+.ecl areas near Re.i_nv h"ountain Mission. ,ri. Tn tha Arrii�l�]P �.�o�mt�;.rs +he �ri.tbla li*nest�r_e is staccee�e�? bv a soft, �re�nish sh�lP form�tion +ermec3 +h� S�rl�an shale. a, This i � �t the basP of +he �ilt?ri an, qnd is f'ollo�ed in tUrn r.r the _�g_ Nllri+��7 11mPS�nnP� wh� cr rea�he� +o the Pevoni an. '�. qh��*P t;l�e Silurian is neRoni�r �hert, �ahic�h is sia�cPec�ed b�• a �r�rv +�+-i.�� sect�on �f C�rboniferous rocks. 6. Tn +he '-"fi �hi.ta rer�ion all these roc�l�s, so far as lrn�wn, are con�ealed bv "Red �eds" denos5i-.�. 7. So f�r as c.an be -jtidmed fr�m the gtrlar,tllrP, o� +,he ?R1i�hi.ts lit�lif't, the S�li�r3_�n, nevonian, and Carbonifernvs ro�ks shoizl�? oc�cur stt�cP�sivel.v f�rt.her awav fr�m i-he Qxi al nar+ o�' the ra�a�e bevo��l the ota+cr�n o�' thP �rdo?rici.�.n s+.ra+a. ((71 i i �3_4; CARBONIF�ROUS ?�OCKS((�2_7B)1 R-4-�: PERMIAN((72-7611 1. ��pP,Cj �ec�s"((7Z-7611 a. 7n �li_scussin� the s+.rAt� �rax�hv of the ArbUck7 e I�olanta�n.s it has heen st�+e�t the+., the "Rect BedS" 1 Ap ?cros� t�,e wes+ern enc� of trP A�'bvrklr unlift u?��on�'orma�-+ly, c�ncealin� tre wes#:�nrard contir_l�eti�n of tY�e flo1.�1e�1 stra+a, incltat�i.ri�' Orclov�.ci�n, 7levoni�n, and Carboniferous rocks. b. From +rP ,�e�+ern Pnd o�' .+,he A.rrv��rle unli?'t these "R�d Re�?sn denosits are �.ontinvo�a� WCS'C��2'f� to �n� ar�vn� the "'di.�hita ivi�vntai.ns, �lso 12c�r+hq�re�t�r,rs�ra in+o nc?rfhPrn Oklahoma and K�nsas, r�nc� soiathwestward in+o mexas. c. Fro-^ +t�e Arbuc$le TTo�ant�.?n� west�rarc�, mi�vrav to the �^Iichita rRovnta9.ns, the '�Re�1 Re�s'� din sliahtlu (less than 5°) to�.vard +he ZqP,St;. d. �till farther ivest, to an� arovn� the Z�i�hita Mour_tains t}�e "Rer� Rec1s" hane loc�zl var�able bt�t low dips a�e.v f$om t�e mour_tains, which aPere the ol� PPrmi.an land sreas. e. The�e lacal struc+l�res are �onsi�erec� to be duF to den�os9tion ��' +he se�'iments upon the slopin�* near-�hore sea b�ttom rather than +o post-Permiar_ ororrenir move*ner_t.s. ?. In the Parlier n�r+ �fl the sa�s�r_ oF 1.9�1 �nd at oi-heT' times nr. ('reor�e I. A�i �Ms m��e some sfr±a�--i.a�r�nhic intresti �a+i ons �or:rernint* +.hP as*e �f +he "Re� Reds" in nor+l-nnTPs+ern Tr�;an Territ�rv and ea�+ern Ok] ahoma north of �an�c� i an �'i,rer. a. �ie observed �+r�t +he red �olor transmre�se�? t-he si-ra+a diat�onally from the �anper nart of +rP Penns`rlvanian �n+.o the P�rmian. a 72, The �arl�onifer�us ancl pPrmian A�e of t�e per� Rec?s of e+�s+ern �klahom�. from stratia�raphic Ptriden�e: Am. Jour. S�i., 4�h ser., vol. 12, 19Q1, pp. :�R?-;�86. b. r?o indic�.tions of �aneonformitv be+wPPn +he Pennsvltrr�nian an�i Permi.4.n, or bPt�rrAPn of;her s+.rA+i �'raphi c hori zon s� tnrere n�te�l bv nr. 4dams. �. 2f there is n.o l�n�onformitv at the base ofl the "Red Re�G" nor+h of'l',anadian niver, an�3 if noe+or Adam's observations concernir_? the color of the stra+a are correct, +he s+raticraphic uncon�'orm�tv o£ the "ped T�eds" across the AY'buclkle taplift i.s loca], th�nah the uplift w�� nrofol�nd an�l the erosion are�.+ from +,he bee�:innine of the vnlift throt�mh a large nart of "Red Reds" time. �. In this disciassion no a+tem�t wi11 t�e ma�e to distine�taish b�r name� or CZ�S61?��! the r».rious �3enos��t-5 wh�ch m�ke thP "Rec� Re�3st' except �s to order of succession, Since thC�* werP stia�i.P� onl�r t'�rrOss +he western en� of the Arbia�kle �anl:ift, alonr� the se�ti�n he+-ween the Arbuckle �n� '�Tichi+a 1�otan+ain reminns, ar.� in proximi.t•r to +he pre�-Permia.n rocks o�' thP ��T�chi-Fras, an� since no fossils, ex�ent � fevv sm�ll fra�en+.� o�' b�nes which are n�� �e+Prmin�ble, vrere ?ovnc3 in them.((721) R_5; �UATERNARY R.00KS((�g_�71i ]. Pleist�c�ne(?i eravPlsfi76-7711 a. 1n relat�velv re�Pnt t�'eolo�'i r ti�res chertai.n �'ra�el an� oerble c�enosits of qtaartz an� ni�artzites WP,?'P, in+ro�uce�l ir+n +re �'ep'io17 of t}hP "li�hi.ta Mo�,n+a,ns r�n� nrnb ocovpV the hiPh leRe]s _�g_ USGS P. 31 of �F�rtsin d i�ri �les �s wel l as t-Prrgt•as �i�+ in +hP i�*nP��,� rocks B.FFOC1f3+P,(� with somP of the lar+�er stre�'ns 1�� to ?n� feet qbo��� the �:�nPr�l level of the nlains. �, These a'T'8�'P,18 are v�re]1 rrn�nded, smool-h, anc? arP c�o*�nosPr� of qt�artz anc� quartzitic materialx ��' �rariolas colors, �hz.efl�r of li�ht and clark shades. c. �l�he s�ravels �re no+ec3 esnecial7�* on thP di?ri�e e�st �f Fort Sill, ne�r the e�s+ ]ine of +hP nreser+ Ap�che "e�ervA+�on. d. Tha�r or.c�l�r simpl�r scuf+erec� ur+on +�e siarfacP or as Ei, VP,T'\r thi.r_ r_Is�n+le. (�761) e. rrrg,Zrals o�' similar n�t,t�re WP,re no+ed also nnon thP urani+e mass ��x�}a at +he nor+,h en� of +he I.,ov�er N�.rrov!{s, �h�t?t 6 mi] Ps northwest of Sn,r� er. ( � 771) f. �ra�re]s �.n this ins+�,nce occlar ub�n �i +P7'rs�,CP, in +hP �r�nite 7'C1JTP,SPrt- inr� an ol� 1PRe1 of �tter �reek bef�re ciat+ine� its nresFnt narrow and shar� �hannel. �. TTo ori�nial materials of +he nature o�' +heGP e�ra�*els have been foiand i.n the rPRion of the nresent dr�.i.na�e of (ltter r,reek, and their occ.»rren�e here incl�ca+.Ps +hat +�e•• were intr��>>cecl ;rto the rP�ion bv � s�rs+P,n of c�rair,�a�e �n� t��1aP,r con8i�i�ons n�i- nn�rr in Pxistencr. IV. STRtTCTiTRf� OF TI3� r�ICFiITA ����1TTaTAINS (( �7_Rnl ) A. ( (Ir1TRODiTCTIUN) ) ( (�7i 1 7. The �richita T'�oiant�in rar_�e, eV�ent the �^r�uo oi olatlTri.n� ridces on the nnrt�e�st�rn si.d� and s�me lo1N cleta�rP�? hil7s �n thP sot�+hern side, near the e�s+,ern Pnd, is �omnosP�i en+irel�� of ipnern�s rocks. ?.. These ianeotas ro�ks ar� SP,t�sirg�F,P.� in+o m�re +.han 25n �P,{"fl('E'hP,(3 qrP,HS� anci f�rm mountqin5 r�n�l 1�i1 "I s.�hj.rh rans�e fr�m ('�OSP.]�T c��rnec+e�1 Rrot�ns of 1�0 snlaar� miles i.n arPa +� � ��a �tPr�, sharp k1'inbs TM�h; �� ri.sP AroRe +he nla-ins ].i�P islan�ls. �. The m�ern�,s small ioneous m�i�n+�i+�s �r.�' hi_11� -in the �!v^s+ern half of +he r�r�e ±�.rP esnP�-i �l l�r hrot�Pr ar� �?is��nne�ted 4. nll th?se r�rovps and mrnzn+A�ns are svrroian�P�i bv +he nParlY hori.zont-�1 "Red RPds" clenosi+s wh;rh exten� �n all si�es of +he .-ano�e �'or lon� �is+ances 5. Thesj� conceal +he rocks of i-hP 'xjich;+� Aliour_tc�-ins to sia�h a de?�r?e thnt n� a�?eqi��+e c�ncep+ion nan be r�cl o�' +hP ext;ent of +he '"?ichita upli�'t 6. The archinelat*o-like arran�emPnt o�' +h� a�r�nit.e moim+ains and peaks in thP nl ai.n ] eave� one to ��siame +r�+ c�n1v a sm�7 1 t�flr�}; of the i�neous nore of +h.P '^r;.r�i+a �apllft is now �xnosed. B. FVIDENC � OF DISTiTRBAPJCE IT1 TIi�: IGNEOLTS ROCKS (( 77_7P i 1 1. These i?�ne�t�s masses of +,hP i"�ichit� ]tRo�antains nos�es cert��n r�er_eral, Vet r�.ronotanced,strvetiaral fe+�tvres. 2. The ?�ran�t-e has bePr_ �ntr�ac�ed thr^uar the Fabbro inpart at least, r�nd snreac� out i.n a brnacl �nra�r upon it. �. ''�'l8?'P, +he Prns� on o�' PPrmi an ar� more rPCPnt t.imes h�� �mroT*Pred the ��.t�hro i.n wh�t i s nnUr +he �enPra� lv levPl nlain, +hP aab�ro are3s are fol�nd +.o he oriPr.tP� in a dire�t;�on a�nroxima+elv T?. 6Q� t� 70° �., as �nrm�7� ?�P �he �ase ;f +hP �abbrn h�d been Q.+'c'.hP� in the aacial t�art of an uplift. 4. The lar�er ares�s o�' r�ran�+e, eGne�� al]v in thA "7� �h�+a �nd �uara mount-�in �r��zp�, and also a t�rPat numrer of the smaller ones, �re founc? +.o be oriPnted in i-he same r�enerql 1'to?^thweSt—SOU�'.�'1P,fi8'f dirP�+ion. 5. In +he strike of thP nr�n�inA1 ric�ves ar_� l��es o�' nPaks an� hills there are ^�arl-Pd zones �f f2'�c`t�ire or of m�ior j�ir_+�na.i�771� a. ThPs� ?;nPs of ;join+1nr� are Ps�eci�ll,y nron�tanced in +he wesfern na.rt of t-�e "'i�h; ta �roiap, so1�+-h of ��ount Raker. ( i77-7(�)1 b. Tt�e samP structiares t��ere also notecl nP�r +hP P,�S�P.rri end of tri.s aroup, e�;st of RRount Cummins, �n�l -in t.he b�rphyrzr of Carl+nn 1�.�ovntQ�ns. (f78}1 �. In thP west�rn part of +,hP ran�e the m�,ior joints are �*enerally nearl,y vertic�l, �a��ile in thP e�.s+ern nar�, +h�v are inc7 ined to�rard thP south a� �n r�n �l e of :�0° t-o 40° . d. Thi.s inalined joint�nc* is so marked in +,he east�rn rn� of the �arlton -4A- rdonnt�ins, an�l in +he �ranite Pnst of' I�Rotmt Cu*rRnins, i:ha+ at a dis+ance it resem�les pronour_ced s+r�+ifice.tion. e. Such str»�+lares, catasinP �*�ri s�h] e�*eakne�ses -in trP i�neo�as ro�ks, were emnhasize� to a marked degrPe bv a�e�ts of de�rac3a+ion before +he nrP�ent dr�ina.�e s�rs+em wa.s est�bli.shed. f. �speci�llv nronovnced inst�nces are ?ovnd in the larp�e resur- rected Pe_rmiAn 49Z�P,�r leq�in� s���+heas+t•rard fr�m ��ilitarzr Pass befween the '���i�hita an� !�uana m�»nta�_n �roians. �. Other in�tan�es of lesc nror�uncecl rl'1�rA(',tP,T' o�ri�r �n the s�ta+hern *�art- of the; 'Ari�hi+As, s�t�+h of 1�!�ount R�1rer, �vhere +he �"](�mCS And v�l]evs �re oraer_ted in �hP e�Aner�l s+rike o_f the r�n�e. h. ThesQ m�i�r struat-»ral lines wo»1� n9.ttarallV be concPAled +o r� e�re�t.er ex+ent �.n the ltzre�e area of i.solated mountq�n� c�nd hills makin��the west�rn h�lf of +he rana�e. i. 1+��m� of these moiantains, howP�7er� An�i even some of +he smaller ones, sho��T nrono�anced ma,�or joints in. zon�s of rr'tzs�'ted rocks bearina� in northwes+erlv directions. j. Stach �ccur in �;lk T�ot�ntain an�l �rP esneciallv m�rked in Twin A�rnmtains. 6. Aside from the major jointin�, it v��i1] bc� observed b�r reference to +he mag +h9.t wi+h a fe�^� ex�•en+ions thPse iane��as moun+ains and e�*Pn small hills ha�Te their ZOrip'P,r axes arrano�ed in (jlY'P.l'"�"1CfT1S P;e71P,r�11V northeAs+ a��] sotath�rrest. 7, This is dovbtless due +,o the sursri�ral of +.he more resistant zones of the i�neoi�s masses para11e7 ?��ith th� linPs of' �e�kress. R. Conspi.cuo��s ,joir�tin� occurs in o+her di.rections than northvrr.s+ and soiatheast, +he most pror_oiancec� heinp� nqrth and south, across the �rend ofl +.,re ran�e. ( (7�ii i C. FOLDING APTn FAtTLTING OF TH�3 STRATIFIED ROCKS((�8_7g)1 1. In +.he s+ratified ro�ks on thP n�rthe�as+ern side an� near the erosion of the r�n�e th� strt��+lares are morA �ronovn�ed an�l easilv internr�+,e�. ?. These rorks o��t�r i.n a sm�l.l p�rt of thP �^richi+a Rane�e, an�, as exnla�ned �ro�re, are nrsbal�l,y l�ia+, a small part of +hP unlift. �. ThP Ordo�ician limestone, whinh fo�-cns p�.rt of +he thick Arbv�kle form�tion, o�curs npon the n�rthern and sovthe.rn sic�es o�' +•he 'rTichi+a M��anta�ns near thP ea.s+�rn end, sh���Tin� tha+ +hi� part of fhe ran�e is anl-iCli.nal. 4. On the sovt�Prn side of i;r� ranve, so�a+h �nd soiathwest of Si�nal ]l�ountair_, the remnants of +hP ArbvrtrlP limes+�ne o�.ctar in l�w hills dipo�ne� s���th and S0�1t}linrP,St. F. �r.e-half mile southe�s+ of Fort Sill +�+P same limes+�nes di.n towar�l the sota+heast. 6. Ree-innin� north of Fort Sill snci r,xtendin� northwestward t� Rainy Moi�ntain ?�Ri ssion the whole Cambri an. s�c+i on and �. lar�e nart of +�e Ordovi�lan are exnosed in a t�roun o�' stra�aline�, lot�r motm+ains �nd n��zs.(l�e)1 a. I oral foldin�s oc�tar in t'�I.P,BP, limPst�n_e hill s, and +.hPre are reb- et�tions ir, the Gec+i.on �ne +o f'�,t�l+.;.n�, ���+ throu�;hout the exnosed sPe+;on of 4,000 to 6,000 fc�et +he e�eneral dirertion a�' ��ap di.p is t,���r�rd the northea�t. i(78-79) i b. This shows, wi+,hotat do�abt, tha+ +hese separa+,ed limestc�ne hills are nerts of the nortrern limb of a areat anticlinal fold Urhich encomp- assed at least the eastern part of the '�tichita. R»nr�e. (, (79) i c. ThP c�iver�ine^ strikes of the rocks on ea�h side of +he e�stern �nd of the rana�e indica+e that the uplift bPesme br�a�ler an�1 prorablV more el ev�i-e� t;oward t-he no_rth!tirest, 7. �ili�? �reek faults((791) a. Ir the vi�ini+v of .Rlue rreek r.,�n�on, about 7 miles n^rth of rRolant �cott, th.erP �re t���o lines of pror_o>>nced f�ultinr�. b. OnP o�' +hese faults follo�as +he r�nvon �n.�l be�rs 71P,Arlv I�. 20� W., w�ile fhe other is a m-i 1P east of the r�nvon and strikes i�t. 40° W. c. Tn e�ch c�se the thr�ir� is �lo�.mwarcl an� +,oUrarc? the soufih��rest, an� the disnl a.cemer_t of +he �avon f�lal+ i.s t�re�.ter than the other. d. As � resialt of the disnle.nements due t-o +hese f�ult.s t;he nornhvey mass hfl.s bPen elevated with resnect ta the str-tified rneks on the northeastern �nd sovthwest�rn szdes. v. -41- USGS P. 31 e. The RluP C,reek faulf extends +ot�ar� the north�Pst �.r_� eenerates the 1 ime�+one and porphvrv r�rer�s i�non the northeast. from 1 imestones of the same charac+er an� a�e un�n th.e southwest.. f. Fxcent.;n� alonc� Rlue �reek l;3nvon the exten.si�e denos�ts of "Re�l Re�s" conneal tre f e,ialt, �ont�.�t�. g. The limeston�s southwest of +he norphvrv belonr* t� 1-he s�me forar,e�tions as those t�non 1-he r_artheas+.., qnd in each arPa +.he dips si.�'P, in the �ame e�ener�zl northeastv�-ard direc�ion, exposi.n� the limestnne se�tion to a th5 ckness of 4,�00 to 5,000 �'eet. D. AGE OF THE V'TICHITA MOL�TTAIN UPLIFT (( 8p� � 1. In the discussion of thP strati�raphv it w�s shov�m 1-h�t the i�neous racks of thP re��on are pre-Camhrian. ?. The snnceP�lin� Cambr;an anc� �rdov�cian strata, rebresentine� ap�roximately 6,�00 feet of strata, bear no evidenr� that thPv we�re either ?olded or nplifted into ] anr3 ai; anv time dtarina� their cieposit.i.on. 3. The ro�k secfion exnosed i.n this reaion �s an �.lmost exact reniti�n, both in stra+,i�ra�hy and. in striacttare, of that of the Arbuckle Motantain iaplift. 4. As �.lreadv exnl�ined, 1-he Arl�u�kl� unl.ift beaan near the mic�dle an�? culminat�d near thP (`l(�9P o�' PPnnsvlv�ni�n time, nre�ri�i�s +o the denosition of the "Red Re� s't, �*�hi ch �ccvr nnw undi sturbe�3 bet�vPPn +.�P A.rruc.kle and '1Vi�h�ta �ountains. �. It has heen shov�m +.hai- t.hez-e is no record to iridi��+e +hat. +.he rocks of the ''ri �hita hRounta.in re�� on werP d-i stnrbed dlar;n� +hP rleAos�.ti on of the �amrrian or Orrlovi�ian roc�ks, r_or since +hP format.ion of' the "ped Reds"; theref�re the deform�+ion n� thP r��k� oc�iarre� �etween Ordo�ic�an and Permian time. 6. The Arbuckle and '�^Ti��i1a moimt��ns O('rltr nPar '�A�'P,�1'1P,Y'� hatre �he same c*enPral form of ural�i+ �n� Strurt;l�r�1 trenc�s, �n� sho�r i.�]e�ti�.s�l strati- Fraphic sec�ions and i�nP�v� �ore� of �im�le.r rhara�ter and a�e, a�hich are �ood reas�+ns for supnosina tha+ their vplift�nn and f'c�ldin� oc�urred c�vri.n�* the Iatter pa.rt o�' +hP ��rbonifer�us neriod. 7. ARnreover, since 'f}']CSP, upli�'ts are in ali�nmer_t it i5 nRtvr�.l +� nresume thai- t�±e�� bel��n� to +.he s�me uplift, l�einr senarated bv d�no�its which were laid (�OWY1. S1Y1CP. +.he foldin� oc�urre:d. Nt>TFS ON OCCUYREidCE OF' URE DEPUS ITS IPu THE VdICHITA bIOLiNTAINS (( g0-81) i 1. �'�i+,h t��ao excentions, which �nclizde the r�abbro, +,he ol.dest i�;neol�s rock� ar_d a loc�l ancl v�r�r limi+ed dike of �rorudite in the �abbro, a]1 the ��neous rocks a� �uell �s the nn�rtz vP�ns or dikes of thP '�ti�hi+a N!ovntains are c3uplicated in t;he Arbtae�kle rPe�ion. 2,. mhe te�:tl�re of the �ran.ite� varies in an vnim�ortan+. dee�ree, but the !�ran9.+e- oorphVr�es, az�orhvoli.tes, c�i�l�ase, and qvartz are essPn+ially identical in '�the t�v� re��.ons. 3. l�oreover, thev have the same a�e relations, r�nd all, tivi.t.h the possi�le excention of some of +he qla�rtz, are, �ri+hoia+ any re�sonable doiabt, of pre- Caml,rian orie^in. 4. i.�en i-he wri.tPr mac�e 8 SLar4esr nf the "'ichita re�ion in 1901, the 1anc�s oi the Kioi�ra an�3 romanehe re�erv�+,ions �rrhi�h �nc1Uc�� i+, h�c? ,ius1- been onened to set,tlers. 5. Pra�+i�a11�T e�rerv dike ancl_ i�neous rork tivhere it came in cnntaet �rith 8.1']�"t'�'lPl' sho��Tin� c�ntrast in tex�nre or color he.d bePn nrosnec+ed, �PS1.C�P,S Permi_an "Red Reds" and f`amrrian sandstnne ancl liries+one.((SO)) 6. The li�ht-colored �ranite or anli�e d3kes in t;h� ��.?�hro un�' +he noin+,s of intersection of s�a�h dikes w�t.h thP diabase clikr,s, e] so +.he �i��rt� bocli.es and �ror�zdi+:e dike, nroved Pspeeially attra�+i�e to the nrospector, +�n!� i.t �ras eastr enrna�h t� c�et fav�rr�rle renorts of the oacurrPn�e of �old an� silver in samnlP submi+ted to some assavers.((80-R1.)1 7. As in +hP ArbiacklP re�ion, thP conts�ct phenamena befwPen the �rarious classes of i�r.eot�s roc?�s, inclta�i�n� the dikes, seen b�r +.hP wri.t,er, p�ave no encovr- amement to � belief tha+, m�.nPral dPnosits of vflliae �n��ld be found.((81)) F�. It i.s no��sible,thovah n�+ �onsiclered nrob�hle, t;ha+. t�e pre�ious mPtals or thPir nres mav �c�tar in sm�zll �vanti+ies as oriQin�.l constitUents in the.se ic�neous rocks. �. Follo��r�r.p� the settlement of the lands of the TNichita re?ion in the sprin� -42- of 190?.,, nrospectin.� f�r +he pr��ious me.tal s be�ame more a��ressi�e; the occUrrence of ri�h ores of a�olc� and silver w�r� rPnorted, �ncl a� some places minin� oner�tions �xere bee�un. 10. These activi.ties resulted in civil �l3�tur�anaes be+wePn nrosnPc+�r$ and homestead o��mers and mac7e neces�ar•r a thnro,��h inResti�*�+i�n of the re�or+ed ore denosits. I1. The apnended 7'PAnt"f of noctnr Ra�_n is conclnsi�e as to +hP o�cvrrence of ore clenosits oi anv value . in the Z'�icrita I�oiantains. . � , ..., � _ - - . .. . � - ., • , ... t., � . . � . �-� . . .,, , ., . � ,•, . r � . .. r , _ , ; . , , .. . . . . . , . .� • . r, . .- .. �,ti �, y • , . . � � � . . • ,.. � , r - • � � . � - -. . . ' '_ . . . , � , . , . . , - . � - , � . . , � i, rr =� •tr, � ryr. >..� .. .� . !+i-� i � . . ..-- . .. � . .{,� . ..... . .. � . � , , �� � . . , • _ . � - �.. ... . . ' ',.. , �.J � -r}g- USGS Y . 31 REPURTED ORE DEr�SITS OF Th'E �'lICHIT9 MOiTA1TAITuS b,y �'. Foster Rain I . ITd1^RODZTC TION ( ( g � � ) 1. For manv vears rumors o�' t�P occvrrence of �ol.d and other ores in the moian+,�;ns havP bPPn rife, �n� etTP� nrevintas to t.he oneninr� of +he countrv to selltemPnt consi.der�ble nrospect�nc ha� been done. ?,. "Then the reservat;ion nv�s +hrrn.�rn onen +o set+l�men+ ma.n�r min�ne cl a�ms wers st�1�e� out, anc� reneat-e� anr_our_cemPnt of the discoverv of ore h3s stimizlated nrospec+�;n� thr�vah�lzt a wide +Prri_tory. �. 1oc�l assavers have constantiv renortP�l �old an�' s�l�rer rqlues, an� occasionallv as��v�rs oUtside the �iiGtri�t have foimc� �*alues �in ores from from thse m�unta=ns, or report;ec� to be f'rom +hem. 4. �n the ba�is of these rpnort.s a l�re�e numb�r of �eonlP h�ve loc�ted in the terr�torv enr� a++P*�p+;ed its de?�elo�mPnt. �. T}ZPre have been r_umProtas confl.z.�i-s as to +.,;tle, �n�? Tnuch li+i�a+ion has arisen. 6. Th� "�ic�hi+a 1�?o�znt�ains hazre been visited t�v a ntamher of aeolo�ist.s, buf in all d�ses thPir intresl-i �3tions VF�rP, e�+her }'lUr'Y'l @� rec�nn�i ss�nces or WP,re directe� +a ��neral nr�blems �f �eolovv ra+her than tre stu�ly �f 1-he reported ores. 7, ?Tnder thP circumstances i+, Uras thnua�ht advisable to make a specie_1 investi- c��+;�n of the ores, �nd th�s v�ra,s t�ccordin�lv �lone bv the author in the month of QCtOher, 1903. 8. The imnortant m�nin� camps in the area extendinu� from I:�Urton +.,o Iur�art were vi�ite� an� Siimp1.P,S were t�z1�Pn from the leadin�^ mines in ea�h camp. II, b?GDE OF OCCUR.Rt��PtCE((�2-f?4i) 1. The �*eolo�r of the re�^ion has alrea�lv bePn cliscussec� in considerable det,ail l�v T?r. T�ff.((R2)) 2.. 1+ i s six�'fi ci.ent for +he nresent piarnoses to rPcall the fa�t tha+ the moimt�.ins c�nsist of a core of crvatall�ne roeks, incluc�i_n� e�ranite, e/ �abhro, e�ranite-norphvey, and �ertain d.;abase dikes, the whole partiallv en��rcled b�r a frirr�e of Pale�z^i.c limestones.((P?,-8:ii} a 83 In �n earlier reconnA;ssancP trzp thr�u�h thP �"�ichita A'o�antains, �±ade in 1t�Q4, +hP a.vfhor stia�i_ec� th�s a�r�n;+P, and foiancl, as he thoiiaht, si�ffi�iPnt ev�denc.e for c�nsiderina� it erun+.ive an� n�st-Ordo�=i�ian in a�e. (Rial7 . real. �o�. America, vol. 1] ,�n. 127-144.) 1ir�r. Taff's ful7 er studies lea�l him to believe that tl�e rock is �re-Caml�rian. The at?thor belienes that the mat+.er is still open to rea�^nable c�ovht, �ut �ri.th nresent kno�.vlede;e is q1a�+A di snoGed to accent TvRr. T�ff t S de+.ermin�i-i or_ as nroh�rlv corrc�ct. 3. The o�ah�ro an�l +he arani+e-norph,rrv a+ least. are DrP,-�s,m�r1�21. ((P�)� 4. The �r�n�t-e and the �i.kes, T�rhirh �n�ll��e cert��n rarP 3ncl petro�'rs�t�h.ir�llv in+erest.ina- tvpes, arP eruptive +rr�»ff?� +.hP o���r �_rvs+�] l inPs. 5. Pros�ectlr.� has hePn r�nf'ne�l i.n �enAral t� +he �rP� of crvs+alline rocks. 6. '"��1-hin that area it. w�� fotan� th�t ro�ks in five ma�es �f oc�urrenco �rere beir_a prosnec+ed: (1� �ertain we11-definec7 c�uartz vPing wh�.eh et�t b�th er?�nite anr! �abbro (2) niabasP dikes «hi�h �pparer+ly cut indisc.riminantiv al] ��ther ia�neous roeks (3) f:nnt-aet of the �r�ni+.e r�nct c�abbro, narticularly whrre, as often hapnens, +he �r�nite senr�s off into thP Pabbro lon� aponh�Tses, or c?ikes, usuallv as�vm�n� an apliti� nhase. (e�� T?� sintep�ration �rodi�c�t� of tre �abbro. (5) Al�nt� simble shear zones i.n i-he r�r�nz+•e. 7. It wi71 be a+ onee �pnarent th�t, of +he CZ�SSP,S of OCCt]I'T'P,I1C'P,S ab��e enumer- a-�-ed, some were of the sort t�r�� �h, ir_ view of the rP,� &t10T'�S o�' the ro�ks, mi�*h+ rre71 be exnecte� to W?T'T'Ar?f; nrosner.+,in�. £�• �O]" P,XfiTC�'p1P.� (�U�1?'�;7 VP,7YlS V'F'Y'�t rr,Tlm'!0711V CaY'T"\r lr01� Ett1� n'�;�'1P.7' tTIPf31S 1T1 stiffi�ien.t amount +o ma1rP, +�e *�+Prial an orP, thou�*h 5.+ �s also true that ri�nv �f t1�e laraAst an�l rPst.-de�'i.ned c�t�artz �e�ns knrn�sm carrv either no valt�Ps or su�h lotrr �nes as +o prerlude the vrork�mm �fl +hP �*Pi.n. IV. V. -44- b. ShPQr zon�s in �ranite, �n +�� o+hPr han�, v��•tT sel�om have beon fovnd to CAr�r or�, anc' then �n]v in t.hP irm�edi.ate 21ei mhhnrl�oo�1 of we11-reror�ni.zed ore bodies of oi-?�er �v�es and of considerable richness.((P31) R. In al� , o�er 30!� poLmds of a�mnles taPre taken, anc� 71 assavs were made, as C�P,'t811P,CJ �JP,104V� wi+hout 9n anv c�se shov�,in� a�old..((8411 LIST UF SAT�:�YLES((84_glil ( ( omit+.edl 1 R�I'�RT OF ASS1'�YS FOR GOLD, SILVER, COPP.�R, AidD LEAD. ((92) ) bv �. T. Al1en ((omitted)) CCfi�CLUSIONS((92-93i) � l. 1'n vieva of the �recatat-ions taken i.n coll��tir_� the samples, �n� trP areat c�are w��h t�rhich thev were assaved, +hP a�solu+,elv uniform �rsPn�e of e�ren a frane of �old ar.c� only the occasion�l �aresence of � small �uantitv of silver, conner, or lea�3 allo�rs but one conclizsion to be drawn, namel,y, that noae of the prospae�:s exam-ined shows any ore zn the nroper sense of the term, nor does anY of �:hem hav� anv nresent or nrobable fut�are vallae. ( (92-93)1 2. The nossible exceotion� in the caee o�' �opner and le�d ha.ve alreac�.y 'he�n discussed in �?etail.((931� '�. Tn the nranite mountains near Iu�art there are certa�n co�.rse oep�matii-es shc>win� cr�Tstal s of �iaar+,z 3 inrhes or more �n lPn�th. a. '":rith the q�aartz crvst�ls are somP sma]], black, semi�itre�ns cr��st�ls recop�nizec� bv noctor Fiillehrand as belonain� to +he colu*nbite-tantqlite �roup. h. I+ 7s honed that further intres+1��tions m�v shor�r the presence of some of the rare earths. 4. �"'hile t-he resialt,s of the i._��Res+�.��t;ons y�ere d�.sa�no�n+�ne^ in so far as i'11P.,�J f�ziled t;o show +he presence of t,he exoec+ed ore boc3�es, +he rea�-i�n is one of o+t�er ualia�ble resnvr�es. a. Th? �rani+.,e, �r*hich i.s so abt�nc�ant, is sv#table for bui.ldin� nurnoses, and is a+ mamr noin+s excell en+lv sitt�ated for quarrs.r-in�. b. ThP limPston�s are svailabe for t1�e mam�fac+ure of li.*ne, ar_c3 are of suitqble comnosition for the manufac+.ure of portfiand cement i.i fuPl and indl�strial c�ndryt�ors ever chan�;e so as i-o �sarrant investr?eni; in that indiastrv. �. The sm a17 asAhalt sprin�s foun� ne�r the east end of +he Fort Sill pP,S@?'i%8t1021 97'E3 n�ssibl,y indicati�e of larp�er dep,osits of oil or �as, and the excellent soil of the �rairies an�1 vallevs, combined with p��o�l ���a+er res�,�rces, aff�t-c3 +he bas3_s for a lar�;e an� thrivin� populati.on.i(93)) INDEX ii94-97i) - 30- USGS B. gp2 � BULI:ETITT �,02 ANTICLII�AL STRIICTIIRF IN PAFTS OF CGTTON AND JEFFERSOid COTI�.TIES OK.LAHOr.�A bY �arroll H. �e�emann TTnited Ste:tes f;eoloaieal Survev Geor�e Otis Smith., nirector 191� i(Bib. ref.: Pub. o�' the �. S., rAa,y 1953: *602. Anticlinql struc-+.ure in parts of �otton ancl Jefferson counties, Olrla., bv C. N. �'Ve�ema!Zn. 1915. lOt� pp., 5 pls.)) �, � U SZiS B . 602 Pla+P I GLOLOGIC SKETCH r�AP Or OKLAHG�"A qND NORTHERN T�XAS ((only broa�?e5t �nc� incomplPte �laGsi�'i.��t;ion nf rocks sho�,vn bv e.bstrA�ter�l � ��;.� _ � �� a _ o� � � _a ; .. Sv � 0 � ,� �� � � � � _. � t � � , ;�, �; : �� ,, � � F V `��., � �. :�1'�%. v , � i Op�. . `. \ . �� � , ; rz � ; � ' � , � �. :3 .,� \i � °6 N �I � ..r.� v �� . ' . ,--- _ __ _ � _ - — ----- ____ � _ �� � �. - --_.___ .._ _ .. ._ a . „ �� a R o . � . -1- USGS B. 602 AI�ITICLItdAL STRUCTURE ITT PARTS OF COTTOA? AND JEFFERSOFJ COL�?TIES OKLAHOMA b�� C,�,rroll H. ?"le�em+�nn TTnited States !'�olo�i �al Survev ��:LETII� 602 1915 ((a�stract notes and bulleti� �- Bul�.etin fo�tnotes pa�e references)� �......� - bre.ckets ............................................................................. ((Pa�es 1-�: Title ��p�e, contents, list of i��.ustra+�ons, and Pre�'ace bv Pavic! i'Ihitel � IPITRODiTCTI02d( (g_ip) � I. REPORTS ON ADJOINING AREA,S((gll 1. The "Recl Bed.s" area of M�rthern Texas �2�.d sottt-hern �kl�homa has until recentiv receivec? but little at+ention fro*n �;eolo�ists makinc� explorations for oil, not becaLise i.t v��as thou�ht that t;he roc,lrs c�ntain no oi7. but r�ther because the �lelineati.on oi structlzre, on� of the c�n+rolli.n� factors ;n the a�ciunula- tion of oil, w�s cor_sic?ere�l an almost h��eless task in such beds. 2. Recent inues+.i�ati.ons, ho�re���r, h.ane sho�,:m th�t the task, th�umh diffi�talt, is b�r no means hopeless 3. It is bossible to determine with more or less �zccur�_ev thP s+ructure of the strate� a+, manv nl��es throua�}io��� thP "Red Beds" re�ion, an� thus to point oiat localities f�vorahle or unfavorab] e ta the accumul �tion of oil. II. LOCATION A"1D EXTEPvT OF' THE AREA EXAA�IINLD((9-101) 1. The pr2SPYi't renort is the result of ext�min�.tions ma�.e in the summer and. autumn of 1913. ' 2. The are� coQerec�, about 270 squ�re mi7Ps, lies in Oklahoma north nf the Red �iver an�' east of the �ran�lfield fl�s+�tict. 3. ?t is limitc�d on the north an�3 east. bv i-.he line ��' the Chica�o, Rock Island � P�cific Railway, a�hich nasses thr�>»�h the towns �f Rvan, �,'�aUri.ka, Nast�n�s, and Tem:�Ie.((9)) 4. Sotith of' the are�, across ped niver is Cla;✓ Gour_t,y, Tex., wh�ch comnrise,s the e�stern part of the territ�rv coT-ered b�� the bul'etin published bv the TTniversit�r of Texas, abotTe cited. ((9-1�1 i ((Ru1.Jetzn referred to herF is Footnote �Rull. pa�e ((9)) �1 1 9.i�clden, J. A., anrl Ph�.11i_ns, n. I�RcAT., A reconnaissance report on the a�eoloe�v of the oil ar�� r�as fie].ds of ?'Vichita ancl Cla,y counties, Tea.: Texas TTniv. Ru� 1. 246, 1912,. II I . ACK�TO�.�LEDG1�9Er�TS ( (1 �� ) 1. The v�riter z+ras assisted ir_ t�e 'r1.P,�� bv 14�essrs. A. E. FQ+h an� R. '"�. N�well, ********� 2. �"r. F�th comnile�3 the map an� made +he microsco�i� exqmi.r_r+ions af the rocks, and also assisted in mr�n.v other wavs in nrPpari.n�* the report. 3. Thanks are due to the R;versi�e 0�1 Co., the Green River Oil Co., and. the '�rest Virt�inia Petr�levm Co.�'or lo�s of the�r wells. IV. SETTLE��'Er�iT APdD II�TDUSTftIES ( (10)1 1. qlthot��h this part o£ the i'OL1i1tT'jr has been oP@� �� settlem�nt bY w�ite men but a fepr vears, there is li.t+l� Go�rernment land remai.ninp�. DRAIrtAGE AND TOPOGRAPHY((10-12)) I. S TREAa.�1S AND THEIR RELP_T ION� : TO S TRIIC TtTR.E (( � �_ 1]. � 1 1. ned R��er, the Iar�est stream in this aeneral re�ion, forms the s�vthern bonnc?arv of the qrea here descrihed. 2. It is remarkable far +,he �re�t wi�?th of �ts crann.el in comparison with the width of its i*�me�? iate vall ev, which is unusl�all`l narrow for a stream of i+.,s s*�ze; also for its qui.�ksand and for the �raat variation �n th.e amount of w�ter it carries, the channel at many plac.es beinp� entirel�r dry durinp� midsummer and carryine� a rushine� torrent of water cha.r�ed w-ith red mu� at the f irst e,dvent of the aUti�rnn rains .(� 10)1 - �- 3. The are� here considerecl is dra�ned bv three streams, which flovv into Red R;ver and which, named in the orc�er �f size, are Cache Creek, Reaver Creek, an�l �'?hiske`r Creek. ( (17 )1 n, Fa,st C�che Creek, which heads northeast of the'�'U�chit�t, �!�ountains and �rosses the wes+ern part of thP area fi'rom north to sovth, is j�ine�l by neeo ??ec? Run and '"Test �ache Creek, the lat+er headin� on the s�lith £lank of the T"Tichita ��o�ant�,nas b. Re��rer �.reek, which heads e.�st o�' +,�e ?��'i.chi+a TAoianta�ns, para7lels Cache Cr�ek, lvinp 6 t� 10 miles east o�' it, �n�1 flotivs �earlv sot?+.h- a��rd alon� the east si�e �f the �rea c. It has no l�ra�e br�n.chefi, such as }hosa of C�che Creek d. ?rthiskey Creek is a small stream, n�+ more than 12 miles lonc�, which lies midwasr betweer_ Cache Greek anc� RPaver Creek in th�ir lotNer cot�rses. 4. The fall of Red niver f�r the ?9 miles of its course alont� the border of t&is fie��1 is 111 feet, the avera�?e fa?l S.n this stretch be-in�* 2.i?5 feet. tn the m�l.e. Q. The �si�+.,h of the channel, as marked b�� the bc�rders o�' the s+.,rearn at- hi_ah water or bv the tnridth of t'�e hel+ of barren sand at ti.mes of � drovp�ht, �*arie� considerablv ?rom point to voi.nt alona; its covrse. b. Ooposite +,he moiath of Cache Creek i.+, s.s 3,50� feet wide, but in the �*re�t bend 6 miles eoi.athvres+ o�' "�avr?.ka it i s contracted to a width of about £�00 feet 1) The cause or cause� of this ve,ria�ion in the width of the channcl are not certainlv known; 2) Tt is nrob�blv �ve to the eombined action of SeverB.l fa.c.+.,o�^s� such as t�e hardness of the rocl� strata enc�untered bY the stream at dif�erent places, the dip oi the rock beds, the dsrection of the pre�ailine� win�s and hence the direction in which the sand of the ri.ver bed i.s drifterl at t_i.mes of low water, �n�i the locat5.ons of the mota+..hs of tribiztarv streams, like C�che Creek, which add the:[.r l�ad of materials to the loac� carried bv the main river. 5. It seems �robable that Red River, a lar�e stream, established its course on a. base-lev�led plain anc� maintained.it, �an�n� been lit+le affected b?r subsequent- slia�ht an.d �*radlaal foldinQ, �rhere�s its smaller tributaries �,VP,rP, vnable t.o C�.v�P,pP,11 their channe]s as rapi�ly as the s+,r�+a W�PA tapli.fted across theix courses, and thi�s were nompellPd to readj»st themsel�es to the folds. 6. The present cot�rse o�' Re� River � s therefore i.x�depen�ent of the structtzre, follova�in� an anticline throu�h part of +he are� under discussion, whFreas ne�rlv all the smaller strearms flo�� in svncl�re s or .foll.ovv the dip of the rock strata, e�en thou�h th.eir cotarses thus determi.ne�l are ��re�tl,y ���v from t�e main stre�m, as are the co�arses of' the s+reams in T. 4 S., R. 11 l�T. (�11i� I7. UPL�'`ID PLAIN( (11-12)1 l. The channel of ??ed ?i_�rer has �een ctat �bot�t 1�� fe�t below the letrel of a e^entiv rollin� pl�in vahi.ch co�*er� much of sotat��urestern Oklahoma. ?.. Th�s plain is apparently t�e resul+ of t,�se lPvelina accomplishe� b�* streams flowi.n�* at �rac?e avhen the lanc� areas were rel�tively lo�rer with re"srence to s�a le�rel than at present.((11)) 3. R'9f'f' ���4PS +.,he a�e of t�is t�eneplain as probahl�� Terti.Arzr.((1�-12)) 4. F� 1,(11) Taf�', J. _A., ��olo�y of' tre nrt�iac?rle and ''�i�hita mou»tains, in In� ian Terr-+torv �.�� Oklahoma: TT. S. Geo7.. Survey Prof . Paper 31, p. 1.7, 1904. This ubl�n.d surf'e.ee slopes �:entiv southeast-�r�arc� at abnut t1�e �ra�e of �ed River.((12)1 The f loo� plain oi Red River, �uhich in some places is :� m-iles wi�e, as well as the �'lood pla�n� of trib�.�tarv stre�ms lil-e Cache Creek an� Beaver Creek, represent a surf ace of planation n�w in process of formation. -3- iJSGS B. 6Q2 STRATIGRAPHY((12-3211 I."RE� BEDS"((12-311) " l. The str�.ti�raphY ofl the exnos�;d rncks of the re�ion is com-�arativel,y simple. 2. These rocks consiat of two series of beds, the older eomposin� nart of the i:'�ichit� forriation of the Permian "Red Be�s" and the �rolmeer t�e m.ore recent de�osits, rex�resented by surf ace soil, the unland �ravr�ls of old river terraces, a�d the alluviv.m of the present flood plains 3. The detersninat3.on of the stra+i�^r4nh�r of the rocl�s bane�i-h the '�ichita formation, which are not exnosed in the are� consi.dered, is more diffic.ult, as it invo]�-es several unkn�wn f actors. 4. It is, however, 1'm�Or'tg7S� in t�.e studv of the accumulation of oil in the area, in�amuch as these underl�rina rocks probablv constitute the nrincipal source of the o?1 found in ad;joininr� fields. A. AGF OF' THE "RED BEDS"( (12� 1 1. TY�P nRPci Beds" of northern Texas and sotzthern Oklahoma �re now �enerall,y con�edec! to be o? Permian a�e, althour�h this jnd�ment has not pe.ssed unquest3oned. 2. �f the fossil flora 1�lhite makes the folloro�rinm stAtement: f "Tn accordance with tl�e pal.eobo+,anic�l strar_c?ards of western Ftaro�e, T refer the plants of t-he Little �"Vichita. in Texas to , the lox�er Permian, the terranes beirm brobRbl?T referahle t� thP f'hase ar�un in Fansas." 1 1? �ordo?�, C. Ti., The �Ii�hi.+�, form��ion of northern. Texas, with d9.scussions of the f auna �n�l flor� bv G. H. (=irt�r �xac1 Da�r�d T"ihite: Jour. ('=eolomv, vol. 19, �To. 2, nn. 11�-234, 1911. 3. G�ri:y, howe4Ar, i.n +,he s�zme 7'f?T�n�"t comments or the evidence afror�ed h�r the invertebrate fossils �s to t?�e DPrm�an a�*e �f the "Reel Be�s'r as follows:�(omiss�ons belovr ara frnm R�zlletin tex+.,)i "I �m therefore accentin� t?�.e P�rmi.an aee af the 3�ans�s �nd Texas beds, blat at present stri_etllr on baleobotanical e�ridence. **** An in�p�ction of the faun�.s ( O�.J PC�"P,f� fr�m the strat� imMe�i.qtely concerned **** sho���s a rather notewort.hy chan�e ^f facies between !"di.chi+a ancl the �isco, a chan?�e, howezTer, which is more or less bro�ressive and has i,+,s be�*i_r�inp� in earlier beds. This shnvrs itself r�+,her in a li.mi.tation +,han in a chanae of fauna �n� in the prominence of certain �rouns more .rarP below." 4. ?�ost t�ertebrate paleontolor�ists have been incli.ned to consider the "Red Rec?s" s�s Perm.ian. 5. C�sP, t�o�e�Ter, prefers to cal] them Permo-Carroniferous, lavinp� strass on th�i.r close re�ation to the un�lerlvin�* formati.on. ((12)) B. DIVISIONS OF TH� "RED BEDS"((131) l. The "Red Reds" were orie�inally divi�?ed by�:�C1�?ins � into three divisions whi.ch, from base to top, are the �"Vichit+�, �he Clear Fork, and the Double R�ountain ( (1 �) i 2, . 3. 4. 5. 6. 1 13. Cumm�ns, �^. F'.�The Per*nian of TPx�.s ar_c� �ts o�-erlv�n�* beds: 'rexas �eol. Survev First Ann. Rept., p��. 83-197, 1�90. .�=eolo�v of northvrestern Texas: Tex�s �eol. Svrvey Seconc� Ann. �ept., p. 400,1890. Of these, the Urichi.ta on1V is bresent in tre arer� lie�e?-d�s�rib�d, the hi.p�her c�i_visi�ns bein� f�tan� farther west AccordinP� to Cummir.s descri_fit�on, t�P "richita is composed o? sands+,ones, cl��r �eds, �nd a peculiar con�lomerate. The sands+.,ones are of' v�.r-io��s colars; the clavs arP, rec; an� blui.sh �nd �rP., in pl�ces copz�er bearint�, �s Rre also +.hnse of the ('lear Fnrlr +'ormation. There ar� iron c�ncretions in the red clays, ar.d the neculiar c�nvlomerate is composPd of clav or clay .ironst�ne with a ferru�inot�s matrix_ The �le�r Fc�rk Formati.on c�nsi.sts of li_mes+,ores, cl.a,y anc� sh�le bed.s, �n�l. sar_� s+�ne5. a. The sandstol�es are not so Rbundant as in th.e '4ric.hit�. -4- b. The elavs are red an�l bl.ve c. There is a cofl�;lo*nerat� �il�e th�.t in the ��'�ich.i.ta, bv{ it is less abundant c�. A fev�r bedG of �vpsum are present 7. The nourle 1�.'�ounta3.n formation, which overlies the Cle�r Fc�rk, is said to �onsist of s�ndstone, 1-imestor_e, sandv sha.le, red an�1 hllaish clavs, �nd th�.ek t�ecls of �wsum. C. WICHITA FO?�Z�rATION( r 1 g_:�I �) l. In the area covered b�r thi.s renort the "Vichita f'ormation consists of t�eds of shale and sandstone and thin lavers of sh�le con�lomerate. ?. The �'ormation conta,ins no limestnne, althou�h some o� the sandstone� beds are verv calcarern�s 3. The �tr>ti�raphi.c thickness of the rocks exposeci in the �re here cles- cribed is abotat 2�?0 feet. 4. The "Red Recls", hrn�e�er, exten� t� a�3epth of aboiat 1,�0� feet bel�w +,re sur$ace, as is shcrnm �,y +re loc*s of deen we11s c�ri.1 i_ed i.n the vici_nitv of the field. F. 7irnv mlzch of the 'a'lich�ta formation has been remn�ecl bzr eros�_on i� i.s imnossit�le to saV•((1�i) C.1 SHALE((13-14)1 1. The �_ndivie�ual beels or shale o�' the �Ti.chita fnrmation exposed ir� this field ran�e in thickness from a few i.nches to 42 feet, .and one bed of' red shale, rP,Cn7'flC[i at a�epth of ZOO PP,9j: �P,IOW the sur�'ace in qvell TTo. 1 of the Riversi�e �il _Co., is 101 feet th;ck. 2. The sha] P a.s of m�nv col�rs and sha.des. a. In some beds the color rana�es fr�m recl to p�ra,y, in �ther� from orren to purvle; in sti11 others it is �3unost �lack b. ARuch of the shale, especiallv where it i.s exp�sed to we�.fherin�, has a mottled appearance, the colors beina_; red and 11.Pht �r�y or e�en a�hi.te. c. The chanae of colorrdoes not 1T1var1�b1V conform to the beddin�, which, thouah finelv �e�eloT�ed in certaa.n strr�ta, e��ciallv near sancl stone bec2s, is not astaal lv pronounced .( i 131) 3. iTn�'Pr +,he microseone a th�n section of finelv 1f�minated shale closc�lv associr�ted w�.th sandstor_e is seen to c�nsist nf clark-red. amorphous materi.al, narti�les of qu�.rtz, slender l�ths �f a color- less minPrs�.l havinr� para7.7 el extinetion (serici+e?), �n�' a t�reenish to bltzish, hi�h1�T refractinrrmi.neral.((1�-1�11 �. The red t�morphotas m�teri.al increases in amoui�.t ne�r +he lami.nation nlanes to the prac+,�c�l exclUsi^n of the oth�r mir.erals.((141) b. TTerv fev� of the particles ^f qiaar+,z i.n thP sec+,5on ex_aminec� h�ve £i c�191riP,t2r of more th.qr_ 0.0?. m�lli.meter, �nc? the ave���*e diameier �f the lar�er narticles is 0.017 mi 11i.rne�-er. 4. ScAt+.ere�l thr�t�t�h +he ms�.ss of the sh�le, ir_ so.ne plaees �_rr�n�ed alon� +he bed�ina� plane�y there are concretionar�r masses, which are of var3oias form an� ranRe in si.ze from sm�ll e^rA�rs to m�sses a foot or more in diame+er. �, The material of' the concre+ions, if sueh thev reallv are, consi.sts of shale resemt�lin� i.n mos+.. respects trat -i.n �nrhich they are embedd.ed. h. The cemen+ina� ma.teri�l is calciiz_m carbonAte, l�ut the masses contain consz�erable amoiants of ir�n oxide an�' �lso �f man�anese oxide, whic�h occ�ars in some places as dark broum or black denc3ritic formF penPtratine; th? concretion from the surface toµrard the center. c. '�'he eon.ereti�ns c�o not show eoneentrie strt�etiare anc3 are as Y����b�e in shape �s thev �.re in size d. Some of them sre almost rounc� , have smooth svrfaces, an�3 resemble closeltt the pP'�bles of the concre+ionarv conelome�•afe descri.bed belocv�; o+her� �re fla+, thei r lon�est �li simeter lvint� parallel to the be�?dinr� of the sha7e; still o+.he,-s are roian�ed in outline Qn� h�.vP extremel`► roumh surfaces, bei.n� co�*ered by a deposi+. of c.alciiam carh�n�.+e bvilt out -ir_ a sharp ed�*ed netvrork, as if the sh+�le ar��an.� the r,one.retion rad ia�ic�isx��t�Cx:iR been hroken bv innumerable cracks ?+vhich were filled bp the deposifl _5_ iJSGS B. 602 e. �Runn � referrec� to these forms as "cl av-lime�+,one"c�rcreti.ons", an� this term wi.11 l�e emploved in the preser_t ren�rt. 2/ 1 14, rAu�n, 1!R. J.,Reconn�isssn�.e of the �.randfield ci1S't;rj.Ct� Ol�la.: n. �. �eol. Survev FU11. 547, p.19, 1914. �14�) F�r theories in re�ar� to +he for?na+,;on of c�ncretions, see �ar�'r_er, .T. N., The phvsical ori�'in of certain. concretions: J�ur. �Polo!r,y, vol. 16, pp. 452-45�, 190�?. Also Tod�l, J. �., ('oncretions an� their �*eolo�ical effects:�eol. �oc. America Rvll., vol. 14, �p. �5'i-'?68, 1903. ��2 SANDSTONE((14-17)1 1. The s�ndstone� of' the '�l�.�hita forma+� on are compose� princ3.nallv of �reins of quartz anc� ver�r suborr�inA+,elv of �rai.ns of feldsp»r an� 21.Y'COri. ,',. AfUscovite and bio+,ite we��e fotanc� in 7 oi the 12 thin sec+ions of san�lstones exa�m:i.ned, an� in al) tl�es� ali�es only thr�e r�rAir_s �f +��„-r„�1i.ne �rPre ob�Prved. �. aRost o±' the �rains of felclsnar are wPa+herec� �nd, so far s�s coul� be �etermined, s.11 are plaa�ioclasP. 4. The e�ra�ns of Z1T'fOT1 are cnns��era�lv smaller ahan trP �rA.ins of �uartz, bei.ne�, in the sPct3.ons eYam�r.ed, �r�v+ one-third R� lar�*e. 5. Inclusions of aps�tite, rutile, anc� zircon occur in soMe of the �ia�rtz e�rairs . 6. The �^ra�ns �f s�ncl �re a]m�s+., i��T�ri ablv anuular, their an�ul arity increasinp���*i.th decre�se in size.((141) 7. 1�'e71-rrnzndec� :�or*�s are rare, re�n�* fotand onl�� ?.n �ra3ns �rhose diameter is e�rcater than one-+,enth �f a mi7lime+er, the lol�rer limit to rounciin_v. by tre �cti.on of water.((14-15)) 8, S�.I1rP, eolian 9P,P,Tt.C18S are cepable of roundin� sanc� �*rai_ns of sma7ler di �me+er than one-te�nth of a m3_lli.m�ter, the fact thr�t i:he finer pa*^ti��es af thP G�n�ts nf the i�:�ichita formation are ?�ot rounded but invariahly anp�ular indi�ates �.t leas+ that rvind action has h�d Ii,+tle to �lo with their denosit.i.on.((1F1� g. The pr�nc�.rial cementinR material of the san�stones is calcite, but silica oec,urs ir+ subordina+,e a?rotm+s a. Tn the �alci.te-cemen+ed sanc�stones iron oxi�e stains are common, ancl in a flew sr�ec�m.ens are so nronolanced th�t the san�stone has a di�ti�ctiv rec� col or h. Ir�n oxide w�s fonn� t.� be TitOrP, +han a s+�in in the ca.lci+.e cement in or_lv one specimen, in vrhi�.h it �'o?-mecl pract�icallv a17. the �Pmentl.np� m�.terial. 10. The s�nc�ston� beds vr�.ry consic�er�hl�r in thicknes� fro� place to place, 4ariations of sevPral fe?t henP�n� b�^�n note� �r�thin horiz�ntal cl�.s+ances of eII�v e�'ew tr�.rd s. a. The �re�.test thickness mP�sured f�r amr �ne san�s+�ne is 32 �'e�t ***. b. The ��rPra�*e thi ckn�=s� is 12 f'eet. 11. The sandstones are of two differenf, types, R�hich for c�nRenien.ce will here be te�r.ed the r_orma.l an� +�e fine-e�rained sa.n�stones. a. The tivo t�Tpes dif�'er in s� ze of erai.n, �er!eni-, be��in�, thi.eknP�s, re�,talaritv, �.n� in +he asGoc:i.ete�l_ con�lomerai e, +he di.f`'erenees bein�^ c�ue m�inlv to vari�zt�ons in the condit-inr_s under vrhich the,y �fP,rB �lenos9.teci b. There arP manv �radations between trA two t-.ro es, but +.he characteristics ��' the ex+..remes are mar]�ed1V distinet c. The normal t,ype exceeds 1-he fine �rained both in ahsolu+e amount of sedi_ment an� in the persister_ce of i.ts beds over censi�ler�ble areas d. It is the importart rock in e,eolo�ic work as it furnishes the only ke,y horizons in the �'i.el� for the co.rrelation of strAta between oui-erops �nd for the �eterminA.tion of structure. ((15)1 12,. The ce?n�nt�.n� material differs in t.he +wo types of a�ndstone. ((16) 1 a. The n�rmal or me�?ium-�rair_ed tvt�e is for the most n�rt cemented �i,'y�`-�al �i+A; r. The f�ne-mrained tvne i.� cemer_+ec� principallv bti� sili_ce�us ma+eri�l, presumabl,v qvartz. - 6- c. A p�rt of +.he ee�ent of the normal 1-vne �ioes not disin+ev�r�te in. cold di.l_ufe ht�drochloric �c3.d and i s prob�blv c�u�ri-z, A.s is a�n�rent also from the examinai;i.nn of thin sec+�.ons t�r_.�er +h� microscope c�. In lik.� manner thP cement of the fine-p�ra�ned t;vne is no+ R1.1 sili�a, as i.s shown t�v ��s e�'�'er?rescinr� on the apnlir,,ai-ion of hv�roc�hloric scid. S. The c.ai�se for t�±is dif�'er�nce in c�nen+�nr� mat-erial bP+.ween the t-wo +,vpe4 is not clear. 1) It e.ppears to be a direc+. rela.tion to the size of tre �rair_s of +hP sa,nc�stone and. mav i.n som� mann�r he con+rollP� bv thP ra�iditv of the circula+ion of ���ater throv.ah the rock, whir.,h woulcl be �rea+er in the coarser-�rained materi.al, or by the amoiar_t o£ rock starf ace exposed +,o water act�or_, whieh w�uld be mre�tc�r in. the fi.ne-�ra;ned sandstone. 13. The t�vo t,ynes of s�nds+one diifer in bed��n�. a. mre normal t,ype shows the �e+,; on �f r:�ther swif't currents duri.ne� i.ts �lenosition---c�n�lomer�.teG are associated with it, i.t shows almost P,?TP2`�JW}1P.re CI'OSS-�P,�C�7.11�;� and �vheY'A it does no+ the horizor_tal bedd.ine i s Il?nrP, pror_otinced than th�t in the rine-�rained tz�pe b. The _fine-�ra�nec� tyx�e is not as a rtz�e as�o�iated with conr�lomerate �n�l shows little or no cross-bed�l�n�. 1) In one exnosizre, *�***(iloc�t�nn omitted)), leaf im?�ress;.ons •,vrre f'otznc3 ;n t�is +,rpe of san� ctone 14. The normal san�l�tones are the mos�; ronspi�uous becls of th�_s re�^ion anc� ai�e�aPe ]0 to 15 feet in thic�ess. 1�. The fine-�ra�ned. sznd�tone is usvall�r fot�n�? in C07!�p�1'�i'i4P,�`* +��n �eds, rarel,y if P,VO?' excee�in�* 6 feet in thi.ekness anr� �enerall.v occurrin?� as thin sanc?v lavers or streays zn +he rec� sh�zles. (�16) � a. Bein� leG� �'irmly cemPr.tec� +h�n the nnrmal tYt��, �t d�Ps no+ resist the a�tion �f tarea+h�rin� so v�re11 , an� �e�n�* thin it ;s not aenPra7.1V conspicvovs in expost�res.((16i) b. 1t is the.ref'ore impossihle to t,r�ce +re beds of the fine-mrAined tvpe f�r anv consic�erahle distan�e or +.o make ors^r�a.t�ons on �he�r cor_ti.m�itV, but i.t is beliez�ed from the stu�•r of sinu�le E7C!�nSl)�'PS +,�at these beds v�.r�r mrea�lv in thic�ess from place to n] �.�e �nd a.re p^enerally lenticul�r.(�16-17)) 16. A common char�.c+eri.si;ic o�' the normal tvpe of sanr�stone is i+.,s enn+ent of man��nese minPrals (oxi.des of mar�anese), u�h9_ch discolor tl�e rock alon� the bec3�in� planes and occur in concre+ionary masses.((17)) 17. 9t certain localities copner m-i_rerals in small amotan.ts £orm p�rt or the cer�ent of the normal sandstone 1(?. These minerals �o not occu.r in the f�ne-�rQ.ine�l se�.d��n±�es, poss�hlY beca��Ge t�eTr are less permea�le to wat-er soli.atiors than the cottrser s ana s+,ones 19. T?�e preG�nce of' so few minerals �t�er than qt�artz amon� the san�i ar�ins, �nc? these ?ninerals or_ly the mo�t resistant ones, indi�ates a hi�h det�ree of �sGor+ment of se�iment, whi.ch is founc� onlv in ?�e�is c�enos�ted a�h�° eorPi�b���is�ence from t%�e so�_�rc� o_f' the ma+erial or in beds forme�l o�' ma+,eri�l +ha+ hac� bPen a�itated b« �ai-er for a consi�erable time �,, The fineness of the s�n� ar�i_r.s, e�er. i.r_ +h? no►-mal tyr�e of sand- s+one, also �hcyes tl,a+ the assortment is of rit�h nrr�8r� arr� +he ey,frame _fin.Aness of �rain o�' th.e fl'ne-�.rai.nPci san�st�ne �s e��en more remerl�able. 20. Ir� stam•nar�*: a. The san�s+nnes o�' the n�rm�l tzrpe arP comnosed of sand 2�ra�ns be+.t�een �.?,5 �n� 0.062� mill tmeter in diazhe+er, arP ceme}�te� �*i+h calc�+e, and show cross-bec�din�, �re�ter th�cUness o�' beds, an� p;7'P,��'P,7' ur_i�'orm- �tv oQer l�.r�e areas tra� thosp of thP f�ne-�r��ned tvne, arP ass�c- iate� �rith cor_e�lor+.�rates, and �ene a] ]y c^n.t�in man.manese or capper mi.nerals b. The sanr�st�r.es o�' the fane-�rai.ned t•�ne are c!�arac+erized bv thin lentic�lar beds, absence of cros�-bec�r�i_nv, and extre�nely fin� Prair., the r*rains measurin� less than 0.062F mil l im�ter in cli.a.met.er. _7_ ��� $ • 60? �_� CONGLO;�ERAT�( (17-2,��� l. Ass�e�ated ro�r�.th +,he bec�s �f normal sRn�s+c,re �ncl at som� pl�zces in+erbed.ded with +he shale �re be�� o+' �on�lomer�+e, w�ich ran�e in thickness fro*n a fraction o�' an in�r i;a 3 or 4 feet. �, mhe �nnalomer�te is composed of rotaa�hlv spherical nebrles, wh�_ch bear a close resemhlance tn �.orcrPtions an� m�v, in fa�t, he concretionar,y in ori.�*in. ;i. F?P,Ca.I�SP. of this resemblqnce anri for the l��k of !� hetter c�?SCrl.�"F"14P, +erm the roc�k rv�.11 be referred t� ir th�.s renort a� concrPt� on�r.Y con?lo*nerate. 4. The usP of +he term m�y b� onen to Question, rut it can no+., le�c� to confiasion, as the rock, no rra++er TMr��t i.�s ori.t�in, is ��n�^lomera+ic in 't'AX'F1�T'P. an�' h�.s IJ""iS desc.ri�e�l as CAn.olO?T�F'1'f1+P, in Set*P,r�]_ trPolO�"].0 reports.1/ ( i1711 — 1 17 )�um^�ans, ��a. F., The PPrmian ��' mexus +�n� its ��er�tiTin� bec�s: Texas �Po7. �tarve�r Fir�t A.nn. Rept., p.lA7, 18°0. ?�ur_n, ��. ,T., Reco�n�,issa*�ce of thA �Tr�r_dfield,di.s+r9rt, (?�T1�.;STT. �. rP�l. �urve�� Ru11. 547, }�. 23, 1914. Ti��len, J. A., ass;s+c�r� bv Phill;ns, 7�, 1irtc�T., A reco�.naisGe.rice report on the e�eoloPv o�' the os.l an� ��s f1el�.s o�' ,�icr�ta �n� �l�.�r c�ni�t-;es, Tex: Texas TT�iv. Bull. 246, p.2�, 1912, 5. T1�e concreti�ns ranae from fi.ne-�rains to nebl�les 2 in�hPs in di�me+er, an� some speci?nert5 of th� enn�lo�nPr�,+P inclu�l.e sl�?�anp�i�la.r fra.�ments of sh�.le, the laraest an inch in 1en�+h.((17-1$1) 6. T?�e so-call.ec� cor_c�efifiv�.��ranae in color f'rom ,-ec1 +� hrn�vr. an� are hiPhly cal��re�us.((1F1) 7. The�r resemb�e in appearance an� comAosi.+i.or_ the concret��ns th�.t �a.re scattere� irremtz7.arlv thr�t��'h the sh�.le �f the '°tichita forrra+.,ion �?. The m�teria.l fillinr� thP s�A.ces between the shale fr��ments and the conc-�etions is !�ener�llv f;re san� cementecl bv calcit.e, btat in some nla�Ps it i.s Pn'-i.rel�� calci+e. 9. An ex�mina.tion of thin sect;o��s o�' thP canmlome�-ate unc�er the microscope shotius tha+ the roun�ec� con.crefi.on-lilTe nebhl�s areo�' t��ro princ�.nal tvpes, shale pe?�bles ar_� ��1 cinm carbonate �ebrles ln. The sha.le neb�les are bro�m to recl, the color bei.na �lle.ma.�nlv to the pre�en�e of iron oxic?e. 11. The c�lcium carbonate nbbt�les are comnosed of cr`�tocrvstalline cal�iiim carbonate, which �s &Si'a.i i"i)� P, hut 1� t+1 e staine� by i ron: ((1�� ) 12. Thev e�n+ai.n scaf+.,ered �r�1�s of sanr�, as �?� the shale n�brles.((1F�-19)1 1�. Th? oonr�lomera+e oc�vrs as a ru�e a+ the base o+' a str�+v*n of sandstone, in pla.ces as a si.nt�le �e� S�p!?rfl.+,nc� t-he san�s+,one frnm the lanc�erl�ri.n� shale, an� �n nlsc�s as SPVP,7'�1 tF'112'1 �1?S���S interl�edded w�.th bnth �sAn�stone and sh�.lP.((1911 14. It i� fo��n� n�+, onlv �t thA r�sP of san��+.�ne beds rtzt a.lso T*�i+,h�n them or at their tope an�t in nlaces is emhedded i.n she.le wi+h wh�ch no sand�tone is �.s5c��i�+ed 1F. �?o+ infre�uer_.tiv �'ra�?nents of h�r_e arP foL�nd �,n +hP c�on�lomer�+e 16. The con�'lomer�te at the b��e of s�n�ls+one str�ta or �a�i�hin +.hem is i.n some pl�ces com�,�see�. entirely �f �'raenr_e�ts of shalP, no �onerP+ions re�n� �rPsent, an� in suc� Alaces the C'Or�T� (imA?"afF? is v.sua] ��r Pr��* �r �reenish p�rav. I�. Th� �on�*lomexa+e has �+een (�PSCrLhAf� 1�v several. �bser�rers, an�? a h,ypothesis ior �ts orie�n is nu+ f�rwar� by TT��en �.n�1 Phill�ns, 1/ who su�a�est th�t t�e concret�ons were in x�s�rt forrred in fhe rec' shale of th� 1"7i�hi+a, vKhich v��s aftPrwar!3 eroded an�? redeoos;tec� c'ur�n�^ 1�ichita +„?.mP, the concret;ons hP-i.n� 8nrt;C� by �rave �ct�on en�l mixed �vith fraamer_ts of shale. a. They �lso res�arc? the So-called concreti�ns as ir_ 1�9rf "mud lumpG" fo_rme�t b�r the roll�np� of masses of ni�cl alonp the bot+�M in etarrents oz,�rloaded �+li t:h fine sedime?�t. 2/ i f 19) ) �xSee footn�te 1/�3v]1. va�'e 17((a'��tra�t Aa�e 7)) )1 2( 19))(iSee footnote 2,/R»11. naae 14, abstra.ct pa?�e 5: "Gardr_er, .T. �., The phvsical oria�in Ptc"�) 1�. It 3s apnarent that the �r=a+er �urrents whir.,h deposi+ecl the con�*lom�rate, althoua�h swift, �.s shown by the �ross—�lP,f��1171a �r_c� the s�.�P of the con�reti.ons, cli� not transnort +h? ma+er�al for am� �onsi�erqt�le �iis+ance, . - - -_ _ . . — - - - - - -- - - ------- ---- --- --- - ----- -�- as the shale f'ra�ments m�.n.�lec� 1�rith +he concretions are suban�*ular in oiatl3 r_e 19. T�o forei�n materi�al other than fr�.a�ments of bone or bits nf c��l reAresentinr� fossi.l woo�1 ara fo��nd �n the c�nc�lomere.te, whi�h ap-��ars to be com.posPcl entir�lv o� m�+erial �e.ri�*Pci from the ��ichi.tr� hP�s f;}1E�'T� S E3� 4P.S • C.4 COTTDITIONS OF DEPOSTIO�IT AT1D CAUS� OF RFD COLOR( ( 2�_241) 1. The condit�ons under �nrh9ch. the "Re<i�ieds" were c?eno�it-e�l an�' 1-�e� causP of the�r calor have ne�Pr �een s+�+;sfacto*-i1v �etermined. 2. F. C. Case, 1/ in a p�ner on the "Re�i Re�s" ofl Tex�s, savs: "It is very evi�ent that this re�*ion, like +he le�vuPr PPrmi�n of Afr7r� �n�? Inc?ia, the Fcca ar_� Talchir forma+i.ons, is l�rp�Pl�r r;vPr-deoosite�l material in somP old delta or on some shalloa� tidal coast." 1 20 The charac�+er of the �^iichita a,nd Clear Fork di�rz.si.ons of the Permiar_ "Re�l Reds" of Texa.s: Am. rRus. Nat. Nist, i31a11., vol. 2.3, p. 659, 1907. a. Ir� his opini.on the sediments v�rere derived from the ele�ration no�r renresented bv the 1�iioh�_ta h�otlnta.�ns . b. In a later ar+,icle 2/ Ca�P re�ar�ls the strat� as c�eposa.ted alon!� the c�ast of a la�oon, into �vhi_ch were v�ashed the remai.r_s �f animals qs well r�s debris �'rom the land. ? 20, TTotes on a collectin� tri.n ir_ the permit�n of Texas d.urin� the stam*ner of 19�8: ��ien�e, ne�r ser., �ol. 29, p. 19�, 19�9. o. �e holds that the deposits �re not, stric�JY sAep'�?n�*, es+,uarine. d. The bed� w�re not laid do�m �ancler ari.d con�itions, but the more remote cotant-rv from which the se�imAnts �sPre c��rive� may h�ve been arid . e. The vertebrate fauna he reF�zrds as mac?e vn of land anima.ls, as is inclicate�l b�! the st.ru�tlare of the fc�et ��' stich forr�s as Tl�me+rodon an� A'aosaiarlas S. Danid �h3te, on the other hand, a,-a�lae� i:ha+ the red color of' t.,he bec?s and the 1a�Ters of e�Vnslnn that ocet?r in some of thc�m cio not neces�ari.I,y indicate tha.t � arid climate nrevailed at the time of their �3eposi- tio�, for the fos�il florassu��est an ec�uahili+..r r�.d uniformity �f climate wh�ch is not compatibla vvith ari�ity in a reaion �.s f�r north as Ent�l.anc� and the Culf of St. I-awrence, the latitude of some of' the Permian deposits of red she.les. �,. The lo�n�er Permian of Germanv, France, Prussia, an�l Pennsylvania is comsnPr�i�liy co�l-bea.rin�, and �he Permian ��Rec� �ieds" nf Ransas and Texas carrv thin coals b. Peat is formed in the T?n5_ted States toc!c�v onl,y in �reas h��rinp at least 2.0 inr.hes o�' rair_fall, �,n� it is therefore ar!�ved that be�is that contain coal, in the f'ormation o�' which neat is the first sta�e, mtzs+ haz�e been laid dov�n in are�s that had an anniaal rainfall of more 1-,han ?0 ir_ches. c. The fossil plants i.n the "?�ed Reds" of PAnnsvlv�nia are not differe�t fro*r tn�se found in e�uivale�+, seclimFnt;s, whieh a.re not re�l, 50 miles f �. .rther s outh . ( ( 2,0 )1 d. In con�lusinn DRr. '�dhite s�vs: � i( 20)1 3 2,0 �AThite, n��id, The uoper Paleozoic flnrs.�s� t�Pir sucness9on an�i r�n�e: Jour. �teoloP-�r, nol. 17, TTo. 4, n. :�4�, 1909. "Is it- not }�ossible th�t i.n some i.nsfian�es the ea.vses oi' rec� bed �enosif-io» lie t� a lart�e ea+ent in TP,�.Rf11TC1V slo�v sursi.dence of the basin and in difierenti.al w�roina� to nermit exposizre �+rith some redi.stribution and dehv�lrat�.�n. It is nrobable thnt there was ariditv in certain .re�ions �nc? �ari.n� certai..n int�r�als af the Perm.ian, bUt there �nras evidently enoia�h moisture to produ�e most extensiTre �laciation an�l l�ter to prc>mote thr, f�rmat� on of coals o�rer broad areas. "( ( 2.1) ) _g_ USGS B . 6�2 4. Accorc�inc� to J. �'f. Beede ]/ the sPdimen+s th�t �'ormed the "Red Beds" were derive8 fror� the l.and mass noTnr representec� hv the A,rhu�vle-�N.ichi�;� v�lift an�? thosP foi�nd at some d�stanee from the moiznt�.ins were cieposite�l in sh�llo�r t�zrbuler_t water or on vast tic!al beachPs �ander cond�tions i.ni�!*�ical to life, since the seciiments ere �'or the most �art devoid of fossils or carbonaceoi�s *natter. 1 ?,1 , Beec�e, J. 1�T., Orie�in of SP.fI�?fiP.Yl'tS and colorinc� matter of thc� P,ed Rec?s of �klahor�a: �cieneP, new ser. , vol. 3F, z�. ?F0, 1912. 5. TTdr�en an�l Phillins, 2/ in +heir de�crintion of f.he sands+ones of ?�richi+a anc� f'lav �o�m+ies, Tex., ar? of b}��nion((siell th�t the nresence of ero�s-bed�line� �n�l fle.t anc� thin lamin�+;�rs of the bects, toaether wit.h the occurrence of niameroias qn� loeal ianconformities, inc�icQte ti�al action, ? ?,1 iTdr�en, ,T. 4., an� Phillirs, P. r�cr?., A recn.r.na.issqnce T'PAOi"t on the �eol�rrv of the oi.l and aas fi.elc�.s of �'?i�hit� �n� rlav c�oiznt.ies, Tex: Texas T1niv. Rvll. 246, p. 31, 1912. a. They bel�e�e th�t the sanc�stones WP,rp ori.�,inally 3U�?RP,T'?P� san� hars and that so*i+e of the_m. were sand�r be�rhes. b. The rc�rit�r of Wtt4P. 7riA?'kS an� mar?rs of rainc�rons +hev re��r�1 as evide�}ce that mos+ of the sand banks were �bfiiz�ebvub�water. c. In c�i.sctzss�n� the clav limesi-one con�lomera+e, wh.ich at, manv z�la�es lies at the ba.�es of san�istnnP beds or i.s jn+er�edde� with the s�n�s+,one, t?�Pv sue�^est tY�at. "the �,bsence �f e�Prvthinr� but indi�enotas m�terial in conr_�lomerates which clParl�* have bPen pro�3lxcec� b,y �izrrents of cons�.dera�le strena�th sva�ves+.s isolaii.on of the cc�asts fro-� *�ountain l�nds while the �.�iehita beds of this re�:ion were deposited." �((sin bull na�*e 211) 6. �or�on, in hi s studt� o�' thP T!�ich.ita re�i on, 3/ �ta+.Ps thpt "The character o�' thP se�imantation an�? the conten+s of the stra.ta in the 'T�ec� Becls' area su��e�t thn� thP rePion 1NA.S +� tjdal 'f'ZEi+, (�r a lorv, swa*np�T area subn}eet to overflo�r an� ad;join9.n� +he onen �.rea which l�.v trnvar�? the sovth anr� west." 3 21 �ror�on, �. H., �eolow �nc] undere�rouncl waters of the "riehita ree�ion, n�rth-�entral TPxas: TT. S. rP�1. Slzrve�r ��Tater-Supnlv Paaer 317, n. 26, 1913. 7. The resul+.,s o�' the pre��nt i.n�*es+i.a�i;i.ons a.re in veneral in accord with the views r�hove quot;e� . t�. The shhles an� san!�stones of the "�ichita forma.t3on, e�*Pr_ the coarsest of the^+, are extremelv fine a�r�inPcl an�i exhi�it a hi�h assnrtmen.t of materials b. Thett thetr haQe been workec� 04E3r many timeS b�� the ac�ents of deposzt�on se�ms evi�ient((21)1 c. The presence of a limestone l�ed ir the '��ichita rer*ion in northern Texas, �escribe�l b�- TTclden an�l Ph31] ips, 4/ an�? its ahsencP in fhe re�ion under c�iscvssior� woi�l�i seem to ir�di�ate that +,he land area from which the aec?iments were derived 13v to the north, in the �eneral re�ion of the Art�ucklP-�icr.it;a uplift, wherPas the clear, open water �'avorable to the cieposition of limes+,one l�v to +he soi�th, i.n Tezas. ((21-2.2)) 4 21 ,Op. c�t., p.31 fl. F3ee�e, �in his stv�ies in northern Oklaho ma, fo�and t-h�t thP limest�nes of the basa.l P�rmian of ��nsas (whi�h is proba�lv the Pquivaler_t of the ��R*ichite�. form�+.ion) p�ave place to sandstones farther sot�th, in�icatine� that +he source �f secliments lav in that �irection.((??11 1 22 Beecle, J. �`d., �ri.�in of sediments an� col�rinr� matter oi the "Red ?�e�is" of Oklahoma: Science, new ser. ,�*ol. 3�, Pp. 348-3F0, 1912 9. It is fai.rlv well estab]i.shed, t.�erefore, that tl�e solarce of the "Reci Beds" sediment w�s � land mass �-ha+ lav in nart ir� the re�ion of the nresent �arichita and Arbuovle movntains. -1�- �. Th�t this land mass �as f ar �reQ+er i.n are� than the mnl�nt�.i.ns qs thev no�* exist is shrnnm bv +he r�*r.o»nt of +,he sec? im�nts deri�recl from it, anc� it is possible that a�rpat nart o�' the �rea 1�V farther east, alonQ the Ouachita uplift, of whi.ch +,he Arbuckle �nd '�Tichita motanta�ns are biat a cont�ruat�.on. t�. F'art of the ancient land ?nass maTr novv b� conere� by the rl'!OrA recent sediments �f the Cretaceous period. 10. Tha.t the sanc3stones af' the �dichita form�t�on, ,ne.rticularlv those of +he no►-r�al i;��}�e, were deposi.+,er� in shallow water bv the action of swi.ft cUrrents is ind-i.cated by t;he nrenalence of cross-re�din� anc� the ocr.,ur- rence at certe�i.� locali+ies of .ripP_l.e maks in +he s�ndstone. �. At the ��sP of the sancls+,one be�s i� m�r_v nl�res there are unronform- ities p.roduced bv thP erosion of the lander].vinp� clajr or shale prior to the denosit;on of the sand.stone strata. b. That e�ren the finP-�raineci shale was 1 aic� c�own �n eomparativelv shallow basins is shovvn bv the �lternation of beds �f' san�i5t�ne and shale. c. T�e thir�rness of -F,he beds of she�le rarelv exceeds 30 f Pefi and a?*eram�s �.bentt-��nf eet �l. The o�currence also oi beds of con.cretionar�r eona�lomera+,e underlain and o��rla-i.r bv �hale v�roi�ld seem to show that the conci;tio�s un!?.er which +he Gh�le vvas C�Bt�OG1'F,P.,Cj wPre �ot incomnatible �a�ith the action for brief perio�s of str�np� ct�rrents. i( 22)1 11. Thai; the "Red Beds" �xere not en+.irel�r su�mer�ed durin� their denosi.t�.on, or at least +hat th�v were sUbiect to neri��s of emer�ence, is in�3icn.ted bv the presence in them �t certa�n locali.ties of well--�reserved fossil leave�s. ( ( 2�11 a. Most of the leaves are fotan� in san�?stn�e be�s �n� r�re the rema�ns af plants resembl�n� in manv resnectes th� ferns of the nr�sPnt- ci�.•r b. Th�ir fair state of nreserv�,tion ind._i�ates tha+ t��ey e;rew ne�.r the plaee where +,hev were buried 12.. Some o�' the �I��fie�aams�=�h�+ are founr� 3.n these rocks repre,sPnt, �,ccorr�ine to Ce�se, � land �.nimals, amon� them +:he p.ri,m;tive rentil es Dimetro�'on and rTaosailrus, l��hich wQlked on lanc�, as is sh��va bv 1-he �ons+rnr+ion of thPi r feet.. 13. Their apnears to be little eviden�e to sup�ort the theory +.hat t.he beds of the "?ichit�, formation were c�eposi.+e�3 in an arid �lim�te, a. Beds of �vpsum are not asGo�iate� with them, as th�v are w�th the C] Par Fork a�� novble 1lRountain ?ormet:t.ons or thP PPrm? an, 2/�n�l the fossil flor�z inr�icates a rather moi.st �lima+,e. 3/ 1 23, Case, �;. �., T7�tes or� a �ol] ectinp� trip in fhe Permi�n of Texas: ��ience, new s�r., Rol. 29, p. 19ti, 1909. ?, 2:�)iGu^rnin�, "?. F., Tgx�s reol. Survetr Second Ann. Rept., n, 400, 1R90 3. 2,311i�Uhite, navid, The upner Paleozoic floras; thnir successS_on end ran�e: Jovr. rPol.o�*v, vol.].7, fi�. 4, p�. 320-:�41, Z909 �.�i mhe red color of the shale, �rrhi.ch i.s due to the presen.ce of dehy- drated oxide o�' iron, �loes not necess�zri.lv im�lti� an aric� cli.mate on the lan�l mass from v�rhich thp sedi_ments were c�erived, as is sho�+m bv the formation of recl soils a� the nresent time in the co*npar�a+iQel,y moist clim�te of the southern Appal�chiars. t�. If ari.d;t�r must be p�stul�tec� to ae�o��n+ for the associat-ion with some "Red Aeds" of �vnstam cienosits, ,!vh�ch are T�ro�hahl�r thr�m do�m fror� raz�i.�lY evanoratin� wp.+er i.n �rholl�r or b�rtllr �nclose� ba�ins, it is not necessarv to assvme �.n arir? �li.mate at +he so�arce of +he se�iments. b. These sedi.me�ts may hav� been derined fr�m hi�*h anc� ��rell-wAterecl molar_tair. arPas an� �"r.s�21SC10rtP,(j b,• rivP.7'S to the ari.d c�n��+Ql nl±�.ins alonr� the mount�in foot, where +hev �rare denositeci ��n�er con�i�.t.i.�ns ti�rhich vlocald nermit the forma+i.on of c��rnsw?i beds. e. The ?��Iichi+.a formr�tion, hc�ceve.r, includes no be�s of �S.nsvm, �na the fair st�te of preserva+ion of some of the nlants indic�tes th�+ thev t�.rew near +,he localities c�+ wh�ch thev r��.�t�.d. -11- tTSGS B. 60?. are no1Fr found. , d. T+ �.� possible that i-hev ma?r hr�ve r�roUm near bodies of water th�+ lav in a� n'I;}'!P,7'W1SP, arid �ol�n+rv, bvt the fa�tG a+ han� har�llr warrant the 'assvmpt-i.on of ari�i.tv. 15. It i.s p�olsable th�t the material fnrmi.na the "Re�i Reds" was in �*reat part red before it was denositec� in those beds and th�t it was der��ed from res� �_v.�l soil oi' some deenlv wer�therecl 1 e.nc�. stzrfa�e. (� 23)1 16. The �'ormation of hem�tite rather than limonite bv the alteration of +he maa�netite an�? other iron minerals contained ir_ i?�neolas r�eks, with the C��senueri; nro!�uct.;�n of red soils, is a nrocess but li+t.le unc�erstooci.((23-24)) 17. Red soils, as has been alrea��T st�+e�, are as a rv�e charact-.eristi.c of w�rri, moist clim�tes, in Zn�hirh +he rocks �re �e.eplv weatrared and the siarfa�e covered bv luxtzri.ant ve?�eta+,ion. ( i 2411 18. Tre color of the soil formed b�.� the vveatherin� of +,�P Archean rocks of the 4nnalachis:n nrovince, iro exa.rnp).e, is rec?der z.n the solat-h th�M in the north. 19. (�n the o+.:h�r hand, the nro�uct� on of red soil is noi' ch�racteri.sti c of (�PSP.7'f ?AQF�t�1E'�"1.''1(t• 20. It is perh?�s st�rAris3n� +hat hPmati+e, the dehv�raterl oxide of iron, shoul.d be forme� in th� presence o�' abun�'ani-. moi.�tl�re, ba+ it ap�n�rs to be so f' 07'tt+P. C� e�. The nresence of ve�etation an� the �ro�ii�ets o�' its decomnastion mav be i.�^�ortant f actors in the chan�*e. 21. Th.e nro��a�+-i.on o�' red color ra+:her 1-han the b]vish. �rav, vello��, or brown of the hvdra+,ec� oxides doubtl��s de�ends o� a fi_re ad,justment of �arious fact�rs, an� ad jvstmen_t t,h�.+ was no+ Pvervwhere e?fectP� c�.l�rin� t�+e derrositon of these �P�ls. a. 7'n eoseQqiaen�e not a�l tlie shs�le beds laid down. wPre red, a considerable n�rt or +.he sha.le exhibiti.n� t�e other col�rs e.boTe ment�_oned, narticularly blt�ish p�r�sr, which may Y�e di�P in ?�art �$ the presence of oarbonr�t�e of iron. i�. That red shale has been in som.e places altered t� rlui�h-�xavor a�rAenish- �ra�� shale is evi.clent from the fact tha+ bands pf 'FhP,SP, colors follow �oi.nt planes ,�.rhich ci�t tre berls an�? alon� wh7c�h p�rovn� wa+er ciroulates. c. �'vi�ence of +,he chan�P from �rav to red mav also be observed. d. The deoxi�!�tion of rec� shale to �ra�T, forr!in� smal] circular spots on. the fre.�t�ared starface, is tar�bably due +o the preserce of minute narticle� of c�rbonaceous materi�l in the shale, and such a�ter�+ior.s are doul�tleasthe caiase of +hP *�ot+leci ap�Parance observed at manv pl�ces in the sha7.es of fhP �+1� chita f�rm�t� on ?.,2. The, sandGtone be�s of the '"Tichit.a. are i.n some A]a.ces whi+e an� in others red or rr�m, +,re color beinr� �l�e to +he nresence or absence of iron oxides in the cqlci.te cemPnt between the arAins ra.t�er than to an�r staini.nr� oi +he �r�ins themsPlres. a. The iron oxic�es ma�,T haQe been intro�tx�e�1 �v the a�rol��id w�ters which denosited the calci+e cemen+ �n�l +�;s su��es+�on is in a measure sustained b�� thP fact that the fine-t�ra�ne� s�nds+�nes, the cement of which is silica, are nowhere, sa far �s obserrecl, redor br�+wn bu+., i.ni-�ri�at�ly blt�ish-mrav in col.or. b. The iron oxide is not, howe�er� enPnlv di.str.ii�ta+ed throtar�h the calcit:e cement but is se�rer�at-ed ir_ irrea�ul!�r nat�hes, as if cr�vvded tn one si�3e bv thR erystallizat�.on of the cal�i+e. c. It is possible tha.t i.t was nres�n+ �s fine mud �enosited v�itr the sanci e�ra�ns in eerta�in of the beds in u�h�ch t�e ma+eri.als were not th�roiat�hly aesb�hted, anci th�+- i+., was entarel�� remo�ed from otl�er bec�s in vrhioh assortment was more perfe�+� d. The 1 atter �,eds vroulc� �'�rm the white s�ndstones and the forf*�er the recl. or bro�n. ((24)) C.� FOSSILS((25-27)) 1. The ±'os�i_ls t'onnc� in +he area un�?er discussion consist of remair._s of nlants an� of nertebrate animals. -12- ?.. The marine invertebrate f'ossils � tha+ occur far�Eher south i_n Texas are not foian� here. � 1 2� �nT'c�Ori� C. R., The "7ich3.ta �'orma+ion of nor�-hern Tax�s: Joiar. reolo�v, �ol. 19, �+To. 2, pn. 11�-134, 1911. 3. The foss;l nlant.s colle�tec� duri.n� the investae�at:i.on are �e•-V m�q�Pr, con.sist�r��* of onl�* a fev�r rr�.�-ments, rPnresen+in?� Permian forrns. 4. `�ertebrate rem�.in.s are more commonlv fotand. th3n remai.r.s of plants. 5. The soec�men� vaere i�?enti.fied b�r r. �r. (^=ilmord, of the tTn-�te� S+a�-es TTAtional R'�useum, and v�ere exatn�.ned also bv T'. �. Case, o?' the jTn�nersits� of 1�ichiean, who s+ates th�t. t-he�� �,�� are tvni.c�+l Permian .venera((25�� C.6 REI,ATION OF THf� WICHITA FOP,MATION TO THE UPIDFRLYING ROCK�S ((�7_'�1) ) C.6-1:RELATION IP1 ADJOINIATG AREA,S((?7�1 l. As �o exposures of the rocks below .+,he �lichita fOrm�f�Ori are found i.n +,h� nrea un�er �iscvssion the re� ation of that fo_rn+ati.on to the ��n.derl�Tina� beds can onlv be inferred from its re7at�on in adjoin- in� areaffi an.d fro�n a few deen-�re7.l recorc�s. 2. Of the contact of the "Red Reds" ar3th the uMderl�%ine� roeks alon� the 9rbuckle ��ountajns, J. A. T�.ff 3/�n•r;tes: "Thev lie in a nearl�r fla.t nosition across the erodPd edr�es of severc�l thalas�nd f'eet of t.he Penns.rlvanian, all of the 1�Aiss- issippian, nevonian, ancl Silizrian, and a l�.r�e part of the �rdo�ician rocks. These olcier formations rrere sharplv iol.ded �n�? eroded �rior to the deoositi_on of the "Red Beds"."" 3, 27 Taff, ,T. A., Geoleay of the Arbtacvle and ?"ti.chitc� mourta�fias, in 3nrli�tn Territor,y ane3 Olrlahoma: TT. S. �:eol. Starvev Prof. Paper �1, p�. 35-36, 1904. 3. To the sovth, in TPxas, the contact of the basal "Red Beds" �rith th� iandel-l�rin.� C-i.sco formation of the Penns?Tlvani�n is oon.formable, the txo forriata.ons p�rad in� one into fhe o+her in such a manner th�t it is impossible to draw a def�ni.te ].ine of �liRision between them. 4. Conc�rn�.n� this contac+,, C. A. 'r�fhi.te wrote in 1R91: 4� "The Texas Permi.an, while not com�tas+,�nr� strnn�*ly �vith +he "Co�l �RFastzre" formAti.on �rhich underli�s it, i_s rea�ilv d-i stina- �aishable from it h�r �P119Y'?�� esnect zca�.'^litholo�*ical charaE+er; and. vet the Permi�n strata blend so �r�.duall�T vrith thnse of the ianderlvin� "Coal Mea.sure" a.nd with the otrerizrin? Pypswn-bearir_e beds, which are presently to be noticed, tha.t it is difficult to desi�nate a plane of !�emarkat�on((sic)) in either case." 4 2.7 �`'h3te, f',. A., The Tex�s Permian anc� s.ts TRes�?zoic tupes of fossils: Ti. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 77, p. 11, 1891. 5. The relation oi the becls is clescribed by ??�l�?en �nc9 Phil7ins as follows: � ((27)) "�Ne kn�tiv that the unper 300 feetor more at Flectra bel�np�, to the �!Pichita forr�tion and that the shales and san�s penetrated from 1,4Q0-to ?.,,000 fee+.• lancler the svr$ace belon� to the l'isco, but hova m»ch of the intervenin� 1, 200 feet should be a.11 otted to e�.ch we c�n onl�� su�^�est from t�e litholo�ic ax�nearanee of the secti on as m�de lrn��rm by tre driller's rec�rcls. "( ( 27) ) 5 27, tTd�'en, J. A., and Philli.�s, n. r�cl'T., A. recon.n�issance rebort of tre �eolor�v of the oil and �as fields of �R�i_ch�ta and Ciay coi�n��es, 'rex.: Texe.s TTniv. Rull. 246, p. 86, 1912. -13- USGS B. 6�2 �.6c�: DEEI'_�'�EI:L RECORDS((?8-�11) 1. In or near thP �rea covered r.v +he uresent .renort se�r,ral "eild�at" wells have be�n drilled in sear�r nf o3�, ******, 2. To muc� i.mport�nce can no+-be atte.ched to the a�ctaratP re�^rdin� of �ell lo�s. 3. In p�Pnere,l stud�es ofl oil accumul�tion qs �ell as in examinataon5 of ?��rti.ovlt�r fiel�s accurate ln�e are irnaluable to t-he ?�Pol�a�i.st in sol�inp� nrob�ems most vital to the oil obPra+or.((28)1 4. I�� of well TTo. 1 oi Gr?en Ri.�er �ilf'o., 2 miles northwes+ of Rand]ett, Cotton Cot�nt�r, Okla., in, T1r; 1/4 sec. ?5, T. 4 S., R 13 lN., In.dian meridi�.n. �"rell i�e�un Dec.. 28, 1913; completed Jz?ne l, 1914�. ( ( I;o�* to ?.,5971) ( ( 2P-?.,91 1 5. Iop� of F.H. 1t�arleV ivell TTo. 1 of �teGt jri.r�*inia Petroleum Gol, ne�r uastir_Ps, Co+,ton ('ounty, Okl+�., in SF 1/4 SV'� 1�4 sec. 1, T. 4 S., R. 9'N. �Tell be�tan Feb. 16, 1914; completed June, 1914.�( (I o� to 2,1�51)((29)1 6. I:ot� o.f vrell ?�To. 1 of' �'tiverside (1i.1Co„ in Texas, one-third mile �outh of Red Rirer and 1-1�2 mi1PG soiathwest of motzth of Cache rreek. �`:�ell be�un nec. 7, 1912.%((I�o� bti 2,51F)1((�0)1 7. ThP nri�ci.p�� d�s�in�tion be+,ween the upper and lower be�s, as recorc�ed in the precedin� we11 loa�s, is one of �olor, the be�s in +he well ne�.r Randlett re�n� Pre�lo?ninan+lv red to a depth of' 1,�5R feet ar�i hli,e (probablY bltzish �ra��), urith streaks rere and there of i�i?Zk n*' red, belo�vv +h�t cie�th. a. The fi.rst limestonesis re�or�dc� at.1,9R2 fee+, or P24 fPe+ below tre red shale(f3011 8, In the well near Hastin[�s the lov�rest thick t�P�7 of re� shale was passPd throuah at 1,3R5 feet an� +,he firs+, limestone was struck �6� feet lovrPr �t � denth of 1,9F0 feet. ( ('��-;�li ) 9. In the we).l of thP pivPrs.ic�e �il Col i-he lowest thiek bec? of re� shale was nassed throu�'h at 990 feet and the fs.rst limes+one encorn+ered 6�7 f'P,P.'t; lower, at s�'epth of 1, 597 fPet. (( 31) ) 1�. It i� nrob�l�le, althot�a�h bv no me�ns certain, +,ha+ +l�P limes+one is of Penns�Tl,*an� ar_ a�e. ll. The vnper nart of the rer3 shales is Permi.an but thP I.OWPr n3rt ma,y belone� either to the Permi�n or +..0 1-he unc�erl�rin�; Penr_s��lvRni�n, which, as exnosed farthPr north in the Texa� re�*ion, �onfa�ns near its ton pfnk, red, �n�. purplish shales. 12. Tha+. the dis+.,ance between the t�ase of the re� sh�.'_►e and the ton of the limes+one series Raries �re�tl�r at differen+, loc�li.+.ies is not neces=aril,y evi.deneP of u�confoT-mitv. a. In northern O�Iahoma and soia+hern Kansas there is a�rertic�l trans�,ression of the red color acrosG thP rock strata f 1 '�l Beecle, J. �'�., �rir�in Af' SACjI?Tl�'?7+S and �olorin� matter of "Red Reds" of (lklah�mas Sc�anc.e, n�nr ser., vol. �5, pp. 34£�-'��0, 1912. b. In of.her v:orcis, �Y'Z"1C� of shqle �h�eh in one plar.e i.s recl mav at another hP e�r�•r, .the re�s bei.n�* equival.en+., t� ea�h o+�.er but the color beinF �ariable. c. The s�ne condi.t�_ons mav reasonahltt be ex�ec+e�l t� �olc� _f'nr the beds nnt CynnSP,f� at +,he surface. 13. Th�t an un�onformit,y �s nrdsent, ho�retter, is �erv possit�le, althov�h the f acts a+, �anr3 are not sizffieien.+ to nrove or di.snrove its exi s+ence. C�7; RELATION OF' TH� tiVICHITA FORMATION TO mgE OVERLYI�tG ROCKS ((�11 � 1. TTo bec�s are fotind abone +he '*'i�hita in�^�a�iarea.r.under di.sct�Gsion, but hi�'her strata are expos?d far+her s�uth, in Texas. ?,. The relat�ons of the PPrmi�n to the overlvina an� the un�l�r]vi_n� be�s are so cle�rlv described bv C. A. �"Th�te � that his cornnlete descrintion is here p�iven. 3. Tn this descrintion, +he 1,000 feet of strata un�erl�.r�n�* the �VpsLnn-bea.rin� beds are re�^arc�ed as the probable equivalent of the T�ichita �'ormations _._ _ - - -- -- -- - - - ___ _ _ - ----- --- --- _ . ----- - -- -- - - - ---- _ , -14- r' **** There is in ihe �art of nor+hPrn Texas to wh�ch sn�cia� - reference has bePn ma�e a�reat conformahle series of stra+a which has a�entle FenPr�l din to�ard the west, an� wh�ch includes j-�� s+ the stra.ta that in tr.� s beal � et3n �Ru11 . 77� �rP re�'erred. to the PPrmian. It is over].ain �n1_,r b�r the debris resultint� flrom i.ts cn�m disin+e�ra+ion except alona the eas+.ern and �sestern bordArs of the ret�ion which it �r.ctani.es, whPre Cretaceoias forma+�.ons lan upon it. This overlappi.nR conceals its base, l�ut the Psti- mated th3.ekness of' t-he w�ole s�ri.es, so far as i+ is exnosed. to view, is 5,050 feet. The lo�ver 1,80� feet, t��Pther ��.+.h an i�nkno�m thickness beneath, is referred to t.he Co�l ARPas7�re5. The next overljTin� 1,000 feet o�' strata are referred to th.e Permia.n; and the u��er 250 f�et of the whole series, corm�r+onl,y �nor.m as the e��stan-bearin�^ 'heds, prnb�blV conatitute 1-he upper nart of the Permian. "The Cretaceot�s strata: referred to rest unconformablv and �vith a contrarv d�p upon ��elearlier, e�stern }�ortion of' the �rrhnl�� series; �rhile uoon the later, w�s+ern portion of �t they rest �ri.th aon�rent conformit,y, althoLl�h thei.r real conformit�r ma;v well be quPstioned, bec�l�se tre �Ttira seems to be ent�rel,y �vantin� there." ((31)1 2 31 , 1"Thite, r. R. , The Texas Perm.�.an �nd its NTesozoic tyr�es of fossils: TT. S. �eol. Su_rvezT Rull. 77,. pn. 13-14, 1891. II. TERRA�JE GRAVELS , ALI�iTVIUN`, A_�TD SAi�TD DiTNES (( 32) ) l. On mans� of �;he uplan� surfaces al�n� �:�+e streams there are r�ravel de�osi.ts, z�vhic�+ rar_�e in thic2�neGs fror.i a fPw i.nehes to several f'P,Pt. • 2. The net�bles consist of qiaartzite, limestn�e� �nd rhyoli.te no?'UhV�T� the last nz�mec� bein� �enera) ly broken Q] on� jo�_ni- nlanes into 8.n�'UZf�7' forms. 3. Frafrments of silicified wood a.re common. 4. The l�rc�est nerbles fovnd are F inches in di�me�er an� m�n.�r o�' the pebbles are emt�edded?r. eoarse sand, t�^e v�nc��le dennsit beina� slir�hfilv consoli�ated t�v calc�t�m carbonate. 5. '�'�+e �'ravels a�near to be stream det�osits, re:�reGen+ine� materi.al brolaaht from the ��ichit� l�oi�n+ains bv the n.resent s+.fi�q�s �+ fnr�p?- sta.p�es o� thei.r development 6. These deposits, however, m�v be in z�ort comnosed of reworlred m�terial d�rived fr�+n a tividespread sheet o�' unla.Md �*r��vels +hat �n?rP,rS 7 ar�;e �reas in (?klahom� anc? northern Tex�s. 1� 1, 32 ]!t�unn, 1+,R. J. , Rec�nna� sGance o�' the �randf ield di stric�, Okla.: it. �. r;eo) . Surve�r Riall . F47, n. 28, 1914, 7. The �'lats alonr� all thA streams are fo.rmed of e.11ut�ial deposzts laid c1.oT�m bv the streams, pa_rt;cularl.y at times of flood. a. �imilar material is hei.nc denosited bv the streams at the present t ime 8. Alon?� the cot.�rse of Red R�ver +.here are denosits o±' driftina� s�nd lrno�n as d une s a. I)uri.n� m�dsummer the channel of the river bec�omes praeticall,y drv and broad stretches oi fine sar_d are ex-�osed to the �ction o�' the wind, vahich niles i+ hi�h upon the ri�er b�ntrs, the mo»n�s o�"sand shift%ne� beFore the wind � 1!rP, dri fts o_f' snomr. �. Such de�osits hazre bePn formecl on t,he alluvial fl�+, 2 mi1Ps �re�t of the moi�th of Cache f'reek ^��thin the memorv of the nresent settl. ers STRUCTURE ((g2_35)) ((omittedll FIELD WORK((:��_�ig�) ( ( omi.+ted 1) DESCRIPTIONS BY TOV+INSHIPS (( 37-96) ) ((omitted)) -1F- USGS B. 602 S�GGESTIONS TO YROSPECTORS((g6-9Q)1 ��Om'ffCd�� DEEP 1'V�;I LS DRILLk�D IN Al`1D T1F �R THE �BEA COVER�'D BY THIS REPORT (( lOp) ) ( i omittF�d) �((Tdame and loca+,ion onlyi 1 COAL((100)1 l. Sma71 deposits of bi+�ninous coal of no economi.c �ralue �rrere foun� et several places in the area here consic3Predd ?. Theu occur as small "p�eke+,s" onlv a few in�hes thick and annarently renresent the remains of sinc�le lonr�s rather than m�.sses of hedded mater-i a.l �. The coal is �lack and "slacks" or �ntzmbles Ori P,JCi�OS1�rP, to air e.nd si�nl i �ht 4. It is ��h manzr �laces a�sociated lv�+h de�os�ts of conner and i.s nrobabl�r thP ap�en+- �vhieh, hv deox�da+.•;on, nrecinitnte� conx�er from �r�und �,�a.+er. • 1:�{ANGATIES E ( (1 Ol ) i 1. rRanc�anese oxide in �n xmorphotzs form, TJ7'0�9�1�* an imnt�re h!t�i�'OtzB oxide, is found in manlr ��' thP ssncl�+one beds of the �'+�'iohit� formation 2. It ar�ne�,r� princinall,y as small snecks in the sand�tone, whi�h in some snecimen� coalesce into dendri.tic i�rms. :�. The oxide is nrobahlv nreci�itatAcl from p�roun� wa+er around particles of some substanne wh-ich acts as e nrecinital-inp� a�ent, anr� the nrecinita+;on oc�tars nri.ncinellv alon� bed�ine^ �lanes in the san�lsi-.one. 4. At some nlaces the manr�+�nese oxide nrodia�es small, round ��n�retions li.ke bvrkshot 5. At other blaces it is dissemin�ted thrnu�h the sandstone, ap��reni;lv renlac�ne tr.e calcite cement, and_ the sandstones in whi.ch such renlacement o��urs e�re eatremelv soflt and fr�able. 6. 1r_ ealci+e concrPtions in sancls+,one and i.n cl.av-limestone concreti.ons -in sh�le thP manp�anese oxi�ie �.t�nears as denc�r3tic ne�netrations, �vhich Pxtend from the st�rface i.nto the coneretions. 7. It is depos�ted also -in the calcium carbonate and shale pel�bles of the con�la?n�ra+e that is charac+eri.stic o�' the �!rir.hi+a. P. �.Fost of the san�?s+ones i.n wh;n� the manPa.nese oaide occurs are �f the normal t�Tpe, which are cemented bv calci�e. 9. The fine-�*ra.�ned t�rpe of sandstone, in which the cemen+, is silica, carries relat�.vel.v small amoian+,s of man�anesP oxide. 1�. The dendriti.c denosits of man��nese oxide in the calcare�l�s sanc�st�ne anr� clav-limeatone cnncretions nre t�?'obt�bl.v forminr� at the present time b�� c�enosit.ion from �r�t�nd rv�ter. COPPER( (101-10?,) ) 1. A.t ?!l�rV ZOCt��].?"�P,S �n t-hP rPvion un�ler �iseussion the nresence of cop�er is indicated b�f the areen ancl. blUe �ol�rs of it.s carbonate m�nPr�]s, mala�hi+_,e e.n� azUrite, whi�h appear i.n several forms. 2,. Thev occur as st�.�r_s on the sU.rfaces of s�ndstone ov+crons; as ame11 nodulea in the s�nd5+or_e; r�s lar�er no�ules, fhe ZRrPesf ss bip� as a hickorv nut, embedded in shale,; and as foGsil �ooc3. 3. .A criticr�l eY�mfination of the di�'ferent forms rP�reals i-,hP f�c�t that the �reer. mala�ha.te and +he, rlue a?iarite of the no�vles and t�e fossil wood are a.lteration products of thP co�ner sul�hicle mineral chaleoeii-e, wri�h o�curs �n the in+erior of the dez�oGi.�-s.�(1(11�i 4. The e�alcoci+e renlaced a nreexis+.,in.a� iron stalphide m�neral, proba�lV m�reasi+e, small remnants of which c�re embec�ded in +,re P,ri('rOA_r}-�inm chalco�ite. ((101-102)1 F. ****�, observ�tion ir_ oth?r fields has shrnun that mar�asi+A is a prim�r,y m�.n�:ral and that chalcacite is of a secondar?,� ori�in. ( il{�2i 1 6. The conner stains found on some of +,re outcrops of sandstone �re �li-.erec� residtaes left bv the ev�boration of e�rotand water. 7. l���lachite forms �art of the cement of some of the sanclstone beds, btat the �reen c,olor due to the pr�sence of that-. mineral can usuallv be seen nnl�: on freshlv �ro?�-en surfa�es of the rock. 8. The c�e�?osits enumerated a?�ove helon� to a type vvhieh is of almost worlcl-�ide distribution in "Red Reds", part�cularlv in 1-he Perm;_an "Red Beds". a. In Ameri�a the lar�est of these �leposits are found in the "Red Bec�s" area -16- of' the Pla+.,eau re!�ion. of TTew Mexico, Colora�o, an�3 TTtah. b. SevPr�l attempts ha�e been mac�e to utili ze fl'1P,SP, c�eposits, but the,y h��re, n�t heen �erv su�cessftal becr�use o? t-re mreat �omne+i+i.on offerecl by the so-called �or�ohvr.y �onner denosits in the "re�t. 9. The "Red Beds" copper deposits of �meric� are al.l of lo�*r p:rade, onlv a ieva of the richest sho�rin� a conner con+er_t of more +han 2 ner cer_t. 10. As den�sits of this tyr�e occur in sedimenta•�r rocks, it is d�t�btful whether the content of conner �n the r�ck �t the surface differs r+aterial]zr from that found below the sl�rface. 11. In soutY�.ern Oklahoma such depos3+s of copner, altrov�h the�* occur at many places, contain amounts of the ore sp small th�t- thetT are probahl,y mizch less valuable t�an the lar�er �.n�l richer deposits of the, �tpP,fj Beds" t�,rne in rTew r�exico, Color9do, �nd T7tah, an�? it aPems probable that anv �.ttemnt to utili.z� the copner o�' th�s re�-ion �znder present c�ndtions wi7 l prove a failiare. ((102)1 BIBLIOGRAPHY((103-105)) ( ( omitted 11 I�'DEX((106-108)1 ((omitted)) - .30- USGS B. 7SaD BULI.�TIN 780_p PHYSIOGRAPHIC PROVINCES AND SECTIONS IP1 i1PESTE�N OKLAIiOMA AND ADJAGEATT PARTS OF TEXA,S b,y �Tevin Nf. Fenneman United Sta�es Geoloaical Surve,y Geor�;e Otis Smith, Director 192? ((Bib. ref.: Pub. of the G.S., L+ta,y 1953: *730. Contribu�ions to the �eo�ranhy of the TTnited States, 1922; A'�. R. Caznpbell, �eolo�ist in char�e. 1923. v, 139 pp., 18 pls. (d)Phvsio�raphi� nro�rinces and secti.ons in wes+�rn Oklahoma and adjacent parts of Texas, bv TT. M. Fenneman, np. 115-139.�) 0 � , .. . ,� r .. . . C � � -1- USGS B. 730_P PHYSI��GRAPHIC PROVINCES ANI3 SECTIOI�TS IN WEST�RN OKLAHOFRA AND ADJACEAIT PARTS OF TEXAS bV rTevin ?R. Fenneman TTnited States Geolou�ical Surve,y BULLETIN 730-D 192? ((al�stract n�tes and bull�t-in �- Bulletin footnotes pac�e references)) �.......� - brackF�ts ............................................................................. GEl`1EnAL FEATURES OF TrrIE .AREA( (115-1 l 71) I� PAYSIOGFAPHIC PROVINCES((115)) 1. The ar-a here considered iG a part o�' t'�e 1!'!+CY'?.02' plfl.�ns o�' the nnited States, whic,h is a.n extens-iue rer�ion of relativelV sl��*ht. relie�' anci nearl,y horizontql be�s of rock th�+, is di.vided be;tween the Great Plains province, its western nart, an� the Centrai LowlQnd, its easte.rn part. 2. mhe bour_�'artr betu�een these tv�o nhvsio�r�phic provinces runs in �eneral sotathward �nd lies not far fr�m the one hundre�th meridian---the meridian thqt forms the e9s+,ern boun�ar�r o�' thP Texas "panhandle". 3. The mos+, obvious differ�nce between the Great Plains and the Central Iowland is one of altitude, f or tha plains are p�Pnerally about ?,000 feet abo�re s�r� level nea.r thei.r ee�tern ede�e an�l increase in hei�ht toward the west, whereas the lowlr�n� is evervwhere below 2,000 feet. 4. The boun�arv line between the p.rovinces throt��hout most of its extant is drawn at the foot of an escarpment, or at least at the foot of an eastward slope, which is steeper than the AVC2'Qp'C slope from the Rock,y Moiznta�ns to the l+�issi.ssipri Ri?rer. S. At some places it is clear tha+ the lowland ia exnan�3ine� westw�rd by continued ero�ion anc� tha+ the eacarz�mentwlhiah �e,parates the plains and the lowland is retreatin� westward, and it is therefore evident that the lovrer svrf ace of that nart of the Central Lowlan� has been producecl b,y the wearin� down of +he Great pl�ins, which formerlv extenc�ed farther east. 6. Botr the rre�t Plair_s and the Central I�owlancl mav be diRide� into sections that differ somevahat in topoffrnnhv. 7. Those represented in this ares are the Hie�h Pla�ns sect,�n of the �Treat Plains�r_d�?t1�e Osa�e section of the Central I,owland. II. HIGH PLAINS SECTION QF THE GREAT PLAII�TS((115-116)i 1. The Ai2�r Plains are remnants of a once continuous pl€�in ti�►hose surface was fo2^mecl of Tertiar,y silt, st�.nd, and e�ravel :(�1151) 2,. This plain stretched from th� T�o�ky l�,�oiantains e�stward bevond the �resent limlte of +h� Great Plains, at a slope of not more than 10 feet to the mile. ((115-116)) 3. This onee broac� belt ha� been narrowed bv erosion on both sidas and is crossed from west to east bv a few rivers, �vhich he�*e cut deen v�1le,ys, but the r�mnants of the orie�iral plain sti11 dominc�te the landscape in the he].t t�at �.s called the Ni�h Plains sect�on.(i116ii 4. These nlains are tyoic�lly exemplified in the Texas "panhandle," which lies alone� the west.ern mar�in of the area herein described. �. Generally alon� the easi;hrn ec� �e of the Fi �h Plains sect; ��n there ia El StCCp slone down to the Central Lowland 6. Throu�hoiat much of its extent thi.s steep slope is an actual escarpment--the "bree.k of' the plainst'---300 to 600 feet hir�h, at some places strai�ht, at others made irre�ular by the erosi_on of strea.ms th�t heac� in the plateau and flow eastward. I I I. OS AGE S EC TI ON OF THE C Er,'TR AL LOVJLAND ((116-117 )1 1. The so��thwestern part of the �entral Lowland, knc�v�m as the Osa�e section, showa throia�hoiat its extent the charac+er of c� surface prodticed bv dP�.radation Z. The forrnations dip sli�htl,y tota*ard the west or nfirthwest and have been - _ _ _ ,.-.. - 2- pla,ned off, so that their ed�es crop out in belts that trend ne�r1Y s rnai-hward . ?.. The olateropnin� ed�es of the more resa.stant members e�ive r�se +o east- �rrard-fac�n�; escarpments, wh� ch are t�enerallv 50 to 2,0� feet hi.uh. 4. A1) of these escarpments have been more or less dissected, some of them so mtzch th�t hillv belts sever�l miles wide haj�e taken the �1_ace of � what m av once ha�e been simnle escarnmen+s F. �n the inter�renine� less rPsistant formati�ns, Most of them comoosed of sh�le, ere broad_, smooth siarfacas. 6. The �lternation of these t�ro tyAes of to�o�raphv is sufficiently com�on to suP��est the term "scarped plains", which is o�'ten appli.ed to the Osa�*e section. 7. Se�eral of these escarx�ments are ex�eati.onally hi�h an�? ru��ed. �. One, between Cimarron and Can���a,n r�4ers, in western �klahoma, t�rhich marks the outcrop belt of' the Rlaine formati.on(fi�. 43) ((ab�t. nae:e 2A)), extends f.rom the itansas bounc�e.rV soiat.he�s+ward half��av across the State and is the most prominent of th.e se�Pral hillv tracts bearin� the name (;ypsum Hills. b. The other hi�h escarpments lie mainl,y in Tex�s �nd die out tovgard the north in the vican�t�r of Red River. , 1) The hi�hest an�? mos+ ria��ed of these escarbments, �rrrich is made btr beds of resistant limestone, lies a little west of the ninet,y- ni.i��sh maridian.((116)) 8. AlthouFh these escarnm�nts contrast s+ror�lv in topot�raph,y with the smooth plains on either si.de, the�r belon.g to the same �eneral class w�th others in the Osae�e sect-ion of the C'entral L•owland, as the surface west of them is not verv different in �eneral characte.r f rom that on the east.((116-117)) NATURE OF THE INVESTIGATION((117-120)) I. PROBLEM OF THE "PLAIPI5 BORDER"( (117_1] 811 1. The studv described in this paper concerns the character of the countrv just east of theHi�*h Plains. ?. It has been as�tnnecl by p�eoAraphers that a s+rip 25 to 75 miles wi�e, oh�r�.c+eri2ed bv a rou?h.er surface, in+erQenes betroveen the Ri.r�h Pl�ins nn�l +,he t,ynic�ll�r develoned Central Lowl�nd.i�1171; �. Th_is s+,r9.p has beer_ call ed the "Plains Ror�er'� an�1 classeci as a section of the Gre�t Pl�.in.s province.�(117-1181� 4. The question to be e�.nswered was: Should a d.i.st�nct physior�rar�hic sect�.on ?�e recomized between the Hir*h Pla�ns And the Cei�tral Io�rl�nd in wesfern Oklahoma and northern Texas? 5. 1tRanifes+l,y the boun�ja.r�� between a h;�h nlain an� a continuous low pl�.�n can no�.,rhere be merely a line, even if so renresentPd or. a map, and it must '�he�te�ore��be assumed tha+ the two �.re separated bv at least a ne.rrow trans�tional belt, rou�hened by dissectior_ but not base-l�veled, e?�en s f siach a belt has not bePr_ s�e�if icall�r ment� oned. 6. The proprie+,y of +reatine� this rot�aher strip as a c�istinct phvsiopranhic section depends nartl,y on �ts width II. CONCLUSIONS((11811 1. It mav be s+,ated i.n advance th�'- +he result of the field investi�ation hq.s led to the conclusions that the loxrer area next easf of the Rip�h Plains has a t�ener�lly uniform character from ea.st to west and that it should not be divided anr� its narts allot�ed +,o differ�nt provinces. Z, It is e.lso cloubtft�I tivhether anv con+,rast b�tv�een its easterr and western narts is �uffic�ent to jus�hif•r tre settin� ur, of two sections. 3. Further detailed stizdies ��ri] 1 nrobarly enabl e the phvsio�r�.?�hPr +o reco�- ni.ze several divis9ons of a lUrer order, sand in deli.mi.tin� these divisions the m�nor sc�rns shoiald doubtless be considered. 4. The proulnces and sect�ons, as revised throiaPh this in-�est-i��t�.on, are. shoe�Tn in fi�lare 44, (( abst n�:e�e 2B11 i.n ��h� ch +he na�me "Smoky Hi11s section" is applied to what remains of the "Plains Border."(�11�)) �x - 2A- USGS B. 730-D Fi �ure, 43. ((117)1--Sndex map of v�es�ern �kl�homn and ad�acen.+. parts of Texas. g ����,';�'�-;� �.��� � ` F� � � �� , ��� � � .�- ,� ` : : ti �� r ; � �, � L'� p.. f . ' - . 4Ap •� 9F � t'Y �}, Y .rr 1 �,� .'.l yh' � A ` •.f y �i �1 x ^" �k'�`',��i,ul' � $ . t �I M... � ! ��� ..,�'��. :s. �` ^ _ . ,. . . • � � ` . - - --- . .� _ .._.__ .- _ �_ �--;�'� . �` _ —_'�- c.V era.t�ee � � eeav°/ � � '� ,'l��i�. . _ . _ _,.. .. . ._ �'� �> >4 4.^__ y. o �. -�`?✓�a ,voodd;���' ,�y. � " 1 , � �._..-��./��1/..�L�%4,U , � \ �('J/'��� � / . P ,.� . . . . .. - -.P=.. � � � ,_ ,.. � . . . . _ . _ . , _ . �Q . . � . . . � I i R '� Ndi.�/� �K1AY:,�,S6 y ;. > 9 �r— '' �i�� � .. , �` '�- .. " `. ._e___ we�L•�vi� Mtz�\yum `�1 f G� � /3a �� m ✓!-- ` h� oK/o6�rx� � -.� b c;-�Y' ._ �' �! /� �/, E- , /� ; Z r p � , � � u/;c ti�n �/� ° ; sPy�rour �--�------�; ,�----� r` :-- ; -, r .�----,� ..-�� . �.h�� ''y . ('1)� (�?.11 ((311 (f411 �� 1. t) Tert.{�r�� nocks (( 2) �T'xcar�am�nt of Rlaine form�ti_on (i'�) i�ther prominent escartr.nen+,s ((4)lIi,r2it of "Re� Beds elescribe� of un�ettain relat��n" in Oklhh��, US �S B . 7 30-P Fi�*vQe 44.((119i)--''h�rs�o�r+tph3.o sectior_s in WBSf:P,*'11 Okl�ho?na and adjacenf. parts of 'rexas, as re�i.sec�. , _ . --- - -- - _ _ ` • �---- ''1 �, � s : � c rcb ��___' - - _ _ _ T� "l_-- - � �, . ' � ~!� ,p.• ain � � ���',S.tJpK <� �� � � , 1 . , , �� ; � � k"ic� s �-� T . _ _ . . _ , ,,e . t . _ _ _ � , s_r-c 6 ro,�I ,' �, �" , P�?� - - ' �I r�v ' � . i ' ' OS��� �4� C.T7G'�/ , . r l�f l �� �G,�f/�./� ' � �. FN� �; �' �of�l: �� �. , �,. _ t., S� c�/��✓' ' ----4; ----- - c�N?'�'�G Lc'. , -'.': � �'� '• .J J � � � �} /NTE7�� r?(f'a7+or � � /fiG.4�,,�N�S �,. -S ,: �:;Y , � � `�� , � � � , i R i�`. ,__\ .ai� � e �--_ ' D \ 1 �. , _ � coAs�^4�. V � �� . � � Si7GPfMaM ' ' i � _, f'L.�4/,sr ` a � _ _ . ,. _ � _?_ USGS B. 730-n III. FI�I�D Y10RK( (119-1201) 1. The �ror� was necessarilv of reconnaissance cr.arac+er anc� jns»f�'icient. to iia�+.if�r a ful l d iscusei or_ nf the phvsio�ranhv �f the remion, ���*. ((120)1 TOPOGRAPHY 9A TH� SEVERAL FOR�ATIOTJS ((12�-1261) I. FORMATI0:�5 RECOGNI`LED( (12(1)1 1. There is no marked cont;rast between the eas+ern an�? �rPstern par�sof the area traversed r��it� resnect to the presence of nearlv fla+ surfaces irterpnnte�3 as remnants of a penenlain. 2. '►'he ex+,ent anc? f'latness o�' siaeh. stir�'aces cliffers somewha+ i*rith the character of the underl��in� roc�'�. 3. The follow3np� forma+,�.ons are reco�nized in the area described: Oklahoma: Tertiarv. Permi.t3n: �uar+,erma�ter formation �reer formation. �'�T��od.warcl format3�n Rla.ine formation �'nid forma+ion Pennsvlv�niar_ �Torth-oe,n+rPl Texas: I�r�ter f'enozoic Comanche(I,rnver CrHfaCCOl13� 'rriassj c(i)ocYiam �'orm�tion.) P?rmian: Doable Movntain formation Cle�r For� formation "�Ti �� �+a f orm�tz on Penns,ylvanian 4. The TTn�tec� Sta+es G�olo�icr�l Starvev correlates the nouble T+�!�untain formation o�' mexas wi+,h the f�reer and �tagrtermaster formations of Oklahomt�, the Clear Fork formation o�' Tex_as �vith the Fnid, Rla.i.ne, and ?�7o�dv�r�rd format-i.ons of Okfiahoma, an� the `-'�ich;ta forma+i�n of Texas w�+h+h� Chase, l�elli.noton, and Z�arion formations of Fansas. II. OKLAHOMA PART OF THE ARFA((120-124)� A. ENID FORMATIO�T(�ERIV�IPN) ( (12.0-fi21) i l. In Ot�lahoma tr.e Fnid fo�-r�ation is n�ted for its �reat thickness 2/ of shale and c�reak sandstone anc? a relative absence of esc�rpment- makin� beds((1201� 2 120� �C. 1�T. C,ould (TT. S. Geol. Survev �NAter-Stat�nl,y Paper 148, p. 44, 190F)estimates the th�ckness as 1,2Q� to 1,50� ieet 2. Fat'tti'_e�' south in TeaQs the rocks are less vn�.�'ormlv wea.k, the escarpments are more pronounced, an� t�e penepla3.n is less A�rfect.((121)) B. PENNSYLVANIAN SF�RIES((121)) 1. The Pennsvlv�ni.�n seri���s fartker east and the hir�her fnrmati.ons of the PPrmi.an se,ries fflrfh.p,r west incltade be�s o�' m�re une�ual resistance to erosion C. FORA.�ATIOPIS ABOVE THF ENID FORl!�ATION( (121-123) ) ' l. The surface on the higher Pe_rmi_fzn formations to the west is less smooth t}��n th�.t on tr.e Fnid f�?�r!!ation 2. A.si�!e from fAatures �1ve to aridity, i� is more like th�+ of northe�stern (?kl ah�ma 3. Escarpment of Blajne formation a. The Fnid formatior_ is overl.ai� hy the Rla�.ne f'ormati�n, tiv�ich occunies the belt next west of it in northern Oklahoma b. The Rlaine is 75 to 100 f'eei; thi.cl� anc� ; s the most �rominent evc�sizm- bear�r�p� f orr�ation in the State, �.nd its ota+cr�A belt, almost throu�:hout its lene�th, forms a pronounoed_ ascarpment known �s the �vpsiun Hil].s or "Gyp" Hills.((121)1 4. Sar�dst�ne beds of the'Noodward formation((122-1?3)) a. Th.e Permian formetiors th�t ur_derlie the surf�.ce west and so��th of the Bl�ine escarpment are f airly vniforrm in phvaical character, consi�i-ir_� mainlv of red sh�le an�� sandstone h. The most consnicuous escarpment maker in the �;Vo�dwar�3 for�r�tion is the Whitehorse s3ndstone member. c. This member is �escribed � as formir� conspacuous buttes and mesas 100 to 2,00 feet hi�h from Fansas so�athvaard bevond ��l�shita River to latitud.e 35�. 4 12,2 9nrin, Fritz, rTPolor�v of the red bed.s of Oklaho*�a: Oklahoma Geol. Surve�� Rull. 3n, p. 28, 1917. N�ost o�' the localities of t�uttes and mesas describe�l bv A_urin have been seen b.y the �rri+er. -4- d. In sovther-^ gansas the White�orse sandstone mPmber is �.n important in the e�reat escarnment �.vhi eh lies �+, the e�1 Pe of the Hi.�*h P1 aans in their lonp� e�stwar� ex+,ensi_on �✓;thin the "bir� ben�" �f Ar��ans�s River e. The di.ssection of th�t escarpnert has ?nade the Reci Nills. f'. At thP south, 3.n Oklahoma., thi� escarpment, +o�ether v+ri_th. that of the 31ai.ne form9tior_, turn� nort;rv+�es+ward alone� the Ci.marrori to malre the n�r.row V�hose sicle face each ni-her across +�,�t river.((122)) �. Farther sotath, to��ard ?�tat�n�a, Fl Reno, and Chi clrasha., the ru��ed aspect of the escarpment is less marked, but the saridst�nes of the �oo�?war� f�rmat�on tencl to ma.intain a sliaht ele�9tinn a'�one the surroundint� conntrV, as in Blaine Co�intv; �r to �ive a more sharplv rolli.r_e: character to the �ivic?es, �s betwe^n Tlorth C�nadi_an ar_d Canadian ri�rers west of El Reno; or to make hi�h, bold bluf�rs no�r sub-ject to revi�-ed erosion, as P9$t and west of Anadarko.((12�-123)) 5. CTreer and �uartermaster formations((123)) a. The topoFraphv on t�e Permian £�rmations ab�ve the Whitehorse s�ndstone, as reco�,nized bv the Oklahoma �eolosrical Survey, is f or the most part rollin� rat,her tr.an flat, but there are also broa� srcas of ap�roxiTMa+,e fla+,ness. b. Sa far as seen b�= the ��riter, sur_,h flat areas are motemarked and extensi.ve fa.rther �est in the "panhanr�le" of Texas D. "RED BEDS" OF UNCERTAIN RELATION((1?3-124)) 1. The d.escri�tions thuG f�.r t�i�en appl�T to that part of +he area consi�ered th�t lies north of th.� thir+,Y-fi�'th parallel. Z. On the Oklahoma �eolop�ic m�ps a] ar�e area surro�znd.in� the T'Pi�hit� r�ounta�ns apnears as "Red Reds of uncertair_ rel�tion". 3. 7t mieht well be inferrec? that the re�son f�r th� s uncertaint�.� i.s +,o be found ir_ the �meakness of t�e rocks and a ennsequent lac�- of outcrops, the sixrf��e bein� theref�re one of lo�pr reli ef 4. Thi_s inferenc� �s to tono�raphv a�rees u�-i.th the facts as described bv Taff 6�and as observed. in the reoonnaiss�nce b,y the �rriter.((1231i �123 Taff, J. A. , Prelimin�r�r renort on the eeolo�,y of the Arbuckl e e.nd �"T�chita mo»ntair.s in Tnd ian Terri.tor�r and �klahoma: T�. S. Geol. SvTMvev Prof. Paper 31, �n. 72.-74, 1904. I I I. TE7s.AS P ART OF THE AREA( (12,4-12 511 A. ESGA_RPr"F2LT OF PERr�tIAN ROCKS NEAR THROCKP��ORTON( (1?a-1?Fl ) 1. The Permian rocks chan�e in charac+er remarkahl,y both n�rthward � anc? southward from centr�l Oklahoma a. Tn both directions the red color disap�ae�rs and the thick beds of sh�.7_e anr� ��nerall.v weak s�ndst�ne �*i.ne pla�e to shale anc� limestone b. Different sets of formations are reco�nizPd in_ Oklahom�, and in Texas, and the corre�at�on of the two se+s i.s no+. fin.�lly �3etermined. ?.. In Texas esear�ments aoAeer alon� horiz�ns n�t thus marked in Oklahama. 3. SomP of them, if ex+enrled northwa.r� alon[� the S�-7'll�e� z��o��ld cross the low plai.ns on the �Re�i Reds"of uncert�in relatian" aroian�l. th� '"richita �Roi�nta.ins 4. O�hers woiald apne�r in the more s+ri��lv rollinr* surface to the e�st c�r to the �rrest. � 5. The eas+ernmost of these escarnments in Texas seen by the V7r1.'f;P,T' lies a little wesi- �f the ninety-ninth meridi.an. � 6. It trenc�s sli�htly �rest of s�uth and passes the eiliar�es of Throclnnnrt;on and Al�emv. 7. In nlaces it consists of several rat�er than a si.nale escartament, and it beeomes hi�her anc� more ru�;e�edly Cj1SSP,C'tP,Cj tcnraard the so�ath, Zvhe�re its tot�l heie�ht is 15Q to 250 feet, hu+ on +,he north it dies out in a. wide sloAin� belt near Red Ris*er. element _�_ usGs B. 7so-n �?, This series of escarnments is nroduced bv resi.stant limestone reds ir. the vnper U�?"t o�' the '"..*ichita formai-�.�n 7,� 7( 1?4 Gordon, C. F�. , re�ior of north-eentral 317, p. R, �1. 1, 191�. Geolo�*�r and unclerp�nuun�? waters o�' the 'P1?chi.ta Texas: TT. fi. �eol. Survev '.Yater-SuA1?l,y Pa�er 9. East of it lies �n t'irrP�u� ar rollin� surface of moderate reli.ef," � the southwar�l extens�.on of the fla�test part of the �sa�*e section in 0�1 ahoma £� 124: Ic? em, A. B 1�. Farther efl.st are the lowPr sandst�ne escarnments of t�P Penns�rlvani.an format;ons.((124i) B. ESCARPA�ETTT OF PERp,�IAT1 ROCKS NEAR ASPFRTRODTT((125)l 1. ?"lest of Thro���norton plai.ns extenc? comnletel�r across Raskel� Countv, a�i.si-�nce of 30 miles, an� o�erlan into a��acent colxntj.es, WI']P,rP., thev al�ut a�ai.ns+. an 80-_f'c?o+., escaroment of �vpsum an� dolomite 6 mi 7 es eas+ of Aspermomt, ir_ Stonev�re.l1 Cot�nty. 2. This eccar�nent, vaith its �om�ani,on 7 miles f qrther wes+, 3s the local renresentative of th� "Gvpsum �iills" 3. It �vv�s not followed northw�r� an� soti,+.,hward, anc? da+a to �shour its exact correlation are not ��*ailarle a. It mav inrlicate the ou�;cropoof the same bed� trat come tc� the stxrfe.ce at the wbstern limit of the plaine on the "Red Beds of uncertain relation" in Oklahoma b. Tt is subject, ho!�ever, t� the same comment as the others, n�nely, thgt the landsec�pes on its two sides shoFr little or no contrQst. 4. Se�ren rniles west of thi s escarnment is another, of aro��t the ssme hei�ht, made bv beds �f t*vpsum and sandstone. �. Retvveer_ the �ro escarpments is a stri� of n�arl,y flat plain in whi.ch lies the toTxn of :4spermont. C. PENEPL>AIN I?`1 T�XAS PART OF TFiE +�REA( (125)1 1. The top of thP escanpment we�t of Asner-r.iont �aff�rds a wide view of a neneplain �r�hi.ch exten�ls thence westvrard to tho "bre�k of the plains" --thr�t is, to the relati�ely narro«* s+rip of rou�h colantr,y �rhi�h frin�es t�e e�stern Pd�*e of tY�e Terti.ar�r Ro�ks 2. Th.e distance arz-oss the nenenlain is sbout 50 miles :�. Nere and there on this wes+ern ps�.�'t; of the per_enlai.n are buttes an�i me�as, much the mos+ oromi.nPnt of �srh�ch is n�table Mountain. 4. t��ost of the others r�re close to the escarnments, of �vhi ch thev are outls�ina remn�n+.,a F, ThPv impair the perfection of the pen��lain much less then the intrenched streams , 6. .As stste� abo�*e, these s+rear�s �3o r.�t differenti.�+,P +he area here ennsidered from the Osar�e secti on, i�nless by the de�ree of the� r re,i�en�t;ion. ((125� ) IV. THE "BREAK OF THE PLAINS"((1?�_1261) l. The escarnment at the easter� edme of the Hi�*h Plains is eenerally clear, thou�h not evervwherF� e�val 11� bold .((1?5) ) ?... In onlv one of fi4e co�znti.es in �vhieh it wa.s anproache�i or ascen�ed in Tex�s does it fail to ri�e consx�iruoiasl�r on the western horizon. ((126) i a. The exce*�tion is the northern^�ost countv, �'Jheeler, in v�rh� ch it was �ppoach ((sic)) at one place onl�r. b. At th�t place a rise of 500 feet is accomplishe� in about 10 miles we�t of the villa�*e o.f Shamrock, and throup�ho,at mur,h of t'�is distance sanc� dunes prevail c. A semicletached east�ard extc�nsion of the Hie�h Plains in Ellis Count,y, Okle.homa, north o.f Can�.dian River a.nd the thirtY-sixth pArallel, shov�s a similar slope like`vise �o+ted �i+h sand dunes d. Such a�r�dation with lack of a definite escar�ment �+vill probat�lv be fo»nd to be �eneral betvreen the thirtv-fifth aad thirty-seventh parallels. :�. The escarpment at the er]�e of the Tertiar,y are� is mos+ prominent where the Tertiar�r bed.s rest on resist�nni; unc�erl•Tin� roclrs. a. In southern g�nsas the escarpment i.s dlae to Cretaceous beds ar_d - 6- Perm�e.n formations that have already been described b. From the F�nsa.s-�klahoma boundar,r solath to the thirty-fifth parallel, �lont� the edc�e of the fti�h Plains, Terti�.r�r �ra�el rests or unner Permian form�tions, i.n w�i.ch no s+ron� escarpment-malrin� members �re 1�-noTtim to the v�rriter. e. Tt 9.s not �bo be expeci-ed th^t +,h� s par+, of' the Ri�h P7 �.ir_s boundarv rvill be fotand +,o be as (;189?' and distinet �s b�bher �arts d. Sovth of Rer� River the eas+ern eda�e nf t�p Ni�h Plains coincides Qg�Pnti_allv vri+,h the Ol7+C?^Ol� be]t. of +he Triassi_c nockizm .f.ormation and still furtrer solath tn�it?-� th�+ of the f'ret�ceovs limes+ones. e. L�dden 9/ s+,a+es th�t the "rTorth-Centr�l P1 �ins" are botanded "on the west b�T the hie�h erosion esc,aroment o�' the Pan Nandle �?i�h Pl�ins and the Llano Fstacado," ti,ias imnl��iflr� the nresence of �.n eastward-facin� escarnment throvphot�t the len!�+,h of +,he rij ah P1 ains in this area. 9, 126) .nd�'en, J. A., Review of the p;eolotry of Texas: mexa�. rTniv. Rull. 44, p.18, 1916. SOrdE PRIRTCIPLES OF EROSION IRT ARID CLIM�ATES ((126-132) ) 1. Some phvsioe;renhie feA.tizres of th9 s re�;ion can not we11 be clescribed in terms sui.ted to concentions of erosion in more hlunid clima+.es or on rocks oi other charact�r; 2. Th�ref�re, as a prelimina.r�T to the ph.ysiot�rs.Dhie historv of the re�ion, a brief �escri?�t-ion of these forms and the nrocesses by wh�ch thev were made will be t�iven. 3. It is r.,onvenient first to consider the effect of erosion as illustrated in the smaller forms, be�innin� with the �*ullv, �nd to prooeed thence to la.r�er features and the larc��r atxestions imrolvec3. I. GIILLIES II'? GFhTEI�AL((�26-1271i ].. The �h��s�o�rat�her�s concention of +,he t�ro�ressiv�: dissect�on of penenla3.ns, �s o�' other �lains, is base� mainl�r on +hP Qrovr+h of �;v1.�zes.((1?.,6)) ?. Ranid drnnm cutti.n�, steep sides, �T_sh�Aed cross secti.on, ar_d �r�nch- in� 921'f:P.r m�s+, abLmd�ntiv in+,o his ment�l pict,u,-es of an tznland of homo�eneous material or hdtriz�ntal rocks th�+ is under��.in� disee��-snn, es��er.iall,y when erosi.on is ni�orot�s.((12711 II . LACK OF DRANCHIidG II�j GULI IES OF ARID R.EGIODIS ((], 27 )) 1. The fi.rst modifieation of th�s conception is made necess�ry bv the fact that man,y �*ullies in semi�rid rer�ions like the one here c�nsid- ered do not t�raneh at all 2. Others sho�.v on1�T incipient branches, so wic�e in proportion to their len�th that the �ullv wall is scal�o�ed in a series oi' o�en �lcoves. 3. Gullies hav3.n�; �v�.11s retreatinF in t�+is tvav ha�re almosf ilat bottor�s, man�* oi them verv wide 4. The flat bottom 5.s not unknor+m in hl�mi�i r�a�ions, n�r is the V-shaped branchin�; �ullv unlrn�n in ari�] re?ions. 10 10 127,)Dutton, thou�h st�tin� that dent�dation in arici regions is accomplishecl le,r�ely by recession oi cliffs rather than by �o�nm- cut+.in�*, lavs stress on the fact th�+ the ?�ermilion Cliffs, in the Grand r.am�on rer�,ion, are cut bv nt�merous branchin� eanvons (TT. S. Geol. Survev I!�on. 2, p. 62, 18£�2.). From the vr.riter's o�servations it Urotald apnear that, althotlPh sucr dissection. affects the r�te of. recession, it is by na means the cnuse of f-he oreAonc3erance of lateral strippin� over vertical d.own-cutt�na;, r.�r is it �oina on i.n nll areas th.at show lateral cienuda+.ion. F. "Ra,dlar_ds" are incleed commoner in ari.d +han ir humid re�ions, but �he conditions favori.n� the develonmen+, of the flat bottomed "dracr" 11 with retrea�i.n� walls are more eommonlv assooiated vrith aridi+y than with humidit,y. -7- USGS 730_D 11 127 The worci "draw" i.s �'rec�uentiv t�se� on +�,e �reat Plains to c3esi�*ne.te a small � S�'181.� �4d vallPv, ree��rc?less of the �'orm of i.ts s�des. The worcl is used here in the colloqvial sPnse +o clesi�nate such a�alle�r thRt S'F.9.rfP.� a� a�ullv �+uf has bec�me so wide th�at the apr�lica+.�i.or_ �f' the term "c�ully" would be mi.sleadin�. 6. The s�a�;�e�tion that stach forms are fa�ored bv alterna+.e bed.s of different c.raracter and that thev are the be�inn.in�s of stratum plains contains some truth but is inad.equate. 7. Two facts bearin� on this point mav be recalled--- Q� mhat such Porms are com*�on on the N�vh Plains i.n the uncor_solidated Tertiary iormations, b. And tha� their fl�t flo�rs r.la,v have a. steep slooe doums+ream, even thoveh hori?ontal in cross section. III. PERCOL9TION OF SLI�RBAGE Y�'ATE_R AS A FACTOR(�1271� 1. The absence of i�ranchinp� is no doubt clue primari.lv +.o the dominancc �f pc�rc.olat� on as op�aosed to rtm-of�' 2. ?��There all the water �oPs into the p�rol�nd no channels iorm 3. A steen ed�e of homn�Pneoizs dense c].av coiald n�t escane r�endri.ti.� �iase��finn � 4. This factor o�' lar�e nercolati.on is more common in �ric� rea�ions because of +he drvness of +hP �round an�? the debth of the n.rAter table, but ariclitV is'not es�Pntial IV. WIND A,S A FACTOR( �127-12£'� ) 1. 4. secon� f�e+or is the work o�' wind 2. �'hP drier the Pround the more effeci-i.�re i.s the wi.nd in f i7.� ir_p� incipient channels an� erasin� the efferi- of on� rair_ be�'nr� anntrer comes 3. Ionc� �.n+ervals be+ween rai.ns �nd acarcitv of vec�etati.on make win�l more eff ective 4. As all �ull ies have Gmall bep�inninv�s, S.t is not strant�e thA+ in �ric? re�ions man�r incipient branches should be checked in thAir p�r�tivth bv the work of the win� and tha+ s�me �u11y v�alls shoiald retreat lon� d�stances withoiat di.ssect5.on.((127)) 5. A con5equen�e of this checkina� of uullies in their incipient sta�es is seen in the "co�rse texture" of d�,ssected plains in aric� re�ions.((1281) 6. Anart f'rom the absence of trees, the casual obsprver th�nks there is se�an��iit� t��pically "�vestern" (arid) ah�lxt the lon�, unbrol�en slopes of the Great Plains, where thev �renot flat . V. SAPPING ((12��� 1. Ncswever, �rhv �3�es the �ullv �rra11 re+rea+, and �r�h,y �oeg i+ remain vertical? 2. Maniiestiv the sec^nc� c�ndition denends on the first, as no cli.ff continues l�na to be �ertical or even stee�a unless it does retreat 3. The Trl!�21riP.r of retreat is therefore +,he cri�ioal point 4. In humi� cli�a+es corrasion hv r��rect run-off is the main fac+or in the �?eve3+onment- of mn�����ll?es, hence �1.o�*m outtin� is �iominr�nt qnc� wider_in� an� hea�lrvard len�thenin� are merelv �ncidental to r�n�m cutting. 5. �!�ith incre�se of ne�rcolation, h�*�re�er, corras�on becomes m�ach lesG effecti.ve, its effectivenes� dec,reasin� �n P'eC)1)1P.f'riC rafio t� +,hP �ecrease in the amolant of run-off, flnd the lessPned clnU,m cutti.n� is ac�o*nn�nie�l b�r lessen��? l�ter�l a_�c� head�rrard c�r�ivth of the �*iallv 6. Thi.s is offsPt. by s�nT�ine, as +re AP,r�nlat,'1��' we.+,er +ha+ did �ao+, cia+ back the esoarpment rv corrasion accomAl3.shes t�e s�me result ?�v sanpin� at the be.s� of t�e scarp. 7. Sa�ninF, therefore, is the domi.r_an.t fac+or in �'etermin�n� the form of the flat-rot+omec�, se�rp-bord�rec� atallv or "draw" of ar9_!� rP�i.ons P. At some pla�es lanrlslirles �zre e�'fect�ve, an�l where the vnc�erizrina beds are shr�le mud flows may be a promi.nent or eQen the domin�nt ±'ac.tor in the r�e�Telopment of scarns 9. 1nTinc� is no doubt one of the chief ap�ents, if no1- the chief, in removina� waste ircrn th.e foot of the scarp an�' thus preven+in� t�+e proc�ss of recess5.on from becomin�; self-limited -R- VI. FLAT BOTTO�S((12811 1. With its limitin� escar�ments thus rer..edin� the tendency of thP aull�� to beoome a fle.+,-bottome dra�N is apnarent ?. '�here dr�i.naa�e £rom a cansi.c�erable erea center5 in the dralc the t�reservation oi' tre flatress of the ho+tom s s sur�ri s9_n�*, a.nd it sePms £� S3fP, iraference that in all eu�h c�ra�vs the amoiant of se�i.ment f?cl to the stream durina� a freshet is �re�ter th�n c,an be moved bv +he current, �t least d�zrin� the subsi.dence of +,he freshet 3. Hence an�r char_nel bea�un �tal�in� tre earlier st��*es of the floo� is later obliterated by �eposi+;on 4. Almest a7.1 streains are t�0'.'PT'ZOfiCjP.,C3�� �liar;na the subsidencenof a flood, anci e�Ten a�ullv in � humi� re�ion i.s �+nt to have a narr�� sa.n�i,y flat restin� te�nporarilv in the bot+om �f its V. VII . DEPTH OF THE DRAW( (1?f�-129)1 1. The denth of the dra� or the hdit�ht of its lnra.l)s--that is,the level at which the flat bottom is mainta_ined--i.s con��'o�led h?l a comhira+.;on of _factors, one of vrhich -i s evi�lentiv +he i.nabila.+v of the stream to transnort all the debris sunpli.ed t� it �turin�^ the subsiclen�e nf feeshets. ((1?�)) 2. T�� existence of ne�rlv hori.znnt�l resist�nt beds thet m�1v act e�s local base-le�*els for th� stream � s A.nother, en�7 le�s obviotas fac+r�rs are the �epth of the �ra+er t�ble and the st�te of' the soil abo?re 1�e water table, expeci.�.].lv With respect to its conten.t of moisi�i�re and s�alts. ((129�) 3. If can not be ns5umecl that the base oi +he escarpment i.s �ea�r�l��,y �s lo�r as the wa+,er table or tha+ �roun�3 wa+,er issues alon� it in sprir_a�s, e�s other ±'�Ctor'S he1T� to locate the horizor_ of effective s�.pning 4. Arid soil.s contain abuneiant sa.lts, tr�hich cement and indvra+e the soils more at s�me le�els than at others, and the�� tend to c�ncentrate in the unner soil and to ac��amulate and form "mort�r beds" near the ti�rater table F. TTnPqual vertical �istribution of th�s cementation may rc� an i.mnortant factor i.n de+e?-m�nin� the horizo� of sa��ina in an otherwise homo�'eneous formation. VIII. TERRA.CED DRAWS((12g1) 1. It is not uncommon to find a new p�ullv fUrrcYwi.ne� the floor �f a wide, fl at-bottomed dravr. 2,. t�t first si�ht this mi�ht be in�Ferpreted �s indicati.n� a. ne�r e�Tcle O'f' @Y'OS10?1 3. It should be rememt�ered, ho�ve��er, that c�nditi_ons o�' the s»me sort as these which preserve� the ori�inal surface from dendritic dissec+,�on, thou�h in an exnosec? posi.tion and abo��e its local base-le�rel, mA�r for a lonr� time preser�e the ne�n� fl.a+ at thP bottom of the �raw. 4. 'Nhen, �rith the deuelopmPnt of the i�'81�P_.V� the �i.me comes t�� c,u+: the l,ed of +he stream c�oT�rn to a r_eu�r leve] ,+he s�me or�cess ma�i be rene�ted, and thus flat after flat Tn�,v be form�d more or less rhythmicalltr withot�t anv chan�� in the rer�iona.l b ase-level 5. TTo dou�+, also, m�nor or temporftrv clim�tic chan�es or chan�es in vePe- tation eat�se many n���rlv made �ral?evs to be a�araded an.c� c�e�raded ap�aj.n within short per�ods IX. LARGER VALLEYS((129-1�0)i 1. ThA di.scusGion thus far coneerned itself with [�ullies and drarvs because the mech�ni�s of t�rnwth and chan�e arP ele�rer in those 1-han in larP;e 4a,��.P,VB� Y�ut the Sam� princinles eviclent-lv control the develobmenf of all. 2. ?'hP same fact�rs mtzst also c�nfrol the ('7C�P,??S14P stripni.n� of stra+um plains. ((1291� �. STRATUN PLAINS((13p)1 1. The men+ion ofl"stri�nir.r�" at once sLz�*�-es+.� +he dem�da+ion of cert'ain resistant beds ancl the production of stra+lim plains, whi.ch need n�t be at th.e loce�l base-level 2. Tn the Rallevs thus far ment�oned. no p�sitiue e�?rider.ce �ras seen +ha+ the le�rels of the ne�rr and lower pla.ins (the �allev floorsi werd thUs determ�.ned. 3. The topor�ranhic resiilts mav su�mes+ reszstan+ heds �enea+h the �ralletT floors, but it should be remmeanbered th�+, si.milAr str�Apine� 9.s observed in p;ull3.es an�l drar,Ts where +he control of resi.stant beds can _g_ USGS B. 73�_D not be asstamed, �nd th�t the �eneral. ap�earance of these larmer Qalle�rs su�Pest� that the streams are at thP�r local base-lev�l.s, ���as makin� nnneces�ary f,he hvpothesis of resistant re�ls. 4. AdvancinP onee m^re in the scale o�' size,�re come to the broqd plai.ns which lie bPtwPen +hP ma�or eastro�T�rc�_facina escarbments 5. �iere t'�ere is definite e�zdence in the escarnments themselves thQt the rel.at3�*P re�is+anee to erosi.on of +he bec3s he.s Y,c�Pn an imnnrtant ia�tnr in.fixinc: the levels of the sever�l nlains, at leaGt near +,he�r eastern ed c�es � 6. To some extent, at least, +,hese plains conform in ori.r;i.n to the customar,y conce*�tion oi a stratum plai.n. ((13Gi1 - XI . SPFCIAL COTIDITIOD?S OF' VALLEY CIITTING IN SCARPED PLAIIV`S ((13111 1. Another ti�eo�e�ica� nroblem concerns the cond5.tions of penenlaration and valley cutl�n�; peculiar t� scarne�l plains(p.116).((abst p.l)) 2. T�e redeveloz�ment of escarnments 3.n � sec�nd cvcle imnlies th�t certain more resistant bP�ls 1'1E14P, b�en ar7e, �.+ lea.st ir_ nar�;, to �ainta;n temt�orarv base-levels for s+ream bas�ns a�ove tre escar�ments 3. It is concei�rablr th�i- nenenlains m�v be de�el�nec� �n t;�e �.n'-ervenin� weak rPds be±'ore the master strPatr+s flo��in� over the st-rnn� hec�s ha�e etiat �ln��m th�er orofiles cc�mplet-Pl.y to the new base-lenel. 4. Further lowerin�* of +he S'FrP,9??l� s be� acrnss t�R har� rocks mnst then be a�ct�mp�nied bv a correspor�l-ine' dcr,vr_ cutt;ns� U:ith;n tre limits of the -in+ervenin� nenepl�ins F. The ra+e of suoh �i��vn ca+..,+;_na ma�r be �� slo�r tha+., fihe local �?enepl�ins a,re lo�rered c�ncUrrentiv 6. �r_ the ��-her hand, valueG mav be �,s���ne� +o tre se�Ter�l f�c+�rs innol�*ed (resistar_�e of escarnment rock anc� of orerltiT�n� be�ls, power �f streams, arc� of basi.ns, etc.) �rrhi�h ma1-e it -�ossil�le for the s+re�ms to cvt shallow Fallevs in the penenlains 7. The fact�rs have not h�en evaluated in this area, bufi m�ny of 1-he streams, esnecial?tr in thP western oart, occu�v �,vide �alle�rs of �entle slope, trenched bv narro�v �alletrs brrtween steep hluffs 8. It seems nrobable that these wi�e vallevs are due to the conc?.itions here �i.escribed, �rhich attend the �rearina_� dolam of scarped pl�ins �.nd c�o not indicate �, disti.nct uolift of +,he re�.i.an, �s c��es, presumabl,v, the more recent and abrux�+, �n.+,r�:nchment XII. AGGRADING STREAMS((1�1-132)1 1. It is fre�uentiv asstamed th.a+ the char�cteristi.c features of th� strea.m chsnnels of this rPp�ion i.ndica+e a�aradation--that is, the �rot�res�ive fi1.� inr; of the valleys �rith alluvivm Z. The features referred to are t�e exceedin�lv wide, flat. char_nels shotivin� �t lc�w water nvmeroizs sanci bars am�n� �rhieh +,hP stre�m flows in "braided" fas'�i�n s� len� as �.ny water remains in the channels 3. "r-i+,hoi�t �lotxbt such fle�tt►res are ch�r�c+er�.sti c of t'overloaded" S'�:?'PRP.1S 4. There can re no ql�estion that whAn t�e f��,ti.ares vi.si.ble �t lo�v sa+er were formed the strefun was suppli ed ��ri+h mor�r loac� than i.t co�ald t�'ansr�ort and was deP�sitir_� more than it wa� remo�ine� 5. Qn the other hand, the ma,�or fe�+.nres o�' manv af +he �alle�s �ive no support to the assiamnt?on of prop�ressi�-e aE*^'rA.�ation 6. Thev r.la,y e�en indicate the oppos;te 7. Terracir_� is common in the lar�er nal.le�r�((1'�li� R. Th� bui�c��.nt� o�' a sand bQr is of coizrse a more re�ent process than th.e cuttin� of a fP..7'?'f�CB� anc? it i.s not 1^'I1O�81�1P, that recen+ d�qan cutt;.n� has �iven wav to still more recent �'il7 ir_a�( (13?) i 9. T?�t},�n� is vet knoNm, hoN�e?�er, to -invalidate the as�umvt�on tha+ +he a��rac�ation noi-ecl is simr�l,y that v;*hinh is inci.dental to the subsidinm sta?�es of everv flo�d, anr� that dur�n� the r3.sin�; s+a�*es o�' the f'loods more materi�.l is carr�ec� awav than is deposited durs.rc� the subsidin� sta�es. l�. The �rocess of remonal is of c�t�rse not sub,�ecf +,o direct observafion, nor are the resuli-s except ss seen in the lar�;er featlares o?' the valley 1] . The �'ea+lares du� to periodic c�e*�osit�nn are the ones tha+, m�st apneal to thP eve durin� 99 ner cent of the t9me 12. It follows from thi.s th�t f,i SO-CAI�P(� }t04P.r1Qgd@ti�� stream is not necessarily an aPa�rad�n� stream i.n the sense +hat implies nro�ressive or curnmul�ti�re av�ars�clation, but one zrrhich ia sup�ie� with a versr larc�e �rolume of detritus, s�me of which mores for�xard �:vith ea�h flo�d -1�- 1�. Retween such t;mes the excess of loa� is sto�ed awa,y, a part of it in sQn� bars but much the �re�te*- part of it in thP thic� s�ieet of sand anc? ��•ave] th�t rests on the bec�rock iander the be�i of thP stream. a. If tri.s sheet is so t'^icl{ tha.t the scoizr �1larina� floods fails to rea�h thP ro�k benCs�+h� then d.e*�osi.ti.on has been eumtalative an�? t�e streRm h�s bePn. a�e�.rading, fnr the level of th� bedrock surfa.c.e i� due to erosion 14. �� the nossible dep+,h of sc�ur bv such s+r�ams is not lrnown, it c�n not re posit�vel.v asserted that +,�e scovr alwa.vs re9ches the bedrocY 1�. The verv few c�ata obtair.ed on the thicl�-ness of' s�nd r�nc� �ra�el under cha.nnels seem ta ir_�iic.ate that it is nfloporf�onal tn t�e size of th.e streem, and that this shPet oi mA+erial, t�+o�at�h thicker than would be casuallv as��zmed to be subject #;o sc�iir, is not thick enou�h to i��arrant th� x�ositi.v� conclusion +hAt it is n�+ su?�;ject to siach remonal 16. nepths to ro�k bereath��he lar�*er streams in this �ra� seem to be f�irlv ur_iform--from 30 to 40 feet, or vertr lit+le more. 17. ttnder these circumsi-.ances much importance shoial�l be �.+tached to the general featiares of the vallev, as sug�ested aboQe. 1R. Th.e ��di.tional fact thr�t active �ullvina is in proa�ress neAr the lar�er stfeams add.s to the evidence that these streams are, on the whole, dea�rad�n� their channels inste�d_ oi ��;p:ra�in�! 19, m��n mtach wei.�ht sho�zld n^t be aiven t� t-he evidence of p�ul) ies, ho�nreT•er, in view of their intimats connecti.on with veeetation, cUlti.vation, e�raz�i.nc�, etc. ?,�. The d istribution of ac+.,ive �ul l.�rine has n.ot been suffieci entiv stuc� ied to determ�.ne wh+�t the �niluence o.f these factors ma1* be. ((1'�2) ) SUMti�ARY OF PHYSIOGRAPHIC FEATURES AND HISTORY((132-1'4)) ((omittedll ((pa�es 1:�5-139: Ir�dex for nl1 of Bulleti.n 730)1 - 30- , �. _ . _ . . _ ., . _. , r .. . : . , . . O ., , . - . _ . , . _ _ _ r. . . . ' - . . .. • . . . . � USGS B. 73p_� BUI_LETI�T 730-� A 1a2ETHUD C�F �a"EAStTRII��G ,2PdD PLOTTIrTG THr� StiAPES OF PEBBLP�S arlr� A FI�',LD S�UDY UF TFIE SHI�'ES OF RIV-t�R rEBBIES bv �:}"1P.S+�@r � � �niPntT�rorth TTnite� Sta+.Ps rTe�lo�i��.7 Si�rtrev �'r00ro�g �t�.s Sm; th, ni re�tor • 19?2 ((�iih. rPf.: �'„b. o?' thP �. S., �.��v l�?Sz: *73Q. rontr;?�,�+,i�ns to +,ha �Pn�ranhv of thP TTriterl St�+es, 1�??; 1'�T, n. !'.amn?�ell, �eoloaist in cb.ar�e. 1Q23. v, 1�9 p�., 18 pls. (c�The shanPs of ne?�bles, btT �'. u. 'Ven_t�nror+.,h., pn. 91-114, rls. xiv-xv.)) . � O V -1- USGS B. �30_� A T:'�TNC)U OF ]J'�ASURII'�T(`x I�tJ� r'LOTTIrl�'T T'�i�� SII1�'ES UI� P�BBLI;S; ��-l�, A�'I��I:D STiTDY OI+� TH�' SHAY�,S OF RIV_��R. i'�;BRI�i��S bsr Ches+er T'. '"re�2t.tivorth TTn;+Pr� c+�+PS reol o�ic�l Survetr: BZTLI.��;TI]�T 730-C 19?,2 (( abs�.ra.�.t n�tPs an� bia11 P+ir_ 1/ _ R,a1 i �+;n fo�firotes namP re�'erencell �. . . • . . , � �T�C:Zrf?fiS ' ............................................................................ A F���:THOD C�r r.'����SirRING A2��iD PLOTTI�rG T�� SF�iA�' �'S OF F�IiBIES ((al-�n211 I. ITvTRUDi?CTIOTT( (�].11 �• T71 A�rlPi 1�17+ SUh'�"P,gi--jirP, naT1Pr H� T,?� (*r�rnrT* 1� S`��rS� it,4tt�m�t.s +o esf�.1?�.� sh Cri+p?'7 a�'nr r-1; c+i?�ntai �h� nR �j<?AC1'?. T1p,�j1-i�P� 'f'7'OTTi 'i;l'1nSP. f'07`ri1.P,fj 1„r 1+i�,n•^g� rr�tiC'iP,r�;� n)" �PjT'�(a C1T" restili-in m�'r�m wea+.h�r;n� ;n r7 ��e h.a�re 1Pr� #;o tmsa+i sf'�ctnfnr result;s ." 1/! l�l, rre^'or��, c.T� r'. � TTOt:E;, OI't �'}1F Sh�?1P Qf' tnE>�h1�S: A�I''!. �Tn1iT'. ,�iri �� � 4th ser.�no1. :��� p�-,� ;znn_��a� 1g1�� �• Ne �'OPS O?1 fn S�'lOTnr 'j'rAi; �*�n ,-4- of 1-.1�f' S�PC'? fl1C C�'1�1'a.�'F',P.,r� S'�'i ('S f�S('rihn(� i'O i'1P.'C)}?ZE',5 Of f�iff�E?T'PY)f OY'�n'�}'1 =1.�"P nY'O�l7CP,!1 O'�"I]•% �t* S'�Pr.ifl,� SP.?'S Of' ('0T1�1.'��C�rS ti7i(� '{'l'1fl.+' mnS�' (?f' i-1�.�? �'er�ra.1 � 7,'3i;lOY!5 �':Tl,i ��"1 �l4tTe rPP21 TT!saf�P, �l!"P, oi+.hPr lli"I'�l'tIP. �r �,n t*a�l?e a.s +.o be i?n.rel; ab1 e�nr {;r� c?.i5crim��n�t� on of' caepo�its in the f;_e�d. ?. I'i; � S 't21t1(.' �"}'?'�1+ l�'1 F_i �rllfiC� "'LiV ii- i_� nn^57.��.P, i;n (�� S+�ncrt» S1'1 Ori 511?�1't �8�'l"lEPP,n 7'7'tTP.T' 11P.�'?1 � F� � P'� £i('l 31 ?�P,�1'11E?S �'-1Y1� Sfi�7C�—�'1] �Si'.F',�l �P,�r] P,S . n., nn +i�P o+her ?��nc�, i-1,e �*eaeral GPn�r�+;nn of reach net�hl�s ft^n,„ r;tr�,, T7P�1'11(?S C'�]1 7!Oi; �� ri���E, ,a.�+ti� r,pri-�-in-F,�* np_ fl�� 1?f1Si5 rlf' ;�p,r rri�-pri� ?Tf>'f; set rc?r+h. II . THE Y�UBL�T:i( ( �1_g?1 � 1. Tn de�cribin� .+,he �ne+ho� of m�as„re��nt �•,h;c�. �s nvi-.1;n�� helo�Fr the �r:rr��er ^'�q1'E?� T10 '�T'P'f'.nT�gP (1f' r�ff �rirM �. ('n�-+7')l n;-P, ^O�l7i-.inY1 nf' i-1�iS nr()Y�ZPiR. ?. T�e �eszr�s r��!-.��r +o �res�rt tha �ro�e�a,.,r� le*��ch h�s r�en f���n� usafla] ir. der.n+�nc num<�rica]�v some �f +ti,� ^ost si?�„�fz�ant {•�a��,rP� of +�e S�'!a.l�PS Of' '"�E',���]F?S� i".�ifl'1 '4�1�� �n�f;(]gnrP '{"l�a'� f'�i1'1�1�. St7nr��;', in �ji.g'f;�71�'U1S�"111'lc* j-b,p mP,nP.'�'i � mrOt11�S nf' '"�P,h�1 PS i'�tr i-1'lni �^ ��s�nAS � 7( S i2'1 ;'ti't� 1�SF: n'f' �Uf1Y1'i-1.'f',�i;� VP, m�+.t��c� s . i � �l) � 3� ThP c�,��.ne� �f ne�?�lPs m�mh+ �P c19��;fi�� ;n nlim�r�ta.;; �-���,,rs, ru+., +he classifi- c�+i on r+�ost 1 ilrelv tn be of t�s� t.� +�e c�enl oc�i s+ ; s a�ne+.i c. ((�1-9?i i ti. The first fa�t-.or to be cons�r�er�d i.s +h� s+.r?a�+�,rA o�' +hP �aren+ roc�; �h� sec�ncl ; s+r� 3�Pr._t btr ,�r',� �r +,},� sha�e of �he neY+rle ; s*^n�1,: f i ed; +he thi.rd ; � t�,P t��-e f�,.rfo,- �r S+�.^�e nf +�,� nro�e�'S �f mocii�'ic�t-� �n. ((P�11 F. ThP s+rt,c+vre of +,�,e �ria'i.n�l rock f,'n�?s exnress;on ;n +��r� nrincin�l �nra�,Ts--- a. 2n �ts ef'f'ec� or t1�� sh^n�s of fra�men-Fs �ro�i��e� by t'�e ar�ents of vrP ai;h er�n e� � b. And i.n its effect �n sti��n�s c?ez*e�on��l fr�m thesP �P�r�.t.a1 fra.mm�nts b�� fhP a�ent �r R�*an+s of transnorta.+i.or. 6. A7+'�.o,a�*h r!�i��h i s lrnolv�r_ in a�hro��] �ra�.r con�.ern� r_? +he resl�lts ofl weatheri.nr� �n�l �or�e �,ener�l q1a�.li.+,a+.-iTre ebs�r�ra+.ior_s h��re b�er_ m��e nn +hP shanPs o£ �'ra�,n�nts pro�'�?ced, no rareful. sfiu�tiT o? the sha�es of' +,?�e nrodt��.+s o�' t.he �liff�rent pro�essPG of inec�an��al •,^�c�atherin� has t��i-. bPen made. 7. '':rzi-holat an a.i-.t�rn*�� +.o oiatl�n� hPre the--mlanifold �r0('PSSAS an�l Aroducts of we�the,-;na +}ia+ reslal+. in �lasi-;c f,-��ments t-.�,P follo��vi.n� matT be ment�on?d: -2- ^Xf �1 � r�+.; on S��it+�n.v� �rl�mrlin� Sun fl ��inc� ,Tpi ni;ip p' '"Jer1 r*e ��rnr1� ��' �1 �n+ r�o+s Plu�l�in�* ,'•P�� �^e t�r�rl- or i�e rT-i z*sai-.; nn ��oi s+>>re �h�nr�c�s ri,.tirn6�-o?-ir i."/P,l�me ••,rn7'k V'�I3TTE S ,qTAc? �,e ��Torl- of ne�,rl es rrf3.c.lrs . of j_ n �?. �+hers �•�ril7 occur +o one �+rho a++emnts to ma��e e�ren an "armc�a.� r" an�l�rsi s of +1,e �*.rhole �roce�s of ��reather�n�. Q. T'a�h of 1-hes� ��Fr_t� ras �i-s neci�liar e�'f�c+ �n �t;hA shanesof �h� nieces pr�dv�ed 70. Fra�+ents x�ro�viced bzr exfoli.�.t-i.on differ in shape from t��se �rodnced b�r crum�lin?� a� a result of differenti�l therri!a,l expansion in di_�'�'erent m-i.nerals, and both d�_ffer in sh�z�e �Pom fraTmer+s �ro�?uced h�r ioir_tin�*. 71.. It �.s �.iT�7v pror�,i-�le also +-hat the shanes of fra�nPni-s due to t�e s�.r_�le nrece�s of exfol�.�t-i.on d�ff er ��•�l+.h each of rnamero„s factor�, sizch a� �mount ard. rani�itZT of d�urnal ch�.nc�e i.n +emnerature �.nd the �ondiacti_Zritv, specific hea�, +herr^��-exn�nsi.on coefficient, anc� elastici�t�r of the rock 12. Tr.e shanes of c�i.stuT�ted fr±��nents from a�i.ti*en roclr in a r�i�ren rE�i�n are �ue �.n r�Fneral to a combinat�on of seueral of +he a�*en+.� sia��es+-P� �bo�*e r�.ther th.an t� �.m* one alone 13. Fach a�ent find� a di.fferent exnression in roc�rs of di.fferent ttm� s, �s, for exam�] e, co�..rse or f ine t�rai.ned � r�neo�?s r�ck, sch;st, ane�_ss, �n� hed��ed sediment�rv ro���s of �i.�rers k�_n�s la� nt,i�en+lv the nrob7�m of +he sha-�?s o�' the frn�^:mFnf-s +1�at- result from roclr r�isruntion is complic�+ecl 1�. It i.s ti�mrt�+�T of Si'l1C�Zr� ho�ve�*er, for i-he �rry �;n�l s�anes of f',��,�men+s tha+ are �asr7 ed a_n�l a�ra�ed r�r �-he ZrB.ri �>>5 transnortin� aP�ents are relai-;�relz% -�ers; �+ent fnr �re�.-` �;.�ta.nces �r_�? �,ave consi.der�ble i.nfluence �n the f'or?ns �ssimle� rsr �:�1.PSP, fra�menfs in s+a.�es of tl�eir hi.stnry.((9?.,1� 16. !�uftntitr�t�ve z=rork in r�re�t det�.i] on this �taes+ion nf' ori�ins�l shanes � s nAedec� to fttrn-i sh an ac� eqla�te ba.s� s for si-ud i es of the �*eneric shane charac�er5 sti.cs of �e?�b1Ps. i iQ2-9�11 17. It i s etri�?ert from the fore�^oin� statemAn+.s t;hat t�ere are �.n �..nfini.+,e number of sh�*�es of fra.�men-t;c �,trai.lab�e f�r +r�nsnorta+�i.on.�(9�)) 1�. These shanes are be] ie�re� to belo�t� to a, l�r�e n��mber of t;��es, �rrh; �h nrnsent knorrlec�?� �(iPC n.o+, Gl�f�'i re to descr�.rP ;..r. de+�;1 . a. Thej.r incltac�.e f1�+, slaba an�? tabloic� forms �? c�uadr�r.�*ular or irre�Ular nrofl3le, ;joint-boimdec� b1.oc?rs, she71-like ,rexfoli�+.e�," fan+asti� nor'�talar pieces of 7.,,�,estone, an� manv �+.her +,.mes. 19. Ir_ hi s aftemr,t to etral_la�+e +.he ?�odi.fi r�ti.ons of sha?�e �R.�h;.ch resizlt in +},P formati on of ?�erl,l es, thP T.�ra� ter ras been orl i.��d to seel- as a st�r+.;n� z�oi.nt snme onF cha.racteris+.ic tha+ i_s �om*�on t� �.l.l or nearly a11 t-re t�rnes. a. That chara.�.teri st-i_c ; s anp�ul �ri t�r, r. And it is nalliable also -i.n -�-he fact that it ;s the c?�s�ra.�+�r- � S{'i f1 ?�OS'f. t717i.C']T).17 A17� T110S+ 71ar^i gi-P77�'IV modified 1Y1 tran�- n�rt�+ion 2Q. Th�r� �re nr�b�bl�� or;.!�;n�l shanes ,*:hi�h are no+. ar�*u] ar, rut i� se�ms i�r_1;J-�].v that an,* �+her s�Mn1e �h9rAc+Pr;.�+;c �.s so menerally t�rASP,Tl'f �S 'I'1'lfl;" ()f cirlf''UI£�.T'�t�r� ,,•r�iC�'1.�1S� '�".?'�@]'@fny�P� �f-1�� �a��S OF fi�l'IP., 1n,mi�f;,P,7'�S g+Uf�V. ITI . i�i�TFiOD AI'1D ?ESUI.,TS i( Q�-10211 1. `T'�'lE'nrPj-,i,C�1.��.1� ji-; lS �ng�'1h�.C? '�O ?TIP�i.S1�r(? ff.I1�r Y!1.7T'1��'.T' C)f' ST�f'('ifiC'. f'f',��;117'P.� nf' �?��nP� hl�'� a. T17'ACi'.l_C 31 ll_T111�'; 7 S S"f 11�r +.11P.. YJ2P,� Of' 1'P,r3S��''tir� t-' _z_ US(�S B � 73�-C (���''1`3fl'1�. arlr'� nf —1-YtE? flSP nf CiTMtT?Z.n ingtl^1]'-tE'r1�"S ��.. �PC�11S�', Qf' 'f'1�P, r1P,"-i7'fl1�7�.��'.zl nf' tiSl71�' A. COOr'C3l.n'�+'a S�rGi-nPt 7n �;?rl!� C�i7Tm.nnSi t�nc 11Yi�.jt 'F?M17n. C�?3?"�.C�'P7']..u'Fi r,c, �s�zrp �1t�f�n liS?fl presPnt s�heme. °i. �lC)P� T'Jh.l f`1� rr�atr 1-�e C?IZP.�7 i-l�t(? ?^O�'T��I1ecg rnfl`>> r�_ �. .TS R ,�1� �1I�"ljn� rl ig �he, ra.rl;t7s 7�' rtirlT?A'-la.re t�f, �-,ti1P gliqr�r>c+ C�P�*2IC?*?F?('i !�� E',(��'G' si�rl T' ic }-tiE', T�P,?Il , H,��1�5 (�f �s� i,Fg Tt�P, �'�.heT'� +hP, 'f'1.=tt;ne�� ,�a+jnYl� n�' �l�++inr� ;n t-hP i-hP nebbl e r2 `rl. IS } in .r,iY7i('?� r� -j� !-hr. rn.r�l17S n��' ('lar,r��L1T';? ;p ''�.lE? �1C?S"r R c�n;�rr_,- rl ' rar�f-; nn �iri '1'ha f'�1 ��'i-C:St; E�P,�'c;l ;>r�c-(' f'��E? Or F,Or1-i OTl Or f-,}in ���T'�tir(�, �t�.? P i c i-':,p �.t"'''P, =1S �"'P,'Ff)•^F. ' . i_. -. .. n., .�'_._ _ �.._...� / / ....�-r\ �, . , e � � . . . - _ , _ � , .. � : 1 ` . .. . �.�q.�i �!��r -f-.�'1c�, l)c;rn n'�' f�'P_, '�'.P7'['1 tt(�P.?Tf;�(�T)t?fa/I ,��,.i �t'�pTn*1'h 1S m�r�F? F.(` i��$f'+7"�`T�!l�1F1'Ff' �P,�"l"TE'F'�'� P.��'eS f111f1 f'faCP.fc r11�F "'�aipltr 1-.1� ?1�I"f1�7i'f' "1n�lflir�n�t-lnT1� ?"��'lir}� Ma�r ?�e r3� � P,(� C�F.�TP,� O�r;C3 � �i1't� 'f'.1�r1SP, n�"E'SC't'lf', nT'] f%l;' nY'1P'lTl�!.] f'^R,�+IaT'E'.(� y�1-PC8 =iYl� 1_1n+ C�IlE? �!-r1 +��p, ?"'nrl- pf' 1'l�c± +r�i.i'1F'1C1r'�'�nP' a�"F'I1?'. T'1'lf? 1*:'rl.�-v.r i S ,nrpl l'��:r''i7'P. �':l�a.'+' 'f�''1Fi !7I1f; ?T!1i8�; �C'. fi7'E1;1'rl �.Y'Ylli-rc��^i]_V ar('71'C��r�m {'n +btP. �U�1r'>mP,Tl� Of' P'�(`1'� ot�s�rver, btat ��e has noi- �ret b�en a�,l e t-.� �?e?�i s� a�e+,h�� �f P.1 ].m1.71`-'.+�27,? 1-l�� G ll?'��aP.,SI � EI.�'!� E A(?1'SnYl9-1 j'�C�'C�1'. A. i� �,�1,,,�;jTT,:,���.��i'TS ��F CTmV�Tt?,�y, f (g�-9611 ((omi++,P�?li(�In�+rt�'nE?YI'i' 'pn1^ 7nF��liririn +�71r� r+�f?'i'hn(� �f iiSA �" L)�n1"+i?'lfrl� F�.;tr1_�rs l (97-io21 � � ii��„j++P�ll �i-�l�++;ncr r��ta1+5 �fl m��svr�7'!�r�-s�l A F�'IFID STUDV OF TTiE S?IAr';�S Ur �.IVN',R :i'EBELI�S (( lr?;�-a l¢11 I . IT�TP,ODZTCTIQ2d ( (1�3-1��-i 1 1. ThP stv�ltir hPre renorted �rrqs ZandPrtaken in orcl?r �!-o de+�rmi.ne the rPl ati an retv�reen thP r�u�dness of pe�+b]es !3n� the !�i�t�nce th�zr ha�re l�e�n '�;T'tlnSAn�"tP,C� hv r�mni.n� w�.+�r. 2. Thnt nPr�les bPc�mP less �rd less ana�1�] ar �nd. apnro�ch roi�nc�?c3, spheroi.dal fnr?ns �.s thev tra�Pl f�rther �nrl f�r+her cloumstres�*n has l�np:. heen �n. ax�om in �eolo�*y 3. '�taa1.�+,�tivP]v, this fact is amnitir nroved b�� castaal field. orservati.ons �}, m� +he ti+rr� �Ar' s kn.rn�rlP�i �e, no quan+� +,�,+ 1�*e f� eld s+ta�lz,= h�s heretoforP been �ade of tti�i s re7 �t� on retlrrPPn the ro�mdn�s� and dis+..�nce. F. The ?��m;ter has bePn en��c*.ed for se�*�ral ve�rs in �-�neri.me�tal mP�sizremPnts �f ��hble rot�n�l;n�. 1 � 1�� 03�1?":rrnf,nrorth, �. i'., h. 7'-trnr�fnr�r and fiel�? stu�v of co1,��e a�ras��n: Jnur. r'rF±ol.oFrtr� ��1. 27, np. �n7-F21 a. The resi�lts of thPse s+»d � a�, t�rn,�h �f �ra_lre for co�z�a.r� sons, h��re �l,�rio,�Sl,v reen nnan +o +he rri+ir�sm nf be�.rm �l-�+o,;_�P�1 t�ndPr r�.Phlv ar+ificial �,on��t��r.s ��� kPnu�e nn+, hP;n� apnl��arlP +� fi.Pl� nrol,lems 6. `r'�"iP, Si'Ucj1r ��'T'f? I'P,nOr1-P,c� �'1�tS T'P.Y1C�Pr��1 9?Ta.11r�hlp �l�fa frOnt A 1£�2'�'P 7111tt1r9r nf me�s»remen+s of ri�rer bebrles �n� als�, +�r�ia�h c.ampar; son o�' +hPse �?�+a tirith +h? ex�eri~^Pr+�l ��+-a, h�� nrn,�e� con�lusi�*el.�r +1��+ +he i�v� set.s of re^ults 9re ir. close a�ree��r_t %. �Fll�}7 Z?�.�1��?�'11P, Tunr'}r PIBV 'I'hpr�?f nrE? 1-?P �nnF }i�t +1,F� �X?�C'r-jm�Tl' �.� ?ne't;�0!� � ?'rl"l'! C�'1 affords i,etter fa_r;.7;+iPs for �ori-rol. P. The fiela u�orl� on e��;rh th�s ns�ner ;s �+��e� �ras don� in corn�e+.ion Tv�th the in�es+ia�+ion of the co�l resnl�rces of sol�thvrPs+ern �ii,-r�inia un.�'er t-he d-irecti.on of N�. T�. Cartpbelli(lf?3�i II. T�HE FI�I,D((105-10611 1. ??iasse)1 rork of �ir� Sandsr pi�rer, i_n southrv?s+ern Trir�*�n-iR, rises on the north flank �f Rir� A T�o1,n+�;n, � himh noint on Sandt.T A;dPe, tia�h;cr lies 'hei-z��eer +ra C'lin�h n�ver c�rair!a�*P r�sin nn the s�u+,h an� +he R�� Sqn�3v ?�i.ver �r��nq�e ras�n on +re r.nrth. ?. ni�5se71 Fork f]ovrs in a�enPr�,l. n�rthe.rl�T �are�+�on ��r�ss nearl�T horiznri-a.l PPrnsyln�.n� an rO�.kc fr�m Ri c� A AFonn+,ain to 'fhe �reaks, YrhBT'P it ha� cut �, m�.�r;f �,�.; �n+. �*c�r�e thr�n�h +hP har�er rocks o? +he core of t?�e P�..ne IV. -4- T��lant�in ant;.cl�ne. 3. Re�rond P�r_e rFonn+a,in ii- ,-jn�ns o+her s+,rPams t-o f�rm R;_p� S�r_d�r niner, v�rh i.Ch i � +ri bti+�rzr +� i-he C11� i o. 4. The head o�' +he nArma�Pnt s+renm o�' �vsse7 1 For� i s �+ an P1 e�-ai-i �n ni aho»+ ?,60(� feet;. .r,. I'- fa11s ���,�t l,?.On feet i.n +hP f;_rst 10 milr�8 an� has a consid�rahljr lo�rrer P�r��lient. for t1�P next 18 o.r 20 m�lPsiil��l� rr�FTH(1D OP' �4"�(iRK( (1�6-1091) ( (o��++er� 1 � SIGT?IFI'CAI�?CE OF T;liSiJLTS((109-114�1 1. The f�rm ��' +��e �tzrve of �'��ure 41((n^'�1++P��! is �r�i�+ �rrhat miRh+ he exnecte�l , ex�et�{; +h�,+ +he + rar. s;.+,: �n fr�m +,he r+�pid rol�nd i np� re*�re- sentec� r�r t-.hP st�ep �ar+, to thP r10rP, Rra.�i�a1 chqn�e rPnres��i-e� t��.r +he fl�.t+.,er part ia more abrunt �-h�zn t�rolaJd be a.n+i�in�+e�. r�. It s�er�s t�rO��l�'le th�t the s+�F�er �Ari�; o�' �he c»r�Te r�nre��r+s +.,�P ra»n��n� of e�1^�ec ��jr snalli.ne� o�' �orner� an�3 tha+ +he f1 �tter n�rt renrc�sPnt� the Gl.otiver ro��nd�nm bV a�r-i.nd:i.n� proce.��, snallin� bei_n� ZTPY'�r rare after a cert�.i.n dPPree of r��,n�)in�* has been re�.ched. (llOgll h, Tn+er�re+.ation of +.he form of th;_s ct�r�=e is zr;tia�ed +,n SO'�P. ex+en+, r�r t�,e �h�.n�*�-nm of �r�r�; en+ r�nd coseq»entl�,* of �r; �1 ence �f trans- porfiati.on, �rr� ch the w�it.er has c�I l ed "ri�or," from one part of the s+rer�.m to �no+,�er. ((109-].1 pl � �. ******, it 5_s r_o+ nossihle �+ �„�esPn+ to correlate sl-ream ri�,or e_n� s+,rPqm p;r��ient, for thP ri�er �ro}�at�lv �raries �^,�it;h si�es of pbbbles tr�nsoorted ar� �r,r?th mar_�r o+her fac+ors noi; �ret determined. ((7.111) .� �, 3. � 0 u 1. n d �i .0 r_ 0 � 4 �n / £in "'1"OF • r��il.es (iro„�h i.�ea o�' m�r�re as mert���nPcl �n �'i�tte �1 �}����*ell �taJ ? . n�^�P 1 1� To ena.bel +�e re�c?�r to vi su�1� ze t�e r�a.+_,�z nres�nted i.n. a�ranh� n form, the �enPr�l shanes �nd der*r�es of rovn.dinr� no+ec� ,^:�i l l be descr�re�. ( i 7 1. ] i l a. At +he he�� of 1-h� s+ra�.m +he fr��inPn+.s are sh3rp-ed�ed . b. As +he stream ���r�s fo�.lot�rer� th� m,��-�i,al rolan�i.nr* of 1-.he edr�es lAras �1P^rl�r noticearl.e, e�en zR.ritholat m�kin� me�suremPnts. T�P snrfa.�es of +�� �eb�] es �re smo�+h an� shoti�r so�ne nol� sh c. ni- t�''P, l ol^rF;r ;'1'R-�-; nnc +ti+e nPY�hl c g arE; 711nc�ev"�+F,dV tinrell rrn�ndeCl, +.hnU(''h th� orim;nal fnrm s+.all ners�s'-s ;n ;ts esse�+i�1 oL?tl;�?s +�nra or.]v t;he �c)ri1�rS �„r� ed�*e� are a�re�t�.l,r �han�*ed. d. T`�nn_P of' +he T1i�'�es h»."e ne'1�"1'r fiti'fe rol7nCiness �r s�.rn,*'�?t��^'�r nf an e?'{';, or evPn th�t. of ».n �v�r�r*e no+a+o, P, ThF +nta] loss �_+' �^Te;+rhi;, a� de�»cec3 from +.he �h�r.�e ir shane and ex-+er�meni-�) stv�ies, aj*Pra�A� a��iat 6 T�er �en+. f, q fPtrr of the ner?�]es or �ohb1P�; ���r* e�T'1r7PprE% of fre�h rre+�l-s anc� of sh�nes r�s,a]+art from �r9,Ct1?Y'F S17�SPryt1�Y]'t +o +he�r rem��al f'rom -t-.he hea� o�' +he s+,ream. This nher_omen�n �rras suffic�entl�� r�re to k�e noti.�.ea�le i_n �oTMnarison �^aith +.he sh.Anes of mn�+. of +Y,e ne}->rles �'ar��red b•r abr�s-��re tuork onl�r fr�m +he or��;nal anp�ular form. �as h�s been *��ir+,e� ot�t- �hn�re, t-h� arra.sion �n +re tiamrlinP barrel v�ries tar��?eltr ,vit?� +he ntambPr and si.ze of �err]Ps usec� in it, en�1 i+ c�n no+. be e*�plovPd hv itself as a me��l?re �f 1-�e dis+a�ce nece��arv tn form rol?rded Abr?-�les ur�er natlaral �onc?.ii-i_ons.�(llli) �t � � 7. �? . q� �n. - F- LJS �sS P . 7 �iQ-C, a. Rornev � has c�lled �z++ention +o tr�s f�c� �r_� -F-� +he �rade�uacv of' such meth�d s�,n �_��t;ermir.e +.h� r�+e of roun�; r_r� . i� 17.1-112� i :i ( 11] l nor_ne�r, T. �r., f`?�snrT-r�+;nns an thP rnl7n•';r�* nf 'C�E'�Y��P,� i�zr A1P�ne .ri?T?rs; rTeol. ��am�, d�>c. 3, vol. 5, nn. 5�-�1, 1F�E?�. b. NP �nr�ni- fvrther, h�tnrener, �zn� �oncltac�ed that. +�ie �brasinr. of ar_r*ul�r b7 oc1�-s in a revolv; n� e�,Tl inder ; s not of' rrenera) apn7 ; �at; on reca».se th� �n1v sort of .r�.?rer vrork simil�r to �t � s the �rr�s ; nn of pebblPs in notho?es. ((1121) c. Th�s ��n�]usi.on th� WT'7?"P,r �an r_�i-. accent, beca»�� the comra_rison her� ?nac3e o� +,�!.n �'o_rms o? +he fi P1� a.nd exnerim. en1-.�..1_ ctarves nro�•es concltisi�relv th.F e�sP�tial s�_m�larit,y of +,he fip1�1 s�nd experimental nror,esses for streams af +he �enr�r�l t�rnP of T�i�s�ell rork. d. It �s tr»e t-hn+ in t�,P +t,r�l-]inm ��,rrel +he ,arork ��ne Zs almost �1J.T"P �hr�s-ion 3n�i impa.�+, ti�.�herea.s in th� s+rPam i-�ere �.rP in a.��?i+�.or. the ef�'ec+s o�' wea+herinv�, sia�h ac crac�k-in�, crl�m�l�nc�, �n�1 snallinrr off �{' f'l�kes, �.ur�ir,r* thP r�P���rs in �r�ns,'+., e. T1'IP, T^P.1"i'10!� Of' �'1'!P, +LR'1!'�1171? ��3?"T'P,� -I-rf?rF;f'l1rE? goFmS i-Cl }�P, nf fAr 1nllfj@Y' AT�p11Csi'f-7.0''' +}'1�.J1 �'1`_�S }79�"P.,i-nfnt^P, �i1P,P'Yl 't-j'?r�ticrl-i1-� aT!(j �� 112P.,(jg n72��r i;0 }'1?4f: Z?;S Y'f]i'P, (jC,''i'P,Y'[Tl7?'12(� �V Cpml'1!i)^c1�;iVP, "�P,z1S177'P,^±P'"�'�"S 7P. ��'Y'P.,Fimc Of' (�1f'`81'A21't so,-+,s +o be��me of consic3er�ble �alve. �ne of 1-he *�?o�+ valta�hl e�nn1 i c^+; o��s ��' +he roi,�nciness-� i s+�nce r,ur�a -i s an C!BtP,r?T!'171?YIP' i-1'iP, �i e't;�'!�CP CeY'i"'�i'�"i ')f�l�'nl �c 1'I�ZrP., i-rta�rP1 �Ci. �lz* a T*'@�1517.7'��T1E'71'F, Of' f}"tP�Y' 1'01171f�T!F;FS. The ��er�,mP 0rr07' f'or a11 si-a+mons, ?1 in num'her, 1Ata.s foi�nd +.,o b� ?�! �er �e�nt. fi. `�'hP, �P,�'P,Y'T111YlAt-�Opi� f(�r fn11Y' nf' t�'1P Si;'�'�1QY1S WP,?"@ 'tTF'r�,T �;rr�ti('� !11rJ'i�'1P'� iTl n=�.rt at least, tn +.re 1zsP nf a sma]] n»m?�er o�' nP��les--nnl,r fiu� �,t or.e s+ation. l�. '^�;+h thesP fo,�r �+�t;ons omi+,te�, +1,� a?*�ramP error �,�as onlv 11 ner cent;. Tt m„s+, 'he understooc� t.hat +..�; s f� �*t�re rPnres�ni-s onl,y +he error dne t;o ti*�r;�t�on. of hardness an� of in�?��*;.�i��l histn�r �+. ea�h �f +he s+qt.�ons, t�P nerfect�.on �f +,�e Cl�r?tP, as dr�z^.m be�nv a.s�tamFd, �+,her fla�tors +,h�+ ,,���„ld affec+, sta�h a �3ei-err_iirR+�or_ for r��.terial f'rom othPr s+rPams are �zs fo1]ows: ((nt�mbers from Bull.il l. The comna.ra+,izr� ri s�or of t;he ttrne o? sfraam �rd the ianirn��rm st-re�tn ��Jill affe�+ t,he r�tio o�' rorn�neGs to disi-�.nce verT�* cons���rahls. The l.nr�er iea+tares of rel�+ior_ Y��tv��ePn p�rac�ier_t an� load, o� the onP hand, a,n� ri�or, on the nt.hPr, car. he inti*es+i ��t�� bt! �.o*�ri_re�� f3.e] �l anrl l.ar�r�t�r�r s�;ta��r. ( (11 Pl ) ?. ThP �.omnar�tavP �ura.bi.1 i i-..r of t�P n�?�b1 es o�' +.,hP s+rearm used for the ttTpe of r,tar,=e �n�? of those�,,Rfio�e �; s+�nce o+' +ra�rel i � t� bP c?e+erm�ne� can e��ily be asePrt�;ne� P,'rP?7'lm�n+r�ll�,r.(fll.;�ll .°i. `i'!'P, P.f'f'P,C� Of' n7'] m� Y1�1 �11�'�a? f�1'I �P, l qraa,l V i 711''P,G'f'i o�?3�!-.P,(� P,Xn� rimr p?'?.] �'tr �. T�P, P,fff;l',-�. nf' 710T1�'ln'nC��'P.?2P,0115 S+'�"1�Cf11T'P.� Sf'1�.1.gi',nS�'i;V� P.'f;C, �(`A?1 9.� Sn �"1P. P.'r7£il l7'i+P,C� 'f,n 3 Z.?7'(r'(; P,3C't'.P,n'1- P,X1�PrlT?tP.ni-s�� � V. �Tra���a a/�,'�-e tables sho-.,,�r_r� .+,he �1;s+,a�noP neb�]es of a �Pr+�;n �ize Anc� Tf19�E�2'lE�.l fire C%],�"?'1P.C� �Pf''�1'P }"1P,i?7.fr n�]..11-�;r�i-P,�]� rUi' �"?.", f1nP.S r!C)f; g�4-.�1-.E? �;;rh�f mP+},�d Z�r�s us�d �n obt-a�nir� i-:�aGF ,-esla'1i-s. ((7�:�11 �fi�3i����z15�ta, 4. '��t., Prin�i.n7.Ps �fl s+,-�.+.i�rar�hv, n. ?47, 1�1;?. Th,P 9�'1(14P P,S1��T?£3�';P_,5 171(�7Ca+P. �rE'1^'r i•n.��rfPrt-.1V SO?^_P. ()f' �-}lE? i.?'li"8�"T1]'P•i:A.f�.(7Y1S ttrYt.l �'h. Illfl?r �?P. T^f1C� P. ZrF r'r ?+117('1� 17l(�rP. AC(`taT'? t'E?1.V �'-'i-p7' � 1"J�PY� i'�'1f' f;�Tfl.� ll�{'1.OY1 nf' mnrP o�" t'�� t�?Z�r_rn��n fa�tnr� hA� ?,��n arc�r,t�lis�ad..(�11411 10(',�1.1'f',1C'S 4J1'1P,7'(� T"c�('1.'S O'f' ?qSllzr 7(�@'"�'f'1f'7.Et�3�e f'!r'�P..� C7'On nt7f 1Y' f`�.C;^''IZ! � ' � c.!-rf.Amg n�?-i�l'I P., P?�?.'_P,r'i s�l '".'j"li ('h �nn hP, (j.1 �f� TlP'l7� S�'lf?(� defzne� arPas a.n� fi�rr.� sh to from l�ral. ronlrs �re r_ecessarzr _f'or fiari-r.er f i.eld S+,t�c�ies. f - 30- � 0 � US GS B. 1 n� � BiTLI:FTIP1 1�2 A BRIEF COPdTRI�iTTIOTd TU TH� GEOLOGY AI�TD PAL�OAITGLGGY OF T?U?�TIiG'dES T �?N LOi?IS TAtTA r.:r T . '.'7�s�1 and jTaue�hen TTni.+.e� fitates �eol oai �al St�r��ev Cha.rl�s �. ���'al��t+�, Pire�tor F'•. ((Bib. rP�'.. Pub. o�' thP �',. S., �,��y 19fi�: *142. A bri�f c�ntrahtation +,o tt,e �eol��v an�l *�a.le�ntolov��r of narth- �ves+.err. I:ovis;ana b�T m. '^T. jraut�han. 1�P6. 65pn., 4 pls.)� l�J , F . • .. . r .. .. , - . _ ' . . . - � O USGS B. 14? A BRIEF C(�T.fTRTBTTT_IOI�T TO TN� Gr,OI:OGv AI��n P�LEOPITOLOGY OF NORTFi`M`�STERN LOt1ISIAT�1� by T. 'V�v] �nc� Ttau�*han TTpi t;P.Cj S'�'�-li-pg rreolo�; cal RUI._I !��TIFa Zn.2 1�96 ( ( 11_Al?Straat r1�fiPs �� na.g� r�ferences �. . . . . � - �hr�cl-=+s S urve�T 1� - f'(�r�+'1n+�g nf Rt)1�P,1-in ..........................................................,.............. (�Pa�es l-l�: ��TTer, +;tle �a�*e, oor_+en.+s, l;�t of illtzst-,-a+i�ns, �r_cl le+ter of tr�nsmit+a1.11 PP.EFA.TORY g�OT�((11.-12)1 1. Th_e fol.lov�r-ir�p' short pa�er �*i�e i-he re�ults of �ome stiadies +,ha.t- I ha�*e mu�le on the �*.eol���,* anc� naleont;olo�v of northlRrec+ern I.:oi�isian� ?. This con_tril�utior. i.s 17ec`�Ss�rilsr af a fr�ffmPn�t;�rv nature, nartl�r on a.ccolir_f of t�±e cond�+�.ons under ti:�r�.rh i-he stv��e� ha�r� reen nrnSPCl1+P,� an�' partiv frc�m �n en+�_rP la�k of to�o�^ra*�hic mans of +.�P are� disc�iiss?cl. :�. In +he Americ,an r,P,O� Op'� S+ f01^ .ADrll , 1t�9�, T published � p�nPr en+,itled "The s+ra+i�rent�v �f north�a�e�t,ern I oiai si ara: �. `�'rP �r�a+er part of +.h�+ p�n�r, �*rit;h so�e �rerhal �han��s, is ren,��]ishecl �c�re as � s+rati�*raph;� ;.n�todvr,t�on. 4. �r. '"lilliam �?. �a11 h�s nren�re? � n�per, ,.**hi�h t�:�il] nroba?�7v ax�near i.n the F1��,,+Pen+h Ann���1 �enor+ of +r� C11Y'TrP,s�� c3eal�nr� -rrith �-he nomennl�+ttre a�n�? correla+ion of thP Ter+j_qru 1�eds of +l�e TTn;tec� fi+a_i es. &. Tn +�'li5 rnn'-r����+,� nT] �r. D�� 1�'1�35 �1'ln-•-n 1-'n�i- +Y�P Zrlrlrc�l�r9` �n�� f�'?.E' rTr3nC� �=11�.f' 9T1� j-�'1P, tlE?�S �'11.{'.1�P�^i-n f�.8t10T^JY?S'FP.t� IAt":rpr �q7_OC^Y�A Sl�nl7�(� �P, (;nng�.C�E'1"P,!� �l; ��c�n?, t-.�P �'i rs+ 1,el�r_�in� +n +re T o1r:�P,r �l.�.m�r,�ne ard i-,re second to 1-1�P, TTTJ7IE'r' n].i_.p'n(`"YIP r. Trrol��*h t.hP �rn�r+Ps�r �� nr, P,�1�, T h��e ti+,ili�Fcl �h�t e��.ssifieQt;on i]'1 i;11P, PrP,sP,n'I- p�T?P,]' .�� l7 i 1 S TRAT IG? ,`�PHY OF TH?, REGI OT? ((1 ?,- ?71 � I . AR�A DEFIr?�,D( ( 7.?.� � 1_ .'�?�e �.rea. h�rP �es�ribe�i � s t��' �or+-•�or. of I o»isiana �o,ar�?Pr� in a�Pner�l Z'QfiV Zl�r �{;1'�F �t")'�ngac qrr� `i'P.XAS Si'fl.�.P, �1TI�S� �V fr!� ntl�.�}"11.�"A PiZrF'.1' P� f'Fxl" SO�If']'] ti5 H`-1T"'19(1T1�'ltlrp'� 1'�TyT i� ljrA ?'1l?'�ni�n' �{'�aY1C9 {C? 4.j8YaT'!�Pl.� !�n -f-1'�P. �*'f?C� R;_zrAr, �.T!r7 -I;j�PnCP, Y�C)r+Y?P,BS+ ?'(i f? T1niY�i ?r,rP,S'�'" nf' 1�!'�.nSfi(1Cj nTl '{"1']F' �Eil"3'1�1�' T?it�er. 2. This �rP� h�s r�en +1�e snl�-ie�+ nf �tt��v rj.r sP��era..l PP�lo�;.s�"s �. f`on�ac�, �s e�rls- as 1�34, 1/ annnt,nce� the ex;.s+�ncP of tre FocFne in it from fossils sent to him b. Later ?ii1 �ar� , Honk; ns, �Tohn.s�n, I�r�h, K�rr� s, and T'c�eP h».z*e done f. i eld tinror_k therP 1 12. Jotar. Acaa . TT�t. Sc-i . Phil�.., �To7 . VIT, 1R'�4, p. 120 I I. TFi� C RET.AC �OT?S ((1 ?-14 i 1 1. Tre n]L7. ci-qnr+P nf �re+�.�eo�.a� s+,r�+a ;.r_ I ou; si �n� was f; rst .ind.i snntarlv ec+�'r]isr�c� l�v �r;7.m�rd ir_ 1£'6�. 2� ? 1? �'r�'lZ.�,ir,�_r-�- r�pnrf o�' �. �'Pnl.oc-ic•?l r�rorYt�7:'sa,�,r�((�i,c'ii of T on� gi xirlri: 11a '3ot'�t �"P„� �'r].f,3r�5 1?P�*; F,.r� SPn+n.nl�e.r, 1�6�`, �. 11 2. S„?�,�,rry„�,-,+l�r unnl-;�s, .Tohnsor, f're+ac�Prnas �.n tre St�zte :i. ?�r. I erch �ives a 1 i st c�f +:hP rP,�Or�i-. �� L1T�0]'1 +h8 ?'P,o] O�r O'f' �n� I �r�h hti+�� no+c�� th� o�currer_ce of 7ocal�+ies o�' +hesP rocks in h-i.s nrelim�.narv +t�� hi lls of I oizi s-i �na. :� 1?. �i nrel;mar.�r�r renm-t i���7, +t�e h;71s of Iot�;s�an�: Rt�liP+in of t-he I n,,� �; �rs rxn�r;,r+e•,tal Stai-.; nn, 1���, P�rt 7T, n. 72. - �- e�. rr�+,�cern,� on+�rons h�?*e hPPn floi�n!� in nor+t�_arn ro��i_�i�-±a, i.n +i�P par�s�es o�' ''r�bster, �;Pnville, rTa+�,hi+���ec, "?ir_n, �nc� rapicles. �. Nilr��rr� observe� +,1�a+ th�GP oia+.crons ��hen m�nne�? form a 1ir_e tren�?in� f'T'O?n. Y!O�'i:h,,�rPs+. to sotat?�east. � 4 1� On. cit., p. 11 6. Pssociated ��rith them �r� salt cieposii;s; h�rd. l�me�tone, slalAhur, an�l m�Tnsir�! are nnt �nf.reqvent. a.. �n secs. 31 an�l 32,, T. 1Q I�?. ,'�. �- �Y. , ne�r /�tlanta, 9n '.r,rinn Pqr9 sh, 1-�ere out�rops � hard b1�aP 1�me�+one, u�hi ch � s fT'f3't7PY'SECj hv M� rna+e flSsvrP,�. h� T� +hesP f�ssure� a sr�a71 r�mo»nt of o�o]�l o�etars. 7. Tn these roclrs rxo��rr� �ostata �as been found -------- a. qs thisj't�ossil -is charac+eris+�c of +hP rTlauconi+.i_e division o£ the TTp�er !'.re+.�neoi,s, the si-rata. in I,o�x; G; �n� b�arin[� i.t- mvst h� considerec� aG of �7�vconitic �.c�P. ((12i1 1�. ��il�a?-d 1� ment�or_s CTrvnhaPa �itcl�eri also; bvt he is z�i+.},ov+ do�zbt mi s+��ren ;n h� s identi.f; ca+; on, :�s �. »;.+cl�Pr� 'is � rom�.n�he s�r� es --_--- fossil, �n�? cloes no+ occ»r ;n the TTA��r �,-Pt�ePo�.�s ( 13 , ]. 1� DY'P.11.*�iinar�r T'P?�Or'�F nf' a�*P,n�Q?1C`fl.l 7'P,COT!71015��lY1C�?���S�ii nr Io>>i_siana, p. 11. R. mhP relat;ons of +he FocPr_e +o +?�e r,�•etaceo„s, as conce�t*ed. b�r Fion�i.ns,?/ �re s.h.n,�rn ir a secf.;.on across thP St�+e, p�a�li �hed in h� S fi.rsl- ra��ri;. �13 F;_rst Anni,�l Reno,.� o�' +hP �'eolo�i�al. fii?r�e�r of Lon;.siana, n. 78, in i-re j,ouisi.qn� S+�,te TTni�r�rsitv neno_rt for 1�69, nvl�lishecl 1�70. a. ue i.n�icates that therP are lrnohs of Cretaceoiis, ar�und wh�cr the. Focene ;���s d.e*�ositecl, bi�t �oe� nnt sta+,e expl icitl,y the rel�t� ons Px-i.st� n� betiueen }he -tti�ro seri es . Q. Dr. 2,erch 3/�'i�es the folloti:*in�* exnlanati_.on: ��1:�, A nre) iminar�T ren�r+ unon the h� i's oi I,oia� sian.a: T�U].7 e+-i.n of +he I o,?i si�na ?�;�n�r-i�ent S+atic5n�; 1F�93, }'ari; TT, n. 72,. "If tAre corne�� +he a'�ozre lo��li+ies zve obt�in an ir-r��izlar line ��rit-h a north�^�e^terlv t�er_d, reTreAli.n�* 1-he di.stribution �f the Cretace���s depos�ts in nor.+.� I oiaisi r�na a.s f ar as exnlored orer I�OOO "f'P,P_,"I' in Lhi_ckness. rTo��rhPr� o�a+s�de of +he ou+crops h�tre t,or�s reac�.hed +he �rPi-.eceovs, no+ e�*�� in .+.�e ne�re�+, �rici.ni.+zr; �Tel1s of eor_s;.clerable �epth �,ave nene+r�+ec� .+.,he s��1es of +1,P Loti;*er I;_�n,'+:i.c a�.nd T,'ar-i_.r.e flai.b�rne �rhich sUrroland the�e isl�nds. It i � mo�+ »rol,a.ble, ho�rre�rer, th�t a.t; Shreveport the artes-i an bore, 1,100 flPP,.'?� in depth, has �enPt-r�+ed +he _Terti�rzr stra+a, �nr� +.,h�,+ i},e wa.ter floz�.rs f,-�.� trP TTpner C'rPtaneolls �ands. <Tla��i,no� from +,t�.P �ores anc! exnoslares of i-1�is sl�bstrveture of I o�zi s; ar.a, �nd_ excltac�in�' +he �verl.�ri.n� 1�ter d��os�ts, it renresc�nts a r-i.do�e ��ri+h steep h3_lls;des and occ�si on�l h-i a-h pe�ks �F.r�+}, �lr�ost per�en- d; cular decl i?ri.ti es. Th.e rxor�vra costa+a �nd the rTrunhaea pitcheri., fo�md in close nroxim.�tv in these oiat�r�ps, as well, a.s — — — . the �oaene di_rec+lV overl�Tin�; s�nd rPs+inr� aP��ns+ the �retacPoi�s, seem to nrove that at the close or 1!"e�sozoic time e�nY"nOlJS pintoni_c forces COnZr�]1SP,G�, frac+»re�, f�talted, an� folded i-he �reta.ce�las stra+,a, +hro��in� ian mount��n chains of �ast extent and r�.isin� them fAr aroZre the �.^ra�`ers of the Gialf. Tt seems to us more +han po�sible th�.t thesP �rand disturbances involve the ��hole o�' th� Soi�thern Cre+aceoias, �nd 1-h�t +,he �not-r-ioias dontnth..row alon�* +,he Ralcones �nc] the basal+,ic oi�+brea.vs �1on�* tha.t fa�a7.� are �ontem�or- aneo�as �rri.+,h +he ori�,in o�' the x�ro�Z�-tz��n- eh�.fimR��rl i;he Tertiarv of th.at Stai-e and of Lo»� siana. In the basir.s �n� eml�atm?.er_ts formed the Foc�r_e s+ra+,� �nrere c�e�osite�l, +he ver�T exi stence of which �roves _ 3_ US GS B. 14 2 th�t the�e is�as no ;nterna]. of a land pPriod l�et�ve�n 1-hP �re+-a�e��?s �n� 'r'er+i?rsr ir_ t;h; s G+�te, and if �;�e �niil� retTove 1-he co�er-inr� m�nt� e�*�p �Frt�1�1� s�-� fhe �ha.-ins anc? pe�ks nf li*^es+,one rqn�es forrrP�i a'- -�hP c�los� of +�?e ?T; ��1� 4mes of otar nlan�+ al�er?d som��rha+ h.r 1�tP7� erosion. ar� clenl�ci��-��.on." 1.�. I�m not prepared t-.o nc�ree �^r�+h nr. I�errh �s to +�A �orr�l�+�.on of the rlig+l�7'�1811CG ll'1 I011ici.A.Tlfl S17CrG'P,f�ipm t;l'1P CZOSF' qi' �4-}'�P, (;rp1-�,C'P.nllfi denos;+i�r_, rr;_tr t�e +.;mPs af f.h� Rq]�nnes f�ul.tin�^ �n�? +.he Pa�lot unob volc�ni� a�.fi�ity. � 4; 1? The �ilot �nob �Tolcaro tin�a.s 'i�"n}'?flY��V a�t;i�*e d,�r;rv ia�;e �re+a�eo,�s 1-;-�P, ti�rhere�s +�e ?��lcones, f�.�Zl+;n� +.,001� �.la�e m,�ch la+-�r. 1� . 7�ri17 Pmnh�size +h� fo] lo�r.�ir�* fa�+s, hov��P��er. a. The �rn+,a�eoi�s ota+.,cro�s in +hP F�1P.,A unaer dis�u�s;nn hQ�,e a��ner�l soiathe=��t an� nnri-h�est t-renci, 1^rith l�nohs �r oeavs nr��e�+ina_� a.lon� �h� li.r.�, r�.nd arol�nd thes� lrno'�s th.P '+�oer,P has be�n. c�enosi+,ecl. b. The o�c�arr�n�P of r�an_�r of +,hes� r�rojecti.n� nea.lcs woul� ind-i_cate a perioc� �f erosion i.n+erveninm be+tveAn. the rlose of �re+a�eot?s anc� the beP;inn;.n�^ of �;ocene.((1?)) c. F?t*-thPrmorP, +he �ref�ce�us at thP '"Tinn U�rish m�rble q�a�.rrv as �I.m�ost hori zont;al., 1-�,e 1�*�eston� ri sin� as a buttF-live ma.ss �nto thP roc�ne. (iI3-14)i d� If there ra� been a mo�.�nta.ir_ ch��.n, �� nr. I,Pr�h m�i�ta�ns, tiaith thA roe�ne cleposited immecli�.+,�1�r thereafter, be+'nre erosion had c�er�rac�?c9 the l�mes+,�ne, +he �'rP+a�eot�s ro�� �+. t.his nl��e shoi,ld re�resPn+, ei+,��r a�o-�A or �an Ani-i.cli.ne, riat su�,h is nn+ the r,�se. (17.�� ) e. >4nnnre.n+,l�r +,re most l or�; ��i Pxn] ��,�+; o� n�' .+.�P rP? �t; �n �? +t�P ('r�i;fl.�P.�l7S fo +he ro�Pre is t.ha+, s� ]�nc� p�r; ��1. fo11n`�rec� +'.:.e close nf' -{-1'1f' �P,�OS1.?"�OTl O'f '}'b,� r0('trS t1P�01'ip'?1'1�' +n �i��P "(»'mPr SAr'+P,S. III. Th�, TERTIARY((14-25�1 TIiF EOGr��'E, ITS CIiARACT��.S "�"?D DIS^n.IF�TTTIOI�?( (14-241) 7. T'nP �;ocene o�' Lo�,; s»na ha,s reen t�ha Gv�.iec� of m�r� or le�s stiac3�T ez-r�r s�n�e �onra�l, in 1F�:i4, annotanced +l�e ?x;.�+ence ��' s+raa-� �f +,h�t a�*e in 1-hP 5+�+� 2. Thes� Y�e�s are comnos��l o�' li�*n�.+i� �l�vs anc� Sanc�s, +.he s�rds of'ten cross bP�lrleci, ,^.�ith +he ;n+�rst-r�tif;catinn o" '�n�'s �PA,"inm a lit+ora7 f�iana; 1-he fossi.li.fPr�„s be�s arP o�c�a.s;onal��r imt�i,re li-rF�+one. ?. Ann�r�nt-l�r bP�s -in one n]ace re�rir�* mflri�e t'ossl.ls ma�r ;n �+h�r t�la.ces 1,e r�presented b�� berls o�' th� sa�� aa�e c�ez*oid �f animnl r^m�i~�s; +.h�refore �.f is n�t �zt. nres�n.t. no�si',7e +,o slzbd�v;de an�? �c�rr�Ia}e •,-;th ac�urac�•� �7] o�' +he strafia belon�;n�* tc� +�?� �'oce�e oer;od fo�an� in Io��isi.An� 4. T�e folloti��inv� �r� a�nroxi?ra�P1_.�r +he ]im�+..s o? .+.he a.reQ occupied bv the s+rata belo�c�ir.?� +o i-�_� s per; o� �n I:o��i.�;.ana: �. (�n +t�? n.�r+h ?�r_d �.�.,est 1-hP T'ocen� �= tl1i� Stafe is oon+i.nuoi�s t�r;+h +h:�+. of Arlr�ns�s an� TPxas, b. On +re solith ibhe hot�r,�?�,-�• ,:$ fo?-rzec� b�r +hP rr�.n� �ulf �li�oc�n� C. 2'}'11 g i�� l?'l�f�F'?rP 7�Ari-inrr rl7Y!S f'l"C?7'fl E3 '�BVT ?T!� ] P,S Snll.i'j'1 �l!' '�'OSP,r'1 P..� C� � 1I1 ('�fffl''1�171'� ps'Tich� j'1z,r (',E�7!i;AT?r1.Z�.P,� i.T'1 'f;1�P SBTP_� T)��"7Sh� C?"OSS7.Y1�' 11.'�'FZF.. �?�trE?Y' S O7' 6 2P_l� P,S �P.]_O�^I iiBnY'F'E'.t:0��.71� 7'f'.Etl'1"?ll"1�' +hP. T�2� Ri.VE'T" � P.1]� f.'S nnr+h or Colft�Ry -in �Tr�n+. pa.r�sh, �n�? +h� S���ne ri.�*er ne9r th� 2Tl�l��'1'] �f' Fis�.VOtl TTP.f*r11+•. 1� l 14 ��io'?iE? Ofl �'1�c� qhp?TF� i�a+'� '-lrf? -f;9�'P.77 fr(�m T�(�tnlrir!5: ?' j'"�i- �1ri''1.�7t�1 �'enor+ �r j o,i' s; ana S-t-�i-e rxA�l o�i.ral. Su.rt*�jr, p. g�, f'c�r 1869, r�i�',l; she�t 1F?70. -�- F. �lr, 1 er�h h�s d.i�r�.de�l the �o.r,ene 3s f'o1l ows: Zjl CIrS�U7"p' c1�C�'SOTl �rca�li � clavs TTn*�P,?' Z ] m7ll+i_C T�arir_e Claibors�e I<cn�.er I,i�niti.c � � Prn�ris �_�n�l names l 6. The follo�r�in� srheme -is �aSPd in. +�;_s p�ner: ((1�1� roc�ne: . �Ta ckson (',p�.�Tgf i P,] (j F@T'Y'�T bP,(� S� P.nl71ST�].2rf � ]_?� '�. �*PT1P1"�1 V�IaV� fn +he rlail,�rne sar_�ls of Alal�»*nal Iovr�r Claibnrr_e, ;ncl.u�;_r.a� �s±rea�sellaef�rmis berls, I;�'�nn beds, a.r� '�iahrs-F.�ne. I�imni_+i c ((a��1 A. LIGPIITIC STAGE((1�11 . 7. Tf tY�� 5 forma�2on�,occiars in I oia� si �n�, it. ; s on]�T in the n�r+l,,,,,rPs'-ern �nrn�� of Cadca� Par� sh and �r�b3ti,l�r �+ St,retrenort ?. I hr��e s�en a.t Pori- r��d.o L�nd�nv�, ;r� Fi�rrison �ot�nt�r, T�x., �R�hich 9d;oin.s l`acl�o P�r;sh, strata 1-hra+ I consi_der Iimr_;t;c. ]� �15i� 4m. freoln�i.s+, ?ro�. X??'T, nn. ���_30�, �ToT-embPr, 1P�� a. Tf +h; s noi nt i.s conneci-.ed �r�ifh +h.e no� n+ ,,�1,_e•-� T"r. fTar,-;_� t s T;c*n�.+i�.-�'la;horne pAri;;nc, as s?��zr.m on his *�ap of sol�+h�rn Arlr�ns�.s, re�rt�e� +.�e Arka�s�s-I ota� sia�na St�+e ] 9.ne, �i; nrill he se�n t�a+. t�?.e nnr+r�.�,�c�s+..ern corn�er of C;addo P�.rish is m�s��': prpY�9hlzr I:i�rr�1;1C. ��. I h3�*e n�i- b,�en ��] e to exami.n +l�a+., a.rea B . LO�I� ,T'�;�? CLAIBC��I�E STA�'TL ( (15-21) ) 1. This st;a�e cozrers bsr far the l.ar�es+ �r�� of anv of the stabc?i�*�.s�ons �f +,hp FOCPI7P, ir1 I,Ovi s'I �.nt�,� a. Fr.+�n�in�* so��+.h from the Arkansa.s line to �eor�eto�+m, on Iit+-1e ni�rPr, to St, T,R:�lxrice, at t1,e mouth o? S���ne Rauotz, on t�e ne�l i?i_trer, �n� to Pro�encal, on +he Texas an.d Pacific T'�-il�:�ra.y. b. Io�T�r C,lait�orne fos��1G ha�Te ���_r, roi,nd ;n �3oss;er, „rebs+Pr, C1.aiborne, Ri.em*�lle, Jacirson, ,,"ri.r_n, TT�tchi+oches, and �rr�nt ��r?shes. 2. In nla.ba.ma � the lo�^,rer C,'t �i?�n�� ; � �;tr� �ed into-- Os-!-r�a s!-�11 �.�f orm_i s bc��? s. I,; Gbon be�l s — Bta�rstone 9, ].,ri �(`-• Tl• T-Tc�rric: q2?!• Joi,r• S('l�� �.D�"��� Z��i�• SP,P �1�.8() .S'P!�i-�'?. '121� Johnson: ??iz�.l.. T'. S. �eol. Si�.�re�,* T?o. �3, 1F�87. 3. In T�� ss� ssipni nr. �-i 1 ma.rd '�/ d;�rides .+he rlaiborne, rP) nvr i-re I� �nitic bea at tr.� bace of t-he Jacl�son, into-- (_'• &.�. C A, r ,P, (�1l S S'! � 7..CP.Ong ( 1 qi_t?Or2'IB 3 15 1�1�ric. and �eol. o�' rR; s,�., k860,p. 108 � _�_ USGS B. 142 �. Smith � wrii�es: ��, 15 ,�ial�.. �. S. �Teol.. Surve�r �To. 4'i, 18£?7, n. 2.5 �rFr�.*, +1'1P, SP.C''i np m�ZTP.T'1 � 71 �� � P"-_trC�. � 5 rP_,�O'"}' � ,' �- gonmg '{"1"lf?.t; 1}1(? P11(��ZP '.�fll"� O�' t"7h?'f' 1^IP, �'].fl.�Tg CS��P,� "f"�f? r.la.ihorne SP,1''iPS� cor�f:aininp� ��e �re?+ nlam?��r of (1s+,re� se] 1�e�'ormis, `l.�'P i-.�e �eds of +he !'�1c�ren,�s �l„r;sion��hest de�*ei.opec� ;.r. +h�.�+-. st-ate. 5/ 5 1� �hP �a.u+h�,- ;s n�+ �ltos�e+h?r �ez�t,ai� e�iotlt Sm;+h's correl�+ion F, TrP S�li�eoias rl.�i�+orn.e renresen+� ir_ ls�r�e nart. +he �iahrs+o�±� of a,la,�am� a. ?'hi � form��;_on in �Iabama an� T°i.s�; ssipA�. recei�r�s ;+s name ?]"nm the peculi.ar l�tholo?-i.c �ha,��c+ers �f �+s constituPnt ro�Us, •��h.;�h �.ave no co�an-I-erna.r+ in Iou-is-iana b. As +,t,e R,,hrsi-nne in -�hese +Uro States �.9 not c�ar�c+-�ri.zec� t�.r zve11 nreserjre.� fossil or��ni�ms, ;t is r_�+ po�s�rl� +o ma,kP anT,r �,rec�se corrPl a+,� on,s,in the I oua si ana. aec+i �n F. 'PI�F' 1^ecr-ipn i11 •••'•,iCh I.O�ve.r f'IF��?�nrnF fnegilS ha•*G �hA�'•n fo1�7��1 l�.a� 8.11^a'a!'lv be�n �_nd icated. 7. The f'o] lo��rinm are +hc� �ennral litholos�ic chara.cLers nresented b�r the s� a�e � n I:ou-i siana. ((15i 1 a. In ('n��o and PPSoto nar; shes �nd ;n TT�fch;+.pches Parish � as far sou��. a.s TTictoria this for^�.a,tion is rP,T11'PS� rl�.e�3. 1��� 1-icn�t;i.c s�ncis �and clr�vs de�r�;cl o�' m�:r�.n� foss�ls, btzt 1��nit,iferovs s+.,r�ta orrur t-hroua�holai; +�e whol P ar�a nf +. rP LO�T_P.r Claiborne. ((1�-16� 1 8. 9. 6 1�, Th;s n�rt of th� I�irreN Claibarne is �tilmard's T^P.nsf;.�ld �*roup. t�. Tn Rossi�r, r1 a;horne, an� R; �nn;1� e P�zri shes f�sai 1 s a.*-e found �5 ��sts �n sar.�?stone �nc� .as ferr�ls�ir.otas renl��empn�s. �(16�� C. T]1 '''Te}�S'!-pY'� �?i.P1'�V�.�.�F?� �71� cT%l(:�'gC)rl T�+-l�"�.5�^P,S ��"IP, ?O�S��S �Y'P USLIH.�.��r nr'�;'��YlBf! �"' �'lzLl7CQ21'1.+1.0 S'�Yl(�S� �1i-1Zclti�*h '121 '-}'lP, 1'.taln 1£�S+ nr�rich.�'S '��'1G's.* fl.i? Of'.Cf1,Sl (lYlil.� 11,r lly`P,S�?1f. 1T1 z,rP,� �..�"*� c�']. C'l fl?! c� . Far+h�r sol,th, ; n+.h� �x1 rem= s�ia+rPrr. nort5 on o�' R; �n?r;,� 1 a P�.r� sh �.nd �Y1 �T��C'.Yt�+n�hag �,r� „r].Y1Y! nar7ShP,G, fhP, f'nSSi!7f�rntas ?�Pr?S a_rP 4??'�r ("�].C!c1rF?nlJS '�Yl� aY'P ril'�"1 Z71 '�06Si�S� t^Il"I'��1 A.1'f', t7Sll'?I�SI Pnf7�"11r A]'P,Sf'7'VE'�. 8. �si;rea s�1l�eforn!is ;s of+,en ex�F�r�me7v a?�»n��nt ---------- �'. m�!erP ar� sl -j mh-F n�1P,�Y1tn1 o�r; � �l i ff`prP]'�rPS 1-0 ?-�P f�t�n� i.n tha f�una, r.onfa;r_ed i.r_ +he c�lc!�reolas cl ��*s nr �] ��rP�,T 7 imc��'+��,a� o�' northti^�est-�rn i'jipn p�ri ch �n.� o{' T?atch.�'-o�t�f s PQ,-; �, �s c'om�arPd '.'r; .+,h +he �'a»n�. fc�tlnd ;n +.h� �-1�lzcon;+ic :>an.�s t-.o -F?�e nart-��„��st; �uf. rn+h �'avn�s �re betrond f�0111�1- Zp*�*P.r f;l�.�l?�T'Y12� nprl +.hP�r 3rp Tr�rtr CZOSP.Z.�r 7'P,�,�3'F'.E?C�. p_;. F'rom the sol�t.hP�.�f. d;n o�' -1-hP r'ocer.P or I csi,; sian� i+ �n��ers �rer�- �robable th�+ +he �.a�c�rPon� bec�s �.l-�ove �1'1ade�3 +� rPnre�.pn+ a hor;,�on a I.i++le hi��er +,�an +,hP ml�.11oon{+.ic be�s +,o +he n�rth. }7. `'��� �",i'Ll.Y1 �"1�F; C`�1.( 'a.Y'Pnt7g f3,1'f'S �3+ it" •?�317Y'? C('� nC�}�(?Y't',S�T�.� �('. � fiTlf� �'iP,07"P'P�',(�1'.7i Io�^«,r f',l��horn� fos�=ils ,rrere oY�ta�ned irom t�l�taconi�-i.c san�s or a�r�en�sh �1 ajTc . �. These be�s, from +.,r.P closa r�s�mblance of thei.r ?'o�'^�� �, to �-,hos� foland �n +hP calcareoi�s be�s, in a.7.1 prorahili.+.v renreser_t lor.�.l li.�holo�ic ��.ff�renr�es ,'n t.?�e ho�•; z�n +.o �ti�h; ch thF ��1 �arenvs �eds l,eion�. TrP I o,�rer rla�i�orne fo��.�-; on res+^ conforn!�blv u�?on +he I��n�+ic, �nc� p�sses car_formarlv into +.he f'ocksf-i.e1 �l Fer��r be�'s ab��zTe. �f nr. IPr�h's �1;�;_Gion +,he follov.;r_m r��onm to �he Iotiver �1.�ibornP: �Tac�reon (�n- ��r+l nrc��? � �. �1 ��rs T�?�»P.�" T '�.mn-i,-f-j � ( i p �'lar�1;� 1''�rirn f;l_tfil�nrpF; T,nvtrc�r L�iP7i�?fic^�n+-. ]n��+ in �,�r{-� 1�, T+ i.s �3�.rfi�"l.i- i-n !�ec��3� urhP1-��r +.hP s+rn.+.� �xnos��? a+ S�z.rP.v�nori; shot�ld he c�rsiclerPc� I i�^,,;+; n or Io��r�r C] �ibnrne, al�h�v�*h +h�tr ��-P nrnhablv I�iv�.i+ic. - 6- 1.1 , Th� t`;�nsfi.eld �roun of uilm�.rd �Mo„� �a ;n �11 �ro',�1,;1 ii;�r bP re�'erred +,n +.�� jo-=�ar Clsiibn7'n� a. mh.�re i� in +hP 1!?ans_fiPl.rl �r�un, so fa,- ?s '^,'e knrnt�, a �Omn].e+P, fil'1SP,�'1CP, O� Prlir!'i�l T'C3mai1'?S� i-1�n f�07�'i?t"nr� }�(?l�n' f'nT'!�OSP.C�. Of' 1; ��n�+i.feroi,s s�nd.s ar.d cl ��Ts 17, T1']2 C;r2.,1^s3C'�-27^S C�f' ?-1��± SfI'ai'.�� how��*er, Cirp li-f1'lO1n�'].C"�� �u i;�'18 sazne as +rose of -!-.h� 1��n�t;.f�r�t�s be�'s +,hn.l ocr,�r wi1hin +ti�e; nort.hern r�rt of the Iov�rer Claib�rre a.rea l�et-�veen the �uach.ita ar.d T�ed. r�vers C• `T'�'1P, T!lAY'1�'1P ?'OS"71S fo�md bet�re�� '�1'1P,Sf' '�'.1ff0 ri�rers &I'f' A11�If]�rS l,o-f-,h o�er] �.1.n anr� unc� erlain �,y 1 a�ni.tic s+rata( (,16) ) ci , mh� T��rsf; eld �re^ 1-� es south, sol�+tii�rrest, ar.cl lvest of a nart nf' f-l'�o I,Q��;*o,7' CI�7�ilnrriP. %��^( �� l.Tl l",r11iCh mari7lE' f'OSS71S }1�ZTP_. �PP.Il f n>>nd ( (16-17 � 1 �, r�al�inp� �.n annrox;w,a+,e �eterm;_n�+io� o�' thP s+ril�e of the forme_r L�e�7s, ��rh�.ch i� ei+h�r n�r+h nr nor+he��t, the ?'OSS111'E'P,?'OL1S I.o�rer C��.,,•rc�rne Of' T�OSS�.F-17'� ,°:rP'�iSf;2)"� i;1:�11')Orrip� �r��l ��.�n��lle 1'�37'1S}'1E'E ZRTOUZ(� be �.1on�* t�e s+r;t>e 1�n� of' t.,h� r,��nsf-ield. ((17)1 f. I�o��rPr Cl�iborne fos�;ls h��Te bP?n frnm� ,•n ��arr,'_son roi,n-t-,r, Tex., 1� . north�.rF��t of +he ou+crnns o�' +�,p ��ans�'i�ld; 1-he�,T ar� fo�an�? nor+,?,, nor�i�- east, an�? e�st � o? t�e ov+.crnns ofl the forr�a+ion lzncler di scussi.on �n �arishPs �.lre��izr ment�o�c�c�, �nd. +o '-Y�a soia+h t-he T�ansfli.eld in rTa+;�ti�-i+.oches P�rish dins und.er +�,� Iol+rer �l�il-�orne a-� ?'-icto.rz.a. 1 17, , Ia?^rren�e C. <Tohnson, '!'he ir�n R���ons of northprn 1;oi?is;an�. �nd e�s�ern Texas: �x, nor_,. T?o. 19�, N. of n., 50+h C�n�ress, 1st '3ession, p.21, 1P�8. T?ap. �17)l The Ia,"•TP.r r�����rne is east o�' +re P.��ansfield in. T?atch.itoches, ?"Tinn and !".r,�nt parishes. �� The oppin�on h�,.s b�en expressed t�at t'�e l�eds rea:r�nm thP mar;ne �'osGils, fo�?nd i.n �re �icinif�r of �Tictori.a, Provencal, rTateh;+.,o�hes, St. p.,�aurice, etc., ^re s�rat;i�raphicall,y abo�e t�.e fos�iliferous beds f'o�,nd in T�,oss�er, '�.rebster, C'.laib�rne, �nd fii.env�lle parishes. h. ?'�Test of the otatcrops ofl the r'`ansf� �ld, in Texas, arcordine� to L. C. Johnson, � is rlaiborne. '� 17 ,Ibid., see�'n:Ap. i.. As the tonc��ra�hV o�' the T!�ansf;eld does n�+ rFnresPn+.. � rasin, � such as ��•ro,ald su��*est th�t. t;l_-�e I,ov�rer Cl �iborne had b�en ern(�P,C� off and the Li�'ni+ic exnosed, it see�ns +o +h� v,�ri.ter +.,hat the �T�.nsf'-i.eld is only a port�on.o�' 1-he I:ot�rer C1,a�b�rnp �le�*oid of mar�ne fossils. 4� 17 T'�e '�'�rer!�mP, a1t�+tade �1ona 1-hA mev��, an�? P�ci.f;.c pH.i.].��ra�r from Shrever?cr�+, A�'FP.r passin� olat o�' tre r-i�Fr bot;t,om, to Pro��encal, is 281 fAet; alona� thP jrickshlzr�, Shre�*enor+,, �nd Pacifi.c Ra.i.lr��d from Shrevcnort, �f+er leav�rm tt�e �ed ��_vc=r ro�t-�:om, to r�lhotari, it is 247 fe�t. These e1 ��ra+.; ons Are tatren from thP resnec+i.�e r�.il- ro�d profiles. ��, Th� a�-e nf +hese beds has a.lrP�dv beAn noin+,ed ot�t l,�r Johnson, 5/ I.erch,� a,nr� Fi�rris, � bta.t a17. +hreP ha�*e e.-r�d in rmakin� +he Lo�rc�r f',7.a.lr�rne a.res� ton s�all r�n�l +he Jaekson area. too la,-�*e. � 1.7 Ibi_d., n. ?.0 6 17. ) A orelimi.narv renort ia�on t-he h; l.] s o-=" I:o,�; si.�na, �art II, 1893 n. 82 7 17 1 Tertiar�* �eolo�,r of So�trern 11r��ansu�, 1894, p. 177, Pro�'e�so.r Harris erred in accP�tinm the prP?ri n�,s 1,+rOry o�' Johnson on fhe ar�a.l disi-ri hution. _7_ USGS B. 142 1;�. T c�rPr �] a;borne foss i l s ti�r�re �o] len+,eri rt.r i-h� I ol,; c; a.na �e��l o�; cal Sl1t'�r�?�r s��'. fr00�'P'(?'�C111R1� nil i'1'lc? r�ilrOs�cl f'r07n rROY17'nf? f0 ��1?XtiT]C�.rlr�� 71E"�Y' I,i+i',IF; ?'itrnr. 14. Tri s shnv�rs th� e3r; s-1-arce �f I o��er �'7 �i�nrne strnta ffl.rtr�r s�>>th than has Y?�+�!�,^+.o �e�n recor�7ed.(!1.7i� 1�. Foi�r nties+i�ns nP�� f1tr1-�,Ar �t;�c„s.��on:((1�'ll a. Fir�i;, i-1'�P 4]'c�st�i.a. �.1s�~rs, �. SP,�n11(� �'�.1�F' S?n':� l pr�'r� a� C1r r1P.,�ir�rn,,.g iT' ?�'1 r'71?*l l l p� ?'tnY'�'}'iF?rn i-�l?Z71s �31'1� TTa+c'1'1i+nrh�� r)Rr'-i.S�g�i C. `�'l� l?"f� �'��'1P, TTT1''?E:r" I� E"111+" l_C Cl f' Ti� • I E?rC'�'1� fl , FOUT'1'.i? �-F11P, rP,!j f`1 z��rS i n i-h.P, �*l C''I �'Ii i-z� nf '`ni�rt+ 1.('.�, 9T?nTl �r,rl 71rc'tl(� l.fl 16. The qrca.�i � �l��Ts . �.. �r. 1 0Y'Cl'1 }'laC r1pSl`rj�'!F rl a SPr; nc !�f P'raZr f`�'�.Vc � �-,1r>�'i rd �ltr gXT)Occ'(3 lT1_ thP ST1['i271+V nf .QrC`3!�l'�,��2'1� tr.r}17C:}'1 �F' ('On�.i�lprf+r� a_� rf?S+-ri^. t�17C117. t�P erod�� si,rf�.�e ��' +hF �],a.;horrP s'-r�+a. �• T(� i-ti1P.S8 C�'cl�TS l71 �'1�.� gPCr)27r'1 7'8'ln?"+ �}lF' 719Tr'P, 1��1"C`�1�7A r��{Zrgti UI'35 s�iTTen, t3rir1 -1-}�nzr y�rpTA C'nnSi_.rlE^�'P(� Of' cT�c•�'SC1n ;�.l+'?. C. T��ra,� {'irSi- ZGfI 1-�1 f�Olt}ii' fl'1P P,XlS1'�+riC'P O'� A71 t1Y1('!1?'lf'Orr^�"lftr f'r�Y' D9ZP,071�O1Om7.f:�1 7' P, ? S !�'"15 C�. �'�'!P, n�'i-y`E?F� 6P.��.`?P.f nr,++i c Z'1PC�° �Sl a18.hf]?Tl'� £�.Y'A eF?*�S?T'?3.'FP.,f� fr(i??! i'l�p cTEiC�'SOTl rs.r scarcPl.r ?� feetw�t' st.r�+-a. '"s. '':'he'-�-er +h� ('�.lc.a.rPo,�s } e�s of „T;nr_ an�l TTa�chi�+-ncr.Ps rar; sr.?s are +h� exacl- e�lai�=alpnt ofl 1-r� C!s+;rea s�71 a��'�rM;_s l,Pds n�' l�..l�rama or not�� ---------- +hP f��t rem�ins +,h�t +,�esr ar� nni- f'qr f'r(1*n t.he h�sF. nf +h_e �Taclrson, anc� ;t s,e�s imnroba}�•].e +hai a 1nr_�* nFr; o� nf drs,r 1 anr? �i�r$aee ern,� c� }'1fl.Z?f.? �..'r'1'I' ,P,r'VPn.P,(�. . f'. �'117'?'1"'P?'1'1!iT'P.� ('x• !�• �+f�rt'lS l�� �T"1 Ar''1,'�Y1S�S� (�iSCnt*gr�,� },�r3; �ijTD�E`7'nlrlSf r..la;�'?C1rni�Yi� f1r n.P.rl-ia�l5 '{')^aY�S't'f'�i7P_Rl ��t?nrP!'Yl i-11fli' �7'1(� 'i"}"?E? �Tc3f`�'Sr!Y]��f �, f'ar'{; �f-p ^+zr m�j,nri m,qlrir!r* �'}; Si'l�l 7nnrP, 7mC)7'O}!a!'?]P, �4-1,ai- tn�1^A ('(1171C1 1'i.Q?*F? �'!E't�n l.l'�. I Oi�' S� �n� ar1 P,rc��.i nYl t1Fri n(� �i?��'Znrr�r �� .i.y�c� i-?�.70 g1-�.P'2S. F` �� 1 �. �' �� `^ n �-+ � `i.1' V �Tf? ^ l (� [rzl (1'f' �:' h 11'F" �1 P.1'T'1 :11^lr � T'� .S' '7 � � 1. � � 4 � p , � ;5 �*. Tri or�ier �n Sft.it��t +.l'1i.� �llnnnS�'�1 l�Y!Cnnf'n1'ml't"�r fllr�{-1�gT, ip PT��rP�'^�P..T'� l�9ns T�*r��-F 1'O a'"(;H(��.� "{-,�? PYflTIt?'rn �!P'��?1 ,^,rYmf� SRC'�"�n?'?� i?� i-ti?ni- sT1C`in7.+V. 1� '1'�i*'k� T'2nT'8F`.'21'�S � SP,�'�1nn T'?l�1�A iri i-'I�P 'f'ir^'1; 7'Aj.�?'��-1(� �17'f; b^lP.S1' (�f' i';�'1 ai" i' Ol^71 .%) `['Yi.E; P'�'!�z* (1r 4l^('`i.C��_si C;�?�*S ?pTP,l"E f'(�lt�f� T'P,S+lrm r`nnfnrmt?�?l�r 027 �')Fl@�`�71.fi('.� C� �3VS ' ;�1 T�e c�in o�' ?��+� +he r�r�tr s�r� rlr�.c1- r]a�Ts TR;a.s th.P S�mP i� b�+,h c�irPetion anc] ar�otant, . �� Ei72C�. 1-j'1P Si-r�-Fi fl��+.,' on W�S A!�F.n1.1�-F�]zr ('071+� rt.lZn115 ?'r7m. t111E; Clfl'.r i-p +1'!,E? Oi-.�r,Y• F� Fr�� +-�e c1-i str;ri�t; �r., �f +h� color onP „ro>?1c� a� •f; rs+, 'he 9 nel ; ned. i',n '}'.'- -iI1� f�1�t i;�'1.P,rE iNaS si�1 llI'�C`n11r'07'In�.�;�T� lila't' iTl. A Z�zrn,Y' 11n'f; �"hlr`1'Br' �h�n one's �`in�nr T t,�re sP�n -t-h.� s+r3+,a*1 �n +},P len�th ��' a bo�?t a foo+ liaht �r��r or rlue, fh�n- cro�o.late �r�� a+ 1as+ hlaclr(or almost b1�c�_-1 vJheY•e i+., na�,sPs ;.nt� i•he �l�ck macleus �f ,+,he c�zt. . . . . 6i A section Tna�e �n t�.e I.�o������na. an�i T''ort�?�,a�est.e,�n Rfi��4J'F�V� Gl m�.l�s soi�+.t, of r'rl.bbgl.�T1d.� rgr�re,�er_+s the sa*ae n}�enomena h. T be1 ic�Tre t.h�+ +.he anpe�.rance of 1-hPse sect,� ons � s simnl�r +he resul+ �f t�re�.therin�, �.n� +,h�+ +he �7.ac)� �]a�rs renres�n+ ��, ur_tive�.thc�red r_ucletas. �. TP_ Sn'TIP, CFiSP,S 'Fhf� C�l.f''�P.�"P,�CE? �JE'+.�arE?FYl �;11.2 P-'7'si`* �Tl� �1 &Cti'l S}"? �1��75 ?7lRV �e �1iae +o di.ff�rent li�ho7��ic c�nst;+.i?.tian, l�iz+. 7 haZTe *�e�e,- se�n an,y G'ZTl�E;Y1CP, 'f'�'1�+ ?n P7'!?Siprl j7P.Y'inC� 111j'P.T'VP,?"?P,�. �Ati�rnep i-1�n ��l�rC`3�1� C'�l��Tg�� �n!� �-.he I�o?arPr Cla�rorne be�s. ( (1811 j. I b?1i�ne +,���+, +he name "Arca�i� clavs" mvst be abar_donec? and. 1-he �1a1*s �'or ��!hi ch �he r_ame s+,�n�'s be referre� +o f�e I otirPr r1��borne. ((19� i -8- 17. '!'hP sr!ma11 nra.ir�es of '"rinr_ �n� ?'T^t�h?+nrhE;c n�ri.s�As ?.� �_ 19 TTn+i.l +�he Filai'Y?Or had s+ia�l��� -Fre f�ss�l.s f�„n� ;n +t�_ese nrai.ries �� 1-�ot,�ht snm� of the Loti�rer !•1�i��rne ,^•�s Ja���s�n. a, T?nfortuna+elv, �'rom l itholo�ic �n�l +on��*r�nhi.� res�mb] ance, mtach of the Iol�rer Claiborne of Io,iis��na has been oonf�ased vri.+h t�,e �T a c?T s on - b. Johrson sa,Ts; '�/ � lc3 T1..�,n i?F?o•inng n{' nn,-+L1rrY1 10»i g� �.ri£� 'i11� P''St'P.rri 'T'BXt�S� 1F?88, n. 16 n2'h,P_, �f�ll7!"%3.l"tir C�'f' t�'1' S$'nY'T*I.a.1-� 071 /'?:1"'`', cT'i.C}'SOI1/ VI�.S tr'c�.�`P� b�T nrairies �nd ���e?7s �ln�m the le�'t 1-ha.n]� of i?a?*ou S�7�r� ��d. from +�e ��":r. 1�4 0�' sec. 2.�, T. IO T7�, R. 5'."T.. northeas+tnr�rd to !'ransti*i11 e, ne�zr t;hP ror�Prs a? Jac� son and 'x(i.nn nar� shes, a.n.d proh�bl�r rt?ns d_;.�.mon�.] ).tr +hroi,�*h Jacl-son Par� sh in +he d_i.rec- i;�_on o? RR�nroe, f?ta�.chita P�r;.sh. T�1e �'or*��t-ion or.c»T?iPs hirrh no�n.+s r�-. s+; l 1 f arth er nor+� nn Ti �j*oi? S�+.1 ine ." c}. nr. T�rr.}, 4/ c;�res � seci= ��n s.n '.'!?h;+,e Oak !'reel�, 10 mi les northl.vest o�' '`ri.nn�'i e�d irrhi ch h� cnns; e�ers +o Y�e +he cont�ct be-i;��reen +he J�c?rsc�r_ and his T?pnnr I��^n;1-.ic ((191) � 1 l�P�^�1 imin!�rzr T'G'l�Or't; t)�n71 ?'}'i(? 1't.7 1 l S O'f' LO�ai�i PYlr�.� I�Q3� Pa_rt IT, n. 89. d. i?oth of +hPse a�it�ors h�.�re erred as t� +�!e �me nf thesc= he�ls, a� +re fo7lo��r�n� 1�.s+ of some nf +,he more �h�rac+•eristi� fossils fro� one of thes� prairi_es, 1� miles northrr�^t; of 'xT�nr�'iel�i, �r-i11 sh.o?•a. (�li.si- of fos�ils omittedll ((1911 2. `1'hf?rP, �_S 710� � C}1r17'flf'.f,2Y'12f i C iTA(`lrcpp fnSS' l �L7. t�'`r' +arnZrG' !-7SSP.711�1 �3S?'B� 1�rhi�� m�nv arP stric+l.v Io,^r�r rJ ai.�,orne( (20) � 1�' . The "TTnner I i�n-i t-i c" of Dr. I er�h .(( 20� 1 ___.____�__y� �. Th:i.s �uthor has �escr.i.ber� a ser; e� of li�ni_+ic c�la.vs, �^rrich. h.e st�.tes ot�er� i_e his tr1',Rar�ne r] �3�orne", an�1 -t-o ��rhi_ch h� hAc �;�r�n +h.e nQme Of, rtTT�pr-'2' I7.��'17.1.i;].��t h. P�rt �� hi;� ZTpner I��^n_-i ��ic, as ex�osec3 1Q mil �s nortti�s�res+, o�' 'FT�7?Ylfl"I.P,�.C�.� l�?1Cjn11�'%P,Cl].jJ �P1.0)1o�g in. '�"�'?2 InT"7pr ('.1�,i1�n1-Y�P.� f07' '1'F lS +,hP,�^P c)Z*Arl ai.r 1�'�T S+7^a'�-t1 �h�?3.?^i7].r* ZOtrTer f',�.�.1_�c)7'ne fOs:;i �(.s c. Fut T�m r_�t cert�ir +,h�� the s+,rafa, in other loca7.it.�_es nresertinr� tre satne 1 i.i;hol o�;.c�1 3nn�ar�nce, and d.ec�.^�n�ted t�?• Pr. I.er�h �.s the T?nn�r I�i�ri-1-ic, occ�ux�V +hP srzme stra.ti.^ra�h.ic po�-i.ti.on �. �'{; (',OIlrr11�i.'i -I;}�P �.1�'n1i'�.c' S�'7"L'�'c1. n7'O?7�a}�lSr ?1rE' 22(nf 10'"7(?r (',]�1�'�T'7�P,� �ut r�pre��,,t Zrt.rhQ+ T ha.�re cal�ec? +},e ^oel.rsf;_�1�1 F'P1"7"�r be�?s �,� e. ^he l.i.r�n; t-i � sfrata. �:noi,.t ? m; ] es s��,+h of T?os�f; �1 � 1% l i.e ^t t�e 1-»se of -t-he �T-icksbtlr�;, a,,� r!�s+ �r�ba�.l,.• are in+e_rme���te r�+,�reen �the Jac�rson anc� thai- st�.�e. �?O. Ierch, A n.relimi.narj.r r�nort unon 1-he hi71s or Iol�isiana., 18Q3, �'a.rt TT, �. 98. 19. T�e re�l eJ at�s �.ncl red sandv eJ �vs in +hP �r1cinil-,�:r of J?�ol�nt I:ebaner_ and Arcad�.a ((?,0-2.11� a. In nortrerr_ I�oi�i.siana m�n�r h� l] s are �annecl bv c���osi.ts of red sandZr cla�rs, r�rhi�h in the vicini.i:t� of T:Tovn.t Ieb�non, Hom�r, and Arc�d.i�. contqin fossi_ls that are, e�sc��t�nP one spe��es, iden+ical �;�i.th thosP o�' t-he iand_erl�rin�* Ioz��er Claiborne. b. The ex.cep+,; on i s the ne�^* rarc? i.tam, +o ��rhi.ch I h��re r�iven the nflxne of f', harrisi((20)1 _g_ LTSGS E . 142 C. 11� ?'1��1zr n� s?�AS iYl 7'?.nr'I'l1Prr1 T OUi_F"'17i� 1-�"IE' *'P(� Sanritr r� s7�rS O1" SE1Y2(�S 7'P.St unconform���l}r on t;h� �'oc�n�, �nd ��ta�htless bPl.onm +o �.h� I+�f avet+,e �f' T,�C!'ree�(2,1�� C�. 1S 1f 8.�7�P.£a.Y'S "f;�'?f3t 'f;j'l.P,l^P. 1�_�6 kJ��Yl SOmE? rOYlf'U�10T1 Of' ttI,��F'�,zrp'�-f.�,tt� ���7'c'�11(''8 Sii11Ci��� P.t;C.� :V'1.�;� 7'P.S��17�1 (�PT�OS�i;S� i;�lF T'E',ASnT!S fln7' cons� �erins* +h� sun�rfi ci �l �la�rs around T'�otznt I:�?��non an� arc;�.d ia re���.?aa1 a.re �iven at some len�'th, as fo11o1�rs: 'r's^.m h,,mot�es;.s f�r +h.P presen�.e of the Ioti^rPr Cla;'�orne fossils -in +he su��rf'ic�al �e�os�_ts l�n�er �ismzss�on rresent +.,hersel�e�.: Fixst, t,he�- �n,r h��;e Y�ePn �tr�nsn�rted; seu�on.d, +'.ne�r m€��r be ;Y, �I.a�e. The latt-er hvnothesi s T r���rr� �� +h� �orreo+ one •for the �'�17.o�nr�n�* rea.sons: ]. In T`ot?nt Iebanon, and north �nc� ea,s� or +,hef pl��e, manjr of th�se fo�s�.ls �re fot�rd as casts in ferr�Pinous s�nds+.an.e or �s ferr�l��notas renlacem�n+,s . �ne m� le n�rth of ?;�olint I ebanon, i� �?��P11 , m�mr T o?^rer Cla��orne �'ossils �-er� co]le�i-e� fro*n a�Tel loz^ri.s?� sand . In T�orr_t T��Anon I�oi�r�r C1.R�.borne foss-i ls �^rere �'o��nc�. in �reer_ish �l �ti*s or in sata.ds thro�,•m otzt af a�^�e71.. fiec+,.' ons i.r +hese �,vel? s a.nd +re Zric;nitV sholn� that superficin.l s+r�.ta resfs �l�rectl�r u��n t-he ad.-jecent �ocene. 2. Th� trans�.t;�n frnm the ���ce•,e -(-.o +h� slac��rf;�i�.l �er�osits �an l�e +r3ce�1. *****, thP �l.czucon;+i� s�rd� x���G b�r oxi_�Ation. �n+.o +he trellotv a�nds, anc� +rP •.ello�.ti* clat.T nasses l,�r oxi�l�t�.�n �nto the rec�. The ?,Tel.l.ol�r c1Qv has �'re�v.entl�r or ;ts surface blotches �f re� „rhi�h �are been prodi�ce�l h,y oxi.�3t;��n. 3. Fo�s; ls folzn�l ;n t�e ti^r�11 1 mi.le north of I'��o,,,,+ I ebanon, e*�bedc7ed in. -i.ndi�r�t.ec1 t�l�.uc�n+_,ic s�rd_, are so siTni.lar in occizrr�;n�.e +,o those :in the red. sarc�ti> �l.a�,*s a� 1-o s����est that, were the s�nds ftarther oxi.dize�l �nd. the calca.reous shells c�issol�ed ou+, the��e z�vol�ld resvl+, exacfl�r ti**ha+ � s fo�mr� i.n t�� st�rfa�� sands. 4. TherP ar� in trc� spec�mens from thA sv.nerf';.�ial cleposi+s no indication o�' +he�r h���nt� been ti�rater4rorn. e. For +,hP arove reasor_s i;re .rer? c� a�rs �nd red s�nd�r cl aj; s on +he hi 1.1 s in t.he vicinitv of ?�1oiar_t I_eranon �ncl Ar�adia mi�st be considere� as ox;�-i.ze�1 FocPr.e f. rocenc� fossils �.s ��sts -in ferriz��n�i?s san�?st�ne ha�*e be�n foi�n�i in j i.ncol i1� f'•l�.i_r�rn�, �nc�. Ross; er T�a.rz she�, an�l thP're� s f:�om v�hi.ch they co*ne are ti�±�?�u1�t��1�� Io�v�r C'7�ibnrne '�;ocene.((?,1�� C. TFiE C()C�'S�'IFLP F��RY B�S ((?7.- 22)1 l. Conrorm�bl�� �bo�re t1�e �'os�-i.l.i.ferolas I ower r7 aihnrne at �*. P?�tar-i ce, ****, are lr�mi*�a+P� n�nfos5ili.ferrn,s clsa;�rs or l�m-inate� aan�l tar_� clav, c�-i��in� s) � ?htl�r soiz+h. ( ( 2.1-??l; ?.. Th��� be�s nresen+, c�iff�ren+ li�*holo�i��1. phases, so�^�+imes ��n+�.;ni��* more clasr an�? I.it+.1e or no s�nd. (�22�� �� The sa.me be�s are ti�re1 ��x_n�G��l a+ ��ci�s.field Ferrzr, a'��1�+ ha.1 �',rra.v re�-wPen St. A?a.t�rine an�? ��O?'1�';p'OmP7"c,r. G. !�.t l+��r_+RomP�r, 1mmec3;a+,P1V beloz�s i-.he Jackson, l� l�e�s li+holo�*;c�a.11�,• 1i]re +.�os� foi,nd i�n +hP unpAr nari- of +1�P �t. 1_`•�a.t�r�ce SP,r+1.nr an� li'-e +h.�se at C o�lrsi; eld Ferrjt arA �'oizn� . �. The �;� at r"on+.,�om�r�r is so�e,�rhat s�eeper +han at St.. ??a.t�rice (�. F'Or +heS°' �i'P�S �L'+ZRTE?P,21 .�if• �'T�t,IY'�C`P. �'�'tC� �'`011�'mOmP,r�r� rpmi.r�a �P,{";'IP,P,21 f11.P, Lov�rer �'.Lr`Z1r(�?'Y1P 2Y1� 1;}"1P, �T���rSnYl� 1 T�'"OpO�E' 'F�f 10�91 n3mp pr �'rocUsfi.eld j'+'et'r�r l�Pcas. �� 7. Tn a a�n.�ra.l vrav +h��r renresen+ 1-�,p �1.a;l�orn� �-�nc1s �f _41�b�ma, bu+ ;.t- i.s not ���s�• ��� e to 1 i�'nit �reci_sPlv +'�e I o�n�er Cl aiborne a1-o�-e or +,hP Jarkson be1o�^r, anc� on.e c-^.n r_ot. si-ate ex�Ci:lzr 12ot"•r mv�}�. or ��rha+ r�art of 1-he�P beds rPnr�s�n+ the f',lail��rne Ganc�s. �. tTo bec7s b���rin� mar;ne �'a��-�7s n�� e�,,;t=�1�r,+ d�o 1-he 1�tter '���� h�Tre be�n founc� in I ovi si.ara. �?,2 ,nr. fi�lmarc� n�tes I;mn�+i.� be�s �P,1�IP,"+h +he Jaakson �n T''iS`.;i5�� ",7� 7S ;�f''?'1Ci71'i'17rc aYl� rPn�nf�'Zr (1f' T?l.S�iF,S1j�j�1� }�^)• 1(��� 1`�,�7�1.`�.7�1`�,�. -in- D. TT�I!; J,'lCirSt.'TI r'�TU VICKSF3jTr�f7�ST;1''?I�S ((��_�4.11 � ?,? n; �ct�sse!� v,�;th +�e Jar,Usan beca,��� ��' +.l��i r �1 os� 7_; t.ho1 ��*; � S 1.m1 � '? T'1{;�r l� AS D(�ini-P,�� Ol�'f' ��T TiT'. Ter��^� 'f'1"!P cT�(',1-Gn11 F3?'1(� ?T'l'�rS�"iUrli' ��SS conf�rrn�Y�lv 3nt� e�ch o.+,her �nc] rP,SE'^?�"'�8 e�ach �+.�er so ��OSP,ZV l�.+hnlo�ica.l.7v ti,�f ±�ezr can be r�isi-;n�»i_stz��T �nl�* b�r na�eoi�tolot��c c��rs.�.cters . 2.. Bo+,h s+a�es are lare�elv ch�rac+erize� bv f'al�areo,�s cl a,�s '�. A1- 1-re base ofl t�,e �?i�ksti,urp� are 1.� �ni+i.c s�r�+,a, as car l�e seen in fihe se�t7on �roi,t 3 miles sotath -�f �?nsefield., in Ga+��oula parish. n. nr. Fi.1�*ard 3;1 has notecl a s-imi.l�r occ�arrence of li_�ni+i� clays and. lian�.te at thP �h�se o+' th� �r; eksrtlrP �t Tlic'Tsrur� anc� n�.rth nf Rr�ndon in ?�;'ississi.nni. 3 (?,?,�AmriCU�1'.11rr, anc3 reol.o�tr ��' FRissi,�sinpi., li?6n, P• 108 5. �r. a_cco��r+ of' t�,� 1iml�olpr�-i.c�1 s�mi7�r-ities �f these tvJo star�es the area o�cu�ieel b�r them must far +.h.e pr�sen-I-, be treatec� a.s a. �m�t 6. nn the n.orth fre �.rea i.s li*nited b�.T +,he Clai.r�rne series of beds, +he vnotiM1rn Jac?�son out;crops beir�* �1- �+Torts*ome_r�r on the Red Ri�rer, at Tullos and 2, m�.l es n�r+?� of RosPf; e) d in Ca+.�hol�la. Pa.ri sh, a+ Rlanlrer T�i 7 1 in G�ldurell Pari.sh, and a.t �ra.nd �r� eT�r �r t�e Ouachi.+.� R;srer. (�??,)1 7. ?'?�rth o�' the line indicated by the abotre lo�ali+ies for Jacl-son fos�ils r_one hQ�*e so f�r been reporte�i h�r co��eten+. paleontolo�i.s+,s ((�:�11 8. �nlPnt �f the T'ed P;ver so £ar no Jackson f;s�;1s ha�re l�e�>n �u+hor:it�t,',Telt,r 'r,f"�OT"f;P,C�. �� �J 9�. �'� �P..riT1Ei'OTn.m� TP,X. � OYl 1-;}1P, ,�',a��riP, '?iZrar� Ni 1 rr�rrl � ()]'1. '�3m2 �n o�' hi.s Stzz�n�ement�l. �nd Final penort of a. r�olor�ica.l reconnoisGanr,e o�' Lo��isiana, ment�_ons haz=�n� fonn�i Ja,clrson .fos�ils. ?"� �'. T. D�amrle, �n �Tol. IT, T?o. 6, of the Journal of �reolo��r, nn nac*e F66, ref�rrirr� +..,o the roc�ne of Texas, t*rrites; .,,TT�r� of +-.�e l�e�'� o�' +he rocPne ha�inm •ri�ldec? fossils char�ci-eri_s+;c� ot' �?ori��ns h-i�*her +l�an. +hP Ioti�r�r Cl��borne, the c��nos��s ref�rAt�le +n thQ+ sPr�.es �.re conf�.ned +,� i+s hf1SR� r10I'f�071�tt nl'1 f� ?T1=1}� Of' f�'1P T',OCATI.@ Ofl e�l�TP7'Tl Texas, 1'1\r'.'�(. �E',71T12Cjt%� the be�s a+ ���iretoivr_ are represen+P� as mar�ne be�'s, ?vh.�r.h are, ac�ord�n�; t6 TRr. Dumble, I:ower r].�;horne. �. The soi�+hern bouncle.r.t o�' the Jac1-son-Vic'rsrt�rr� h�s he?n �rer•v ,vell traced b�r ��ion�ins fror� thP �u�.c.hita t� +re �'ed �?9ver. 10. It r1an5 from � point 3 7!'.1�PS sovth of rose�'�.e7d, ne�r Gent-ersri.l]e, crosseG I;++l e n;�rer 5 m.-i ] es �helovr Geor�e+�r�m, and rea�hes t1,e �ed T�iTrer 5 mi.l es r_�rth ef ,r,�lf�x. (( 23�1 III(co�+��1�r(n�st p. 3)1 OI IGOCESdE: TuE GR.:1�1D GULF GPOUP ((�n._?511 1. The ZTnner �li �ocene o�' I o�a.� si�na i s renresen'-ed btr the fTrand Gtzlf fl'roup �f ri;.l �ard ?. Th�se roc.ks h��e been de�crihed. btr Tii1�*ard, TTook�ns, Johnson, and. I:Prch 3. Thezr are comnosec3 of cla.�rs, sanc�s, clazTstones, sand�+on.es, ar� �iaar+zi_tes. 4. So f�r no fossi 7 s, excent a fle�1 n7 A.�nts, 5/ hat*e bePn colleoi-ed �n� de+er- minec� �'rom +h.Pm, hi,� -t-h�v �.re ra�'erred to +.h� TTnner �l�.�oc�ne becatase theV are Uri+hot�t dolil,t +he sn,•,e as +he �'rra._nc� �r�+' c,f' l�rt-ississi�pi, +he ame of tiar�i_�h h�s �e�.r± fixed. ti ?a ��o,^rl+or_: Proc. TT. S. "T,�t;. ?��t�s., �rol. KI, 1R8F�, PP• '89-01 5. The 3dor+hern boimc'arv of the rr?T� �Ttalf has alreac�jr in n�rt r��n n>>tl;ned. in thi s na*�er. �. T+ ri,n,^ nortl� from fiarrisonbur�*, flankinr� t�?e bottom o�' Ot�ach�+a Ri.�rAr l -17- USG� B. 1�.� 't;n fl �n7.n+ '��nll'�:. ',7, 7fj'�� P,S ,ciC)17'�",�'1 (lf' r(l�S'P..{�'1.P�.�_ j-�� TY�a 11?"i� f'rnm i'h�S t7Q�Y1'}' t'.o i12a T�aci T'i�rr�r }'1?.S �.11'P.a.(��r �P,Bn �Mf��i'Gai'C?f3. c. T",�s+„ of thP ned T�;�er +here are exr,e77eat exn��iares a+ rhonzn d. Trence t�e l�ne ha� l�een tr��ecl +o t�e S�1?;.nP �'�.�TPr h�r Nopkir_s. e. �fi-.er crn5s�nt� the ne� ni�er, Troplr;ns s�jTs; ,rneapnPari�� ;n t.hA r]oiat.-ier�ri7le �nd K-i.Gq+.��;P �i11c, it ran�*�s a]riost �liaP tiv�st tn i-he "nad ��;11", 7 m�1As solath of A�anv, in De Soto nar� Gh, �nr� ?'PAr�''�'e S�h;r_e, n�ar +,he mo„+h of ?���To» rT?�rut." � �4:�luonk�ns: ='';rs+ Ann,.�a1 T'enor+., �'P��Omlr�l S»rzrP,1/ o�' Tnt�is;.ansz for 1�6�, ntarl;�herl 1�7�, r. �Q. 6. Th� rF� n�+i n� nf t-11P r;�r�n�l �T�,lf +� thP ?ri ���rvr� � 5 a n�rnlex�np_; �7UPS"F1.nn� Qn.�? ; s �re r_ni- sa1-; sf'��rn��i.ltr sP+,t 1Pt�. 7. �'lam�e�l�r � an� n�ll an� S+�n1P,V-��"oi'm 9� r��-� �,.,��^m +��+ in Flor��la �:he TT�ner n�.i �OrAn(? rE?F'�'F 11Yt�Onf nr^*��1�h11r n+, +�,p Tr; �1�5}'`ttT'f*. �. .,��.��1�• eTnl?�"• S(''�.��.�1C� rF?Y'?cc,� j7n1.• XI?TZ� i7• �Q-.r'� P� ,^jP,(��� l�Q,� g ?�llul,ll. reol. �o�. nmPrz�a, sro1. ?T, 18�?4, n. 162 �� l9iE' }1'ii.Te 7?'1 101a.1 �1�3'�£L t�e Tr' (`ti'S�l7Y's!� ?T1C) '!''n? jTl�D81' �'� ��'OC8'_1P� �l�f +.hezr rr;l �i-� ��'" h��*e ?�nt 1-�t��n S+.ta�l � ec� , �. The.ton��r3nhi�. f�a+nrRs of the Gr�nra ruli' �rP interest�n�*.((?��i 1.p. Th� nnr-F-hPrn bounc?ar�T � s, �°�M�n nnt �o��e_rPra �,�r st�bser�nert �enosi+s, �. ra+,l,er s+-e:e� escarnm�n.t, f�.c�n�* -i�1?.nra, ian_c�PT�nP�.i-h ,rr�-ich �-re 1rZ�t-s�iar� ds.ps . ( ( 2� °'�� � IV. S�'�3T."� S.�i��DS: AGE Ut-DET��;i��I��`ED. � ((25-?6)1 j. ,`j,�� TI�F'gn, S�Y1�S `iT!.C� �*7'?ijrt?1S l�r�trp 1-�nnn r�lln�l C�rlf1; t1z.r F�onki.�?.s �?71C� I�r�h. Tn. orciPr nn+. t� �T�n+tare Qr_ �P-in� on as +;� th��r �i�e, ar.� no+ to af+a,mn+: a �nrrel�+;o*� n�' a71 1-he cl�n�rfi�ial u�1�r.d s�nc�s nnr� �ra�els of nnr+,'����e�+ern Ioui.siara, T hq�re nronos�d a local name, �n�� :�esi.re fQ �TI.C�t7laf? ltt'1f�F?r '1"�'. (.j8T1pS�fS C)f l�'!'�n�P, 1"1nP10F"YlF;s.! '?11C� l''�f�Tl.�'F',�I1'��T'�3,11P,1.'{'.�,r t-here C'nn ?^P 210 ?'Et`1.Sn?7'���.f' C�.Ol7?lt. 1. �? � PY?f�"111�'' �b7'�SS "F.�'+<� C'.P,ri"F;7't�l T1t1ri-; nr� t�f j C)17'1 "� �Y?'� ;�.r'P, (�E',�n 7iia.1"'I;Z S•�"�'�C�S� ?*.r1�c�S�: n.�rl-lt�"*'Tl P_.X�!'c »-4-, i S �S f'nl lOi":�5: 9.. '�'hP," rP_,Flr'11 fn T. 16 �?. �(?7i f�'!n I.�Otii ci ?nFl T"iE�ri r�� 31'1� 1�� `PY�� }�n��nr�v,rtr frOPl 1;1_'12T'P. 1�:3SSP,G � mllgg g01)1-?� nf r3nSTr.l�1C�, i-h�T1('e n�r+'hzrd�'g+ -f-n Sparfa. 2. F'r�m Snart.a +,�P r�un�arv rlins sa�,�-� +� +-�� �,�r+,�,;�rPs,+., �nrrer or T?a��l�;t.nc,hes P�ri.Sl'i, �?.71r� �-:C1�7iC� i.i'. �.S f'O'I^riPc� l��j R1 a.rlr j glr� .F��*nia A,!'lt� T'la.�k j 3)'P� '1'O 1-.h� mnUt.1_� oi' �`l�at 1�,ke. . `� �rP,`"'f' n{ i','^E? "E',� '��_'-F±?^ +'.�F? �inr� 1"1�nS f',�.nm ?riC�nrla. �'?'r '-'�1r'i; cT2Si`Tlp anf7 cni,j;i'l . . 1-.r1 1-.kiC mniii;}? pf' F?azrplt TOrf?^17. �� ?�`�F�S�r� T OC�'E;t-f t S ?'OT)f�c*rcl'�h; �al T�a*t �f j O>>i Si AT19� I.�C`?. 1 r,c1�rP, ga'2T1 �'b�i S � l_Y1P, £�.�.� t:117'QUtrl'i -{-�p �-,�rri+rlrzr f:XC(?i��4- r3_1 (t�'IR' T' 1�l('lr I<i�'P Ti�.?TC1lZ =171C1 T2� �i.('k I,�1-e, a.r_c� rror '*;ctoria to tha Sa�ine '�i.n?r. 4. ?+�Vicent a na��rrn�r strin a.l onr� t.he �t�a�h;ta pitrer, n�arl�r al ] o�' +,he reMion refi��reen �he fl���*ia+�.le deno�i+s of t�he R�d an�l. O11ac��ita r�.?rFrs �s �.overe�- b�r lhese s�nds 5. I h�zre nnt exam�ned tre sou+�ern �o�ar-'arT,� ti�r�5+ o" i-�e red ?'iver 6. These sands overlap both +,he Io�rer Clai��orne an�1 1-.?�e ''7rt�nc� �TZalf, ex+er_di.na� en+zre��r across t}-!e Ja�ks�n and zTic�-srlara. 7. The m�i-�r�.al of these d�?posit.s �s 1��»allst a_lm�st m�re �>>ari-.� san�s, ��*�-�e_ times cri.+1� rec��ish colorin� ma.t.t�r. F:�I 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. -12.- a. In (=r�ni-. Pari �}.� th�r� i� q�re�t. de�l nf quar+,z �'?^t��el. l�. Tn +.liF� �'c?v-Fhnrn �'ra�e77v •-��7't.inn t.7'f�7]S1�0�"t:Pfj fpc,�;lg �,Fa�•r� r,��r1 �'�t�nc�.� 3. ?� . il er�h: Pr�7 imin�.rv �enort i�non i;��.e N;17 s o�' Lp>>i_�j �ria� �art II, 1�g3, p. 104. � The -�-ono�r€�nh�r of th�.s f'nrma+� or � � ir_+eres+i.na�. a. T'�e roclrs are easi.ls,* eroded, ancl t1,e h� 1.1s r� se vArjr steenl�r to a he� mrt of 7fi to 100 f�et �ro�re +h�i r hases . b� The�r �re clothed �r,ri.th ��'�r��+ �f lnn�*-1?�f nines P. nalus+r�s �--- -�' bet-�reen t�rhich +here ;s no i�nderr�ro�,v+h, �o +rat �,r�.an one s1�n�s on a hi_lltop h� s vie��r -i � obs+.rtar+�� nnl•r hv +�� mialtinl i.ca+7 �n �f +r»ni�s in i;he d � s+ance c. The �r�hn]e �rea is co�ered r•,ri+-1� th�se t.rees, excen+ �n � fPb�* nla�es tir?�ere the �c�rrre'r ����.�.borne, Jaclrson, or �jicksbvr�' florms sma.] 1!',al ��_,-e�us nrairiPs, and i� the '�hollc���rs" b�tvreen +h.� hi�l.s. d. It -is � ma�nif�ic�at 7tamber rPc;�n. T'�e s�r_c's and �^ravel� of th�s fnrrna+,;on r���e in t.hickness �'rom a+riflir_� �rene�r +0 60 �nd sometimes 1�0 feet. �1on� the �ontaci: �ra.+h fhP F��Pne, a.s se�r_ ne=�r Pro�r�ncal , t�ere i s some C 1�tr '�.'(; 'i; i? P, � r't, S P, . These denos�.+s res+ ZFr�.th dist-inct un�onformii-�:r txnon +,he older rocks. For these s�nds and e�ra��el fhe name "Sparta sa.nds" is praposed, b�C�LlSP, thev are �rell d.etreloped nF�r Sn�rta, i.n Tiienuille P�rish. '�he �razrels bettivPen na.uchea+, s�nd Rlack La1,re ra�rovs an� �r��t of �l�ck I��.e �avoi�.--- a. O�ci�»�*�n� +1�e �livide betti�r�er na.»nheat and. ?�1ack r,�t.re b�.�rous, and formin� +he banks of naiache�t in ma,n�r n]�ces, arp r�ra�re� denosits to ��.�hich severa.l �,�rri+ers hane m�.de ref_ �rence. ( ( ?,5i ) b. The�r are also foiand t�sest of t;ra r�l ��'- I alr� R��ro�a �1- `T'c�T.r� O7' on +,h� ?ricksbvr�, Shrenenort, anc] Pacifi� pailr�Acl..((?.�-.?.61•1 c. '"hey c�.n ?�e tra.ced south, �nd, from �r�hAi- 1 ha.�re sPen in solz-�rern �ien�r;lle Pa.ri�h, I=�m �i_nclined to th�nU that theTr na�� in.+� +he Sn�r+a s�ncls. ( i?,611 c�.. Pr. �t+o Lerch ���s descriherl a, sim; lar �r�,,el c?enosi+, ���c„nn3.n�rzn.� th� ��aac,hl.+.a n;�rer 1 76i�A nr�l;m;ra?-�r Y'P.DOr1- �anon +r� �;17s �f Io�?;.si.nna, F+art I, 1892, n. ?,F; Pa.rl IT, 1�93, p. 10� 14. S�r.�ls at ?�'ansf�eld �. 0�-�r1�r_inu; the Fo�ene �i- rFansfiel� are ,ar��;+e s�ncls 2! 1rr;fh sm�ll ri.+s of 1�,r�„• te cl av in+ermi n�7 ed . 2, ?611rFc�Tee, �_n hi s man o�' thP TTn�+e� St�+es �ut�l i s�?ed i_n Johnsnn's r��clon�e�ia, renrPsents these san�is as T,?eocene b. ���e�ir Rurk P1 a.ce i.n R7 envi ll. P par; sh T�q�TP s�en s�.nr�ul �r hi.+.s n_f wh;te clav in the low�r n�r+ o�' a sec+ion o�' +ra Snar�� s�nc�s c. T�o no+, �+,tempt +o corr�7ate the s�n�ls a+ ?�Ransf�eld, bU+, cal7 a+tPnti.on to +Y�i� similarit�� +o the S�arta, san.�ls. V. PLEISmOC�T1E 4TTD RECEiiT( ( 261) 1. I ov*er topor�raphi.r.,all�r +han +..,_h_e �nart� s�nds, �oc�rip�nvl.nm the 1ar�er str��ms, �re broad flats ,=�h;nh ocni�n.r a.n �1e�*q+-ion consi�inra�ly h3�her +h��n. +,�e nresen+ a17 u�r; �.l �ral� Pvs 2. Thes� flai-s are es}�ec�a.11�r no+-�_ceable a..lonm �hP Red an� �l?�c�t,;+.a i�i4ers. �. Thet, ���rE bec�n �;rel l �laScr-ib�c? ?�v nr. 7 erch. 4-. I�ter t.h�� {;he second bo+toris a.nd orc,lanv;n� :�].ovr�r +.ono�*rax�hic 1e�re1 a��e th e nresent al1 vzr; a.1 �*a] 1 e�=s . VI. Tt3� GEOLOGIC SECTIOid �, The fnll owinc� i s 1� �.ve m ad e i-1-. rn� t: !J P, (' f??'1'�" PZ.P.� S'FOCP,IIG' �PP, Ul2C�P.'t;�Y'TC1171P,C� -1?- USGS B. 14? C)I�" i��IUi�TH`v'dEST�;R.P� L(�t?IS IAP�A( ( 2,�;11 +�� �F�+; nn. n,-esen+.e� b•r norfihwes+ern I o>>i �i ana., �.s T n7.� �*oc,Pne. . (nnnPr �liponene / . , , . . �T f�tqPr (�1 l��CPY1P. \ �'E?Y"f;l.ar�t,r ( (��rPne ................... ....... �ret�cern�s � 1 � v?* i tar?. G 2(' <)7'i C� � O't;'� C?m S ST�c'irfsi. SFiT1�S rTr^nc� �x1,1 f r,,-�un Tr; �t-sburv� stne�e �Ja.�?rson st��,e C.�r��sfield FerMr bP�3s . . . . . (Lo�=r�-r rl��borr� sta�e (T imn`i+; c� s+�me �71al,.coni-;c c?;�isi.on `�. T�'!a?'8Y1nt f�'7.ZTE'.Y1 F,�,�'iYnsa-f-P,S (�f' i"tit(? i;�'1�('lrr+E'FS Ofl +�,A F'nc'.F'YI"� �BC£317SP. i-.}7P, C�i.l� � s tc?� sli ��+, �nr� �,ar-i a�l e+o ftar,,; s�_ re.li.A:nle �l�t�, an� �0 7'P,rnr!�S of �1^T'lT7?S ci?'C� =1Tr�i.i�r1}�IP,. VIT. St?�G'�`!�PY OF GOTv'CI:USIuldS ( ( �g_?711 ((f;.�i,res 1., 2., etc are ai�t�+�r�s rr�m +�xt �f �talletinl� 7. Tr� f'rn'I'�C`Pn1�S �f I oiai s; ana bel on�*s +n the �l�u�oni+; n �1;T•;.si �n, an�l -ii- s�c�ms *�robhBl.e +,h�+ it� �?�n�e;+; �n ,*;�s foll n'^'ec? rzT nr. Pr�sion �er�o�l. i(?611 2. (ailn I,o�a�_c;�n� U�e fin�? s+,ra+a. nr�b�rl�r ren,-�s��+-irr^ +-h.e IzMn;+ic ��' .A1 ��h3mE1. in +.ha nxtrAm� n.nr�'�'�t,v�s�-"r7? ( orr,er s�T!r1 p+. SF]rp�rE+nl��"+. i!?7i i ��1� T�P. ('1a1�'�r�P, nf jOlii�lnYl�f� �P�7'inm in_t11'17'lf� r'OSSIIS� 1^BDT'85L31'1�S }�'�P Lrnnr�r �"Zr�.'!�^T'YIP.. S'i"?P'P, ()f' �1��7511'�A� '�Y1t�_ i'I pr<'11T�'lf?� �T1 arf?m m�rE? Py-f-E?i'1Si�TP t��n r�s hii-her+c� b� r�r_ re��mn� zFd. In +he sn„+h�rn nRr+ n�' +�P �ren +r� be�s are *�l,�h m.�re �,a�carPrn�s +han ,'.n +�P nor+hc�rn �r_cl nor+,hzr.r.es+ern rart. "'h�; f'a.1�ar�n,�s s+r�+.a �re nrnr�rlj* st-.r�+iPranhic�llv �b��r� +�e �norF �*lauc- o�;+i.� beds +., +.hP r-,r+h �n� Tln7'fY��1�P.�t. � (cim��F' T''az7s-"i F�1�1 �•,•oti�p r��f �iil.r�ard (d�nr. I_�er�h's ":4r�ad i a cl asrs„ (��Tti,e sm��1. n.rairies or meadrnrrs in so�zthern Ri�ntTi7]e, n�rthern '"'inn, And '�':�tc�i1�c�es �ar��hes. Sial��i�*�sions c, d, and e are I��rer f'l�.i.born� i.n a�'e. (i�)mhe TTr��r I; �n;+ic of nr. I�r�h r?nresen+.s be�3s be1 nn�;.n� to -t�r,�o or .�nre �li.ffdren+, horizons (�*)Th� red cla�rs anr� re� s9nd�r �.lavs ;n +h? vi.cini+y oi ]'aTol,nt I:eh�non �nc� �r�a�?ia �.re Io��r:�r rlaib�_rne zn a�e 3. Tn+er�en;nR bet-�ae�n +he I-oT�!�r �l�i��rne �.r_cl Ja�k•son a.rP li�n�tzf'e�rot,s sancls f1.T?C�_ rl q�rg � j'1P.,rP ('a.11 P� i-1� E', �',()G�TS'f'i.P,lf� Ferr�r 17P,(� S� ZAT111.C1'1 � Y1 s� ?P.'t'1P,rn� i��CiSf re�re5enl- +-he �1 �9h�rnP sanc�s of ?.1 �ra*na. . . 4. T?�e ,T�r?rs�n �nd �T� cksbl�rp; s+.a.r�es f�rm a st.r�n of +err� �-nr�r �ettiv�en t,he T'ed an� �»a�h;+a r��r�rs. `1'�e�r resemrlQ ea.ch, o+her ?n 7ifholaair �'h�rac+�rs so �l.osPlv +1,�+ +-1�e„ �an rA �;s+�.rmt�;��?ed �n�,• Y+,r +re�r fo�s�.ls. Ap-�are�+lv C�n7Tl�?ln' t'?8'�'=%P,Pn i'j�P 1�eIO Sf9n'Pg jS q lilrTli-FI.0 �?f?� SL1C�'l �S f'n1�17f�. 1T] TR�.SSi.S511�P1• i.,rP..S'� Of �;1�.P. �Pr� T?-i.?rF;Y' �T�LC�'S�r f ngci ].c l�t�,,rp n(1t �PP,71. A1l�l-�n1-l.t:A'�'izTE?ZV 7'P,1�()�"'�P.!�. 5. The Gr�n� Gnl f �f I o��i s; �na � s TTnnAr C'li ancene. 7t-s rel at; ��s to +he TTi �1rgllUrP' ��'P, 7101' k'Tl^�ArY1 6• �'O�rP7"?71(r i;�P.. SOti�4-hP7'7! '')Qv"t nf' 'F',Y1P 1(1�IPr (;1�i1�n7'Ylg ti?'P,a aTl� �.� l pf' 'i'�'iE'. Jae�son and ?Tic��sbiarc, P,X('P.»{-iy�cr sma�� sr��ts, and ex+Pn�;r..a ��er +he �Trand �71z1f �zre �een qizartz san�s, �ome+imes �ith r�r�•7P1, z,%h;.rh �ear a r�roti�rf;h o�' lonr�-1Paf n;ne. '"hese sAnds rest>>vn�or_f�a?mably on +hP l�o�ever terrane�. The n�rle "Sp�rt+� san�ls" i s *�r�nos�cl fo_r .+,he*n. 7. qccmm�amr;n� t�e le.r�er s+reams, oc�i�ny�n�- lozxrer le�Tels thati �he Sparta s�nc�s, are w��e se�ond bo-l-t.oms. monoc�r�.n�z�all�r si-i.11 lo�v�r A��e the nre s ent a7 11,zr; al t*� J 1 e�rs .(( 271 l � �_. -1 �- A?..^�pmym-,'P F;��IIOGR4P?�Y OF P.�PH;RS DEAI;IT3G i�IITH Tu��' �;OCET?E PAL�OTTmOLO('rY OF LOiTI`; T ;1 �.' A ( ( ?7- ;�01 � ( i nm i++ p�j � � I.00r1LI`"IN;S FROi��' 'dl�ICTT FIUSSII:S A'�E LSSTI�;T; ITT T?iIS P;`�P�R�(;�r''—g?i) ��om�++p��� DESC'%IYTIOT,?S OF' I�TE45J SPECIr;S ((�?_�2� 1 ((om�+,+Adll PI,ATES ( r F;�-6?�1 � ( ( .nmi++e� 11 zr�n�r �6�-c�11 ( ( omi +;�t-�,� 11 — 30— � � IIscs �. s8s BZTII.:� TITI 6g5 RrL�TI(�N �H I��1DSI:IDFS AI�TD GL�ICIAL ' �. _ _ . : E SAN�'Jif��il`JTr�INS, COI:OR.ADO bjr ?'�a11a�P '�'�. Attivood jTril.'F"P,a ��':�i1'P,S �e�lo�i�al Sl)?'T�Ptr �sP.(�7'f?'P, e'�:�S �ITt'l�i-�')� T11.T'P_,C+07' 1918 ((Bil,. ref.: �'uY�. o�' the !�. S., �R��,� 19F:�: *6R5. Rel�tion of lanc�slic�es anc' Placi�l clenosi+� +o r�ser�.*�ir s�+ps �.n +l�e San Juan T?ol�n+,e�n�, �'ol.o., b�r '"�. �:'. At:�*�ood. 1918. �8pp., 8 pls.)) �-----_ - -- --------- ----- - --- -------- _ __---- --- ___._ - — - -----___—_-- _--------�-- ------ -- - - - - - -- ----�+ < . I . : ' ; t, -. � � � _]— LTscs �. 6RF RELATION 0� L:APIDSLIDES A?Tn GLQCIAL DEPUSITS TO R',�,SERVOIR SITES IrI TriE SAT7 Jt??�T I��Oi�?TAINS, CC�LORADO b.r ��r�1 ] �ce ''r, At;wood TTr_itecl S+at�s ��oln�jcal Survep BUI:I�ETITT 6R5 1918 (( +�?�stra�t not;es and t���e re-F'erences� 1((� - quo+,ed fooi-.notes) ) / �.":rOT'� S � — �EL£�.C�rej;S .................................................................... ((P3�es 1-4: T�+1P na�*e, c�nteni-.s, and � i s+ nf il 7»str�tionsi i I�TTRODUCTION( ( 5-7)1 1� r�n�+ �f �t-},e resernn�7' pY'OjP,Ci�S ar� �csoc,�+ec? ,��.i+.h �he are�+. �1���a+Pd c�nTr�ns ��' +�e ran�e or �F�ith 1.a1,-e r�s�n� in tvhic.h +he v�zaters h.a�e ?�PPn ar+.ificial],y rAised. 2. In s�mP ��' thF;m +.he s�lect-� or. �f +he 7'P,S6r�rn� r s-i fe has a�nArPn+lv bPPn �e+.ermi.nPci b�* fhe OCCI]T'7'PY!CP, nf �, narra�Fr !*�ra�e �r ��ns+-rir-"-Pc� nn.-+ion ir� ���± r.�21�r071� f�0*Ftngi-r2�TCt f'1^nm a i)t'���� O'�f71� �s17'�'I1.�'P, r)Or+].r1T1. �, T21 T[!�?lV O� f!12SE ?Y1n1a71'f',�,171. ?TA.I�BZrS� hOWP,zrar� 'F�1P. 71�''rt�tnl ',70r�f-innS }'l��e tIPG'71 formed bv �hP �.en�s;i-.;on of la,r�e masses �f lonse m�i-.P.ri31, Pi+her of landsli�le f17' n} �l�csal O?"1,�'iri� 3Ylf� St�Cl'l. n''�'1�f'riA.IS }'IazrP, 270'� �T'O'Re�! '{'O �� ZUa�P,""t1fr1'��-� n.. ARost of +.he lakes in tre molirt��ns are �lso �e].�? b�ck ?�`r a�lacial or la.nc3s19.de dPnosits.((�1) �. 7nasmt�.c�� a.s exnerience has shrnnm +,h�+ manv lanc�sli�le mass�s ar_�3 cert��n of +h� clac�al d.enos�ts are noi; arle to r:�i+.,hstand the p7'P,SStzrP c�f a h�.r�h head of �T�t.er vrithout serio��s leaUa�e, i.t- se�ms desira�hle to publish a. descrinti.on of the mountain c�n�rons ��� +r��: c�enos�ts commonlzT ?ovnd in them and of the r�eolo�*ie. cond�+i.ons assoc��+e� ��rith the lakes in the mountains, so that, in +Y,P fl�+t�re, n� exnFns�re @?'�"07'S need be di�P +o a f�;lur� f� rPno�*nize fhe �eo)os�i.� forma+.ions bor�erina� a nroposed seserr��-ir S?1-.P,.((711 LOCt�TION( (71) l. The S�n ,Tu�n 1'°ovr_+.��ins arP �n thP soi�+.h��re�tPrn ;»rt �fl Colorad_o 2.. The lof'tiPr su*��+s in the .ran�e risP �o Ple�rations of �ve�� 1,40Q feet ((sic)) �. The hi�*hPs+ nealr, l�r!���.�n �s TTn�ompah�*re, ras an elena+i.on of l�-,:�06 feet((s,•c)1 r. ��l��h nf t,rP r�r_�e � s abn�re ln,nnn feet ir ele�*�+; on. ;�. To the 1^re�+. t-�e ?��r�Prir_� lov,rP•- 1�r.�s fpt-m +'nP Colorado P) �+eau, �^T�.ose ele�-ation is �e+.vrPAr 7,��n �ncl R,Q�O f Pa+ �l,o�re +he sPa. �. The, TTncomnah�re �'].�+ea.0 li�s �+ +hA rior+hr;P�+ �nr� r�nm�S iri el?�a+iori �'rom g,n�� fPet r.?Ar +-re motani-a;ns to �?,Onp f�et, ar� n+ � st;ll mre�+?r �li.s+�nce fr�m +,�� monn+a;rs, +� 7,cllln feet a��v� sPa 1��-e1.. �� TTr�r'i-1'i. Or' }"�� ,"?T1F�'E � 7n +hF �rj(+irlil'zr (1f l"np-F?-n��� i71 i-1'1E3 P'7"P.fi1� Zr�.��Asr pf '1'hA TTnc�ompah�*rP n;�A,_, +hPrP ; � an arP±� a.+ a1�n1�+ �,nn� fPPi-., h��� just= ee.st of thi s �.1" P� � S 'i7? !?+Y, r"- n�.. "'� P, � V � i S'�:'"' C f' nr1 r� g C+ -i Y�_ m '+" � P ��i.1'1 Ji� � r_ � f 017 Ylf �1 ' P. S VTi �f-?1 '� }1 P, �'*��+,� r<,lk 4�oi�n+�;ns, s��nd �nto +r�+ nl �-eau �-he Ri ack r�n��ron o�� th� �unn� s�n has '�P�n ct�i-. 6. To +he ea.^1- i � •Fh� l�ro�cl San ? ui G sr�.l? �,r, ,�.i 1-h a r*�ner»l e1 e�ati on ^? �r?�ui- 7,0f1t1 'F'P,P.'F� �nc' on +Y�P s�ii+h +hA n1a+��lz ?n� mes� �otan+�r of nnrt:��rn T?et*r ?^exi co. PHYSICnL, GLOGRAPHY(f7-1�)) � I. PNYSIG�'rRAP�iIr F���OLI�TIC)IvT 0�' _T',N, ?��GIOT?((7-911 1• `T'�'1F� ��171 cI1�321 c�lS'�'7'�C'" �'?�^ 71�1.SSP,f� i;l'lrnlln}'1 q. rP^�£ir�''��Z.P, �'enl0�'�C }'?lS"�O7'?T a. The esrl i.er oh.��1ers of th�i- h; s+or�r n�ed n�t he revietiv�d here, 1/ �. F��,i- the l�a:�er c�hanfers, �,Th;ch 00?7P7' an -internreta+;�n. o�' 1-he nresF>r.t tono�raphv, 5�1017�.Cj �P, �lltl � n�d . -�- 1 7� Th� �a.rl•, s*Po1 ��z r hi storsr of i;h� rarme ;� c1 ��rl�r st�ted i� th� Te111zri�e, Sil�.*ert�n, rT�ec11� ?Foian+��ns, an�? nurav folios of �h? �eolo�*-i c At] as, ptal,li_sh�d h�r +,he TTni_+��1 �t�t?s �Polom-i.ca1 Survev. 2,. n,+ t1�e enc� of rretaceo�,s tlme the r3n�e �nnr�a,re� �s �_ �re�t mrnan+ain mass_--a h�a�e clome. (See fiu�. ?,.)((a�st p. 2Ai� a. �i�rers went to work iapon t,hn+ np��ft�d ].�nd an� C�r�rP� ni,+ t-he ear1ST Tert-i�rv Sgn Jl.�an 11��ounf�ins h. _Alpir_e t�la.ci.ers WP,rE? for-ned in 1-.he l�asins amort.e, those mo�int�5_ns qn.d. descended t� the neir�hborins� lov�rlandsi(711 c. In time, -Fhroiaa�h +he comrine�l eff'orts of ri.vers, slaciers, �r�_nris, and �11 a�*ants of .->rera.+herinr�, +,t�e moimtains Urere remot=er� and �h� re�*;nn �+ras roduced to one of lo�v relief, n�t far ahove sea level. ((7-8� ) d. Before t.his ��rork �^rr�s c.omple+ed rolcanoes h�r? l,roken oia+ i.r_ +�e ran�e, an� t�t� i-.Y�� Pnd o�' �li�ocBne epoch ?�qst amo»nts of sar_d and e�ravel were sprea�l ou+.., ozrer t1�e western part o�' +�1e area ( i 8) ) �, T'ext c�me a. seconc� series of vi�ler_t and extens?ve volcr�nic outbursts a. rrom num�.rc�vs �rents fra�mental materi als zvere thro�n i.nto t;he ai r, an�l ].��as ti^rere no»red oilt over the surface b. I-i_+tl.e bv lit+,1P +hes� fo_rma+ions, cnm,'-�� from ?a�m,r C.P,n'(:P,7'S� built un �,.n ex+.,ensi�re volcanic plateau, Tvhich, i.f restored, would ri se �t- least � f e�*T thotasand fe�t aro�-e +,he hi�hest s�m.a.ts of the n,resent rana�e 4. R�r this t�*re the Pliocene or ZR'tP, TP,Y't]AT'V' epoch had been reached 5. 4fter �he de�relo�ent of the mre�.i; volc�nic plateau the streams a�ain undertook �heir �vork of di ssec-Fi on a. Anotrer rant�e of mount��_ns vras carvec] o,�+.,, �nd once more, �f+er the r��rers ha�? tn7n7'�P,�� fnr a l.on� i;me, i-h� re�ian 1^ra.s redl,�Ad i-o � lov�rl and not much a,bo�re sea lejTel b. The ol�' siirf�ce *�rod.izce�l a+, i-�,.�+ +,ime i s Y'�pre��n+.ec? h,y 7*iant* ��' -4-h� broa� starrmits �r_�i 7n-F2rC�i��r�2'1 ri.c��es ��' +�� nresen+ ranre 5. Sti..li l�+er +ht, ��n Jv�n area ivas as*ain uolif_'ted �z. This +,ime 1-t�� erosion surface +h�'- ha� jus'- be�n pror?l�ce� ,�r�s do�n�d ?�. Th� si-re3TMs *�rere .,'_��rj�<,rA.+.e�3 b,• t�e �rea+er el��a+,ion of t,hP moiant�;ns �nd bev��n r�+ onc� to locrer i-he�.r ��i?rses �.. A lon�* ner�.o� �f stream erosi.on +'ollor�er�, anr� asso�iate!� ��it-� �t ZrIP,T'8 �+ le�.s+ .+,hr� e s+.a.�es of r�l�ci;�tion, cl�iri.�� e�ch of ti�rhich +�e mounf�i.n ca.nzrons z^rere o�clalp-i.Pd by a.ce d. Throu�*h +.he coml�i.ned eff'orts of acP �nd �.va.+er +he najor features o£ +,t,� pr�sPni- tano�raph�T �reNe d.ezrelope� 6. S�nce the melti.n�' a?�a�?� of th� l�st mlaci�rs the�e ha.s be�n a renevred �nd V7�0]"Ol�S R'F'1.FaC'.�r nTl "�}'!� MO1771'F;a_�.�5 hz'' S+'I"E?f3P1S "?1C�i 1�?r ��.�. f}'IOSP. Fi17'P,Tl'�S l^'�7� C}7 assist 9n. +�,� ti�,rP�.1�eri�� or disintep;rqt��n of rocks.((8)l �. �r�s+ uantiti�s of loose mater-ial h.a?re be?n ta�-en c�oti�m +he c�ns�on i�sal? s�(8-9 ) ) b. ?'he mo1�n+,ai_n slones left too steep +o st�nd ��i�e� +he last ice Tnelted h�zre loosened, arr3 mre�+., areas of ]andslic�es h�t�e been formedi�9�� c. Th.e morain�� c�e-�c�si+.s, lef't, bv -t-.he �7��-iers cont�in 1�.Ue basi.ns, znd at manV places stach denosi+,s ha�e ��rtiv fillec? the ?ralle,ys ar_d e�en ponded �i��^s�r,ea.ms . d. Tn i-he hiv�her molantai.rs i:her� are pl�ces �.�rhere the �.ce act-�zall�T m�t�[*,ed. basins oia�; of' the sol,r� rock, and in si�eh l��.s-ins mTa+.,ers hati*e aecl�r.iul.atec� e. 1'�Lid flo�rs �ncl +..orrentia.l fans h3tre also nonded CP,Ttfi'ln o�' thP strP�ms 9n�' �n�is��' 1.a.1res 10 comP �r_+o P,`{�.S+PTI(`P, f. S omP 1 akes ha�P bPen f il i e� +�n� others hazr� ?��en �lra.i necl . r�. �road flaod pl�ins ha�te '�Pen �.er.elop�d, an� b�T t'ne in+r�nr,rm�r.+, of s+reaTM� colar�es belo��� former fl�od pla.ins man,y +err�c�s t1�n� h�en 1.eft - 7. The r�n�e -f-o3da�r i.s ?�e�n� ac+ine7sr eroded, anci �r@at ma.sses a.re sls.pnine' or sla.�i.n� from +he o��rs+e�nened mountpi.n S1opPs �'. 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'"�-.,y� - 4�ir ,'1p y'.-'. �'F 1 •`i � - . � t v r� "°� a-� , . . �, . . . . .n'".�.. i:. _? .. t � �k? � � �� z �w�'�z • .��k '" ��,��.,.�� + � -� �< • �- `�: �' ��.,* �. � ' � > rU, x. ; .1' . _G.r, . . . _;�_ USGS B. 685 I I. GT?'r�AT C!�NY02TS (( 9-101 � � 1 . `T'1'lf; (�'I^�`l1. !'`�II?TOI7.S O{' 't;11? .�i^.71 e111�1�, 1^P.^'i n77 }'lE?:](� -i11 �'l�F' ('8'C'i;1"t'1 t�a1'f nf' i',�iP, m(�17��i-fl.in ?y�n� 3Y1,� 1 E?�!� 7"df� l�� l'tr 'f;0 '�'}"?P, lln7'C�P,�"111�" T1] %1f'2�3L1S 2. ;?+., '-�c�;r heqds ar.�. a-F, i;��n hPacts �f +�,e se�t�ral tr;blztaries ta these �na,;or c�mrons t��er� are brna�?, open seTM�i.c-i.r�ula.r areas whe~e the sno��rs coll.ec{-ed c��irin� t�,P sever�l e'laci�.l sta�;es and formec� the a1T�i.ne �la�iers. s�.. TI'lE? ?riA'()'!' Of' �CG' �C''f;lnTl� OZr�-n A�'; t')'!.P 4P.T'�T bP,lTiprii_nc* Of' P10�?A?r1P.I1f;� i.s recor�ecl in these r�ncient cat�hment basins �r r,irqi��s b« .;� ., m,inr* ;n�n +,hP �01.3.�. 7'Oclr �,,d l�tr r�r�o�red, poli.shed, and dP�. �*n,� _ stri�te� surfaces . h. Th� hor�erinr� ti��a1.7 of ��; r�ve i s usua.11t.r �rerv steep, in pl�ces nrc��it�zi:ola�, f�r thP ti�.rnr�r >>nclernea+� +hc� �l �nier ]Pd +� r�. c.�nt-i.nual P,Yl��.I'P'P?T1c?71t; Oi' 1'�iF'. (',f3+C�"lmg1�'F t�T'!?`�� SO '%'}1fl..�. i;l'1P -in-tP,!"—��?71�rnri nY' �.ntercirr�t�e ri�s*�� 'h�c^M� narro��,r�r an� n�.rro,,•��.r, l�ca]l�r even CO??11�E' {'O S�'1FiY'T�� l�P'n'e�l� S'�7'i{;O�i;�'1 ±'01'1'!S c. �i�rina� t;he neri.�d oP maximizm format;nn o�' ;.�e t-hP s'Zarn pe�?rs vrere a.11 tha� rose above +he r�1��;e,-s c�.nc� '-h� assoc�.a+ec� sno�+r fi.el�9s. �. `�'}"lE' C�itC�1TTtE?'1'11 �.reas !iS EX�.7R7.112r? f;n—rl��. r�n.1�'F 1?'? F1.]'E'9 frnT^ a fl^q('.1-i071. of a squa.re mi.1 � to as mlach a.s 15 s�var� mil.es. :'. no��I_Y]S�'''P,9??1 frnr� +�h� ci r�ues the cantrons us�?.a] 7�% ret��_r_ �r_ oz��n or U-sha�ed f'orm - ' - a.. �e-inF �.n shnrp �ontras+., to lzn�� ��i ated c�r�rc�ns, si,ch as +,he �la,c?� r'a,��ron �f t1,e �unnison, a+ +,�z� n�r+r m�r�9.n of +.h� ranr. e, �nc� +;re T�l�se �'�rp�e, at; +,he so„+rP�s+,,, f�r slach strPa.m_ero�?e� c�ntmns �.re V-sl�anec7 , b. Th�-��t^r�l] s o�' +-re �reat can�*�ns in +,he ran�e arP in ��laces smonth ar_�a eve?� no7.� she�l from Yce act� on. c. The b�ld or fant�s-f-i.� .rock fea+.,tzrPs ?rdi11CJ'1 certainitr must rave e�; sted there �e�: or� t}Ze :i ce nassed throi�.�*h t�E= can�ror.s havo hee;n re�o?*ec? ane� +.here is a°e;ener�:1 s�.rnpli.c;tv to tlip can.�ron ti�r3l.ls((9i) c�. �'r. the flo�rs of -t-.�,� c�m.rons i.� -i:� nz��_�e�?t, a+- ma.n;�� pla.ces, t}Ia+ there h�s bepn vic�or�u:� ice act�on (i9-l0i) �. rr7'OOVP,!� �?�0�.1.."il'tf'� � �1'1� S+r13i;Pr� Stl3"�c'].C'PS f3.7'P, 6'f'l�.l nT'E'SPY'VPC3 � 3l'ICj. Vt�S't denosi.+s of �la��.al debr�s are l.�d�ed i,n +.�� 1�tiRr�r nor+.,'ons of the vai l��rs . ( (1C�11 4, T�ar1TT of +he tr�rtatar�r car_�rons t?rm;.nate several hun�rec3 feef aho�e i;he bot+om of t�� ma-in can�ro?�, s� that th�-ir ti�a+ers no��r tunble or fall into th�; m�ir_ �;or�e a. Stx�h han�*�nm �ra.l.le�rs ,�aere v.si�.�l ��,T oc�lzpieci r,y i.ce, btz'- t�e def=nenzn� l�T(1rL- Of' �-}L� %Y'l�ll�;`�1'�r g;�.Ei( �.P.rS !'E',� � i'fl.�' �!`LO?"'�� Of '�-}t`la' ACLSOl71i�`�"SSI1E?C�i b�r +re r�7 a.c� ers -i.n t�e Main �.�.n--or_s . . �, The floors o�' th� r�lacia+ecl can��ons a.re very :i.r}'e�^ta1 a.r ���, �o n.n+ ha?re the norm�7 �r��?;_�nt,s of s+,rPam �nlarsas, for tl,e ti�•orlr of �*lacier ic� -is no+ cont.rollac� b�r t��e sarn� 13ti-rs �hai- c�n�;r�l +h� t��orl� nf rtann�r�* t�r�.ter a. In sor+e �l�ces the 9 ce has s�ota�er7 oi,+. roles mtarh l��l o:� +.,�,e T�ner�l p�r��i i.ent r. Tn o+,rers ro�1.- hi11s or trnabs l�a�*e be�r_ 1ef+- on +h� rloors of the valle�.rs �. TYI� �lebris ZP,�'-I- 1�V -4-Y�.� jCP �llirin� �-t;g �t�v�?7.Ce s�r�i t1n�12 i-l-.s fi.ris�]. mc�l-t-;.n� h:�s �.�c�ed ;ni�nerous �ei-.n?l.s ;r_ +-tiie .+,o*�o�*ra�h�r o�' t��e c�nzron flo�rs an� the 1cr�.r�1- slor,�s, so +h�+. m9,�,r of +�,e nnst�la.cial streams in su�h c�m•�ns r7 c���� ��e,-� �n ��Fn+1�.=, r�ra.�; ent s thro,��*h mea�3otiJ lands, there over roc':-V nlac�s �.^r?�ere ca+,ara�.+s ar.d r�n�c�s exi.st, �r t�rol�ml� some n�rrrn�• nn+,�r �u�- � n � ro�lr le� �^e or morain; r r; �1 �-e 6. Some of the la1-es ;n the c��z�TonG Q.re r?ue +.o trese �rre��a]ar�.ties �n t�i�; stream bed, e;_tl-+er ;.� +.re so�.ic� roc_k or ;n +,h? a�laci�,l de1->ris d• r`�t; ??l�?2t:r �13rGg Vf�.�� C�t1�'Il�'�';i.E'r OL`' ma+eri.a.l have 5�.17r'�l�E;C� 'L11�"O �'i1F, c�r_jron fro�^ one si.�?e or '-he o-F:iler, or from l�oth 5��1es, sa �s to r�locl�: tY�e course of the stre�.� b. .qt � feUr p1a.cAs mu�as ha.zTe forr.!ed �.nc� cor�e r�o,.,n +he c��zton clopes, ar_c� opt�os��'-e -F;r� motath of each sm�ll '•-ri�u+.,a.r�r s+ream +�ere -is usix�lly a 1-orr�n+.,� �1 f�n. 7. The recoe�ni.ti�n of }hes� looser clepos�+s s.s of s*�eci al simn� �'i cance i.n the se].ec+;on o�' resPr�r�ir s;t;es, 3n� e��h clas� ;s descr;l�ed in de+��l belo,�r. - 4- III . GLACI�L D�POSITS I�T TH� C�TYOI�?S ((1�_� ?1) A. TE�.leRlr? �iL It'�0'_? �IPT�S ((10-11 � � 1. ':"�'�.i1.e a�lacier occun�es � moun+�in c.anlron trere is constant ?no�re- mert d.o��,m tha.t; can,yon 2. The �,a,�ls �nd th� flo�r are scr�.��rd bare of lo�se ma+.eri�1. 3. A t th� mar�^in of the �c� in -t;l�e pos;tion of r��ximum advance ^�:cess- �ve �eJt�.nt� �s ta7rin� nlace �nd. hea,z-�- ��p^G;.+s of �1�.c��1 r�r;.ft �cc,rn,a]_a.fe 4. TTpon �he �';na7 r1e7 tir� a�^Ta�r of the i.ce th� s�err� s i s tancoaaererl �. .�'UC�l � C�e}�OS7_'f;� Z+I'liC�1 S�'IOUl(� 71n7'!iL31�V CI"OSS �1i.8 ?rA�.�E'.s! �S � C'i7r4P,� or crescentric �elt or rid�e, 9.s lrnnrm as � 1-erminal mora.i.r_e 6. 4s +�,P ;ce carries c��ffer�n+, �-�.nds �n� amo»nts of c�eY�ris i.n -i.ts d;ffere��t rorti_ons, th.e deposit �,^.ri.11 n.ot bc; of uniform composition or un� �'orr-� '�hickn.e�s ( (10) ) 7. As �-'�r � ce c1ur�.n�* seasonal '�aria�ions m.os.*es forti�r�.r� or retre�ts irre�*ularl�r a.t �ts mart��n, �uch a c?ebosi.t �=ri11 11a.�re �, ver�T irre�-ular or hur�maclrv surface forr.�.(i10-1111 4. ThP +-erm�nal morai_ne in. �anjr TrallezTs ;n +}�.e S�n Juan �"our_fai.ns is a belt thQt crosses �.he tralle�r anc?_ r�.nr�es frnr� a£e��r rod.s to �mile iri Z�Jid-Fl-i��7.��� , �?. At either si.de of th� can,yon t��i.s m�rainP �a�r rl�nd or c�nnec-F�^*ith � lateral mor�ine r�enosita� a,t th.e sieie or the nal.lei� or on the ZOl^��2Y' 61.0�(�S � =iS '}-h.P� .I.CE.�' Tnelte� `�-l�"-,TS11�T. �.. 7.n. The reco��l�t5.on o�' th� �e�hin����mor�ine rests unon (1� 7ts tonop�r�.nhy, 1^rh;.ch is roUa�h or htr�ocly, ��Tith lrnobs a.nd ?�ettles (2� Its co�posi.tion, for i� is a m�ss o:" .:�ton�s a.ncl bou7ders oi' va.riot�s �ir.�ensions, �� mttch �s 10 or l� fe�t in di.amet�r, interm�n�led �,^,ri+h r�ra�rels, s�n�s, a,nd rla,ys ( 3) Its s+rvctvre, for in mos1- cross secF� on.s it :i s a�n�rent trlai-. much n�' t�e ma+er-i.�1 ti�.r,�^ noi-, cnrried �r!c� dex�osi-t-e�3 bV ri�nn�n�* �'da,f8l"� 07' C��pOS'ii_•�C! lYl S't0.T1�7T1P; Z"73i-,@Y'� f}�e �reater. D�f.T't oi the m-ateN3al bei�?.m unstra+;fi.ed, +hol��^h ,,a��i-�1-in. mall�r siach rlep�si+s t;here are �oclrets of str�fifi�d sar_�ls ��d Pra�rels (4) '"�c� st�har_p�ular shapes of thP s+ones ( F� T�e scratc�,es or stri�c-: fo���1�' on man�� of fhe si;ones 1� .'.'ihen such a tel^mi��l mora�ne is �pnroacl��ed fr�m c?o.�mstream side it �azT �pnear �s � a rou�*h or hill�r belt, usuall�✓ �^rell ��ro ��c?e��, a:c-!-.en�ain� aeross the ?ralleV a. Tr.e strean �na�t hatiTe cut but � narro�nr notch throu�h �-.he moraine b. �nd rapi�s ar c�taracts occur a.t such pla.ces 12. As s�en �'rom tl�e upstreP.m s-i c�_e i.;��c= '-.p_r�n� �.a�l. mora� ne is not; con°� �nl.�T SO conspi�tao��s� r07' 0Y1 '�',)'13'{; S1.C�E'. i-.'-tP m01'E�7_7l"iC C!8'?ng�i S l]Si�.�lltr Y�E?CO'?l2 trrad.li�.l)« ].ess an�? l��ss �3. "�C�SSI��-,Tni T.�p'_�AIP?LS((7.1-12i) . 1. '"1'-�en i�ne ic� f'ront re*n�i�s stationar�r for � considera��.e time �'l�.rin?' +he r�ene-�al nel+.,;r� �nd r�;ces�ion of the mlan;er morair.�.c deposits �c�umta.late at such ��,r�;_n�l �,os�.tions 2. Those clenos�'-s rese�ble +.he -`e�.in�.l mor�ine� �=�r�r c7-oselv in tonomra.ph�T, maferial, �n�l topo�,r�.phi.c rel�+,;ons, a.n� in b�;nr* fror_t�l, bv.t thn�r a.re U11� L'e -Flie i-E,�'TP-jrt�.�. �,iOT'`1_t212S 1P '����.'F '%;)'?F,J r�0 ' t'G��i'�SC�Q'� {>>"1@ '.�067.';70Y1 =1 O'�; of the ice �'r•ont �t i'�s m�.�imurri ��lv�.nce 3. Se�reral stach recessi onal mora-in�s ?na?v be lod�ed in a sin�*le va17 ev, �nd �t E'.fi.C}1 2T�01'8.111G tht? S"�Y'G"�m CO>>.f �"Tit��r �2 Sn*nPTS�'_��f; COYlSt2'T.��:GC�. 4. TTpstre�•n z ror� such mo?-a.�n�s, r�.s .f. rom +-he +�rr�!�r_al morr�i.n.e, '-he z;n11 ->;r !'loor• mazT �,e l�ss he�viltr mani-.1.e�? �-rii-h �1ac�_e..l drirt �nd so a��ear broac�er or more ox��n 5. TRan�r reces�i�ral. moraines serjre as nafura.l dams, rlo�l-i�^m +��P dra.�na.�e ��7(i C'.aLis�il^� 1`alrP.s a. In cPr+�ir_ �-allev:; amnr_t* the San J�i�n 2°oia.r+�a�ns tti�ere are chains of l�?.-es caused i_n th�.s �.���.zr �n.� conr_c�c+ed bjr small s+reams (� 11 )1 b. The loti^;�r;_n� ��' ol.a.tlets has drai.n�d m�r.sT lalr�s thnt e�.isted f'or � t�me ar+er the rnel�,�_nc c�f �he ice, anc� tl�ose lake basins no��r �ppe�.r _5_ LTSGS B. g£,�i :�� me���v:rs or sti*ram�y ] and.s �.n �`h� coul�se or the st.re�m. 11-1?)1 6. Thtzs the rlountain stream mav f] n�°,. �'or some d � s+,�r.�ce �'�rour':1 �. mc��r,c,:• -i,�-�,-� ;+- ���.N � lol�r �*r��lif�r_-t; �.n�' r:eanc�er t;ti,ere ,;,lae'� , �., ri.�r,,.�„�, �_1, i e.r�4, �1,� �. c� �r,,,�� ,�i>out � n -l;1 �� ; r floo� �1 � � _::� ( (12,) � 7. "!here sitnh a s+re�m le3tTe� tl,.� ol�' l�kP bottom ��d crnss��s the m�rqine ;t ma,:� ha.ve to flaur thro>>�h a n�rronr �orr�P, q�� .eri+� falls end rapi.�is in i�s cotarse i+, r�av literallv fizmhle do?�.rn +o the le�rP1 of the nPxt m.eadosF�, a.�^in to mearder +}�r�ue;h an �ld l��re bo.+.tom an�' ttamblP to a st-i.11 lo�,*er l.evel, Qnd so on, lantil +}ie �1a�i�+ed nort-.ion of thP cAnvon ;_s passed_ £�. The constricted courses of t�� s+,-e�ms ,���st be1 o`Rr suc.h la�<e-bottom meado��rs have o�'ten been selec+.ed as c�.am sites, a.n�' thP farmer lailP basi.ns �.s +he sites for reser�oirs C . LATERAL R?ORAIr'�S ( (1?-131) 1. '"hen ��ralle�r �1���_er is i.n p1��e vast at�ant�ties of m?fi�r-is�.l loo�ene� bzT ti^,eather�n�, rair_ u��r?�, nr s+reams r�.re carriec� doum tti,P ?��tznta.-in slon� �n� clenos�+.�� Q,� r;�i�es on +,�,c• i�^ br� n��r i.+.s mar�►i.ns 2,. Such r? d�es of d�t�,-� s are l�+Pral rRnrR� ��s, 8.T!�� on th� f;.nal �P�t,�n7 �f t.h? ice th�tr co^�P i-.o �"�Sf 9t, the si�es of t�.e vallezr 3. Thev com*^onlv conneci- �+t fhe drn�•ns+ream enc? �a-�+.h +�+� term�nal. mor�ine;>or ?vit.h. on� ��' the recess�nn�l m�ra-ines �. TTns+re�m thP�r become 1PsG �n� less nrominFnt �n� ��P rni+. bef�re +he cat;chm�nt h�s�n is rPa�hPr� .�i. ThP 1�1er�1 mora�ne commor_l�r reseml�l.�� a. rid�e 6. T-�� unn�r Si1rf�Ce ma�r han� so loiv a r�re.d�Pn+. as +o su�*�^es+ an olc� r^�lroad �racle on f�P �fzn�,ron �rall 7. There m�v he a depress� an be�h�reen +he lai-er�.l mora�ne ar�? +he mrn,ni-.a�n slope, an�1 loc�llj,T �m�ll l�b•es r�re held i.n si�rh c?e�ressi.ons. �?. �'�'here r� l a+.er�l moraine crosses i-?�e moii�h ��' a tri�ti+ar,� stre��m �nn�in� �av follow �nra a sm�ll 1^l��e thi�s co- e into ex;.s+erce �. St�ch lakes have cor�monl,y ov�flo�ve�?, the�r olatlei-.s r��re reen ZOi^�P_7'F;CZ � 8.71!j '�O—f� ��T '}:rE' ?OT"CilE,'1'].V 1�OT]C�P,C� tri�?utart,* s+reams _flo�,u throt�mh mPa�1o�,•s or�upv�n� +,he sites of +�!� f0I'T^Pr 1_akes, th�n �cro�s i-h� lateral morainAs, an�3 co*nP into +he m��n vsl ? e,ys 1Q. The nos-i+ion of the 1 ater�7. mara�r.e on the t*al1 P�r wall renres�;n+s the M; ni�mzm ele�raf i on of the �.ce 1-h.a+ occuni ed +he rnain c�n•-on a. The ; re �uas certa�nllr som�,��ha+ p']^P.n'�P,r :i_n thic�rness i,han the e].eua.tion of tr� ] aterr�l. mor�ine ab�tte +hP stre�m ��arr_�1 r, T�'nr 1-he m�t-�ri�l of svch a mora�ne �c 7P+ �o,.•n n�r►�ans 1�� or 2�� feet di�ri��c the ?^P,li'�n�^ �f i-�^.e �ce hPf�.re i.t bAco^�es l oc�ced on +.,?�e s1 one. 7 1. A+ some p1 aces in thPSP mrn�ntain���nv��!s +�e tirQ.71 s ar� +o� st.�ep �-� r.�r�;+ +rP loc��m�nt of su�h 1a+,e=-�1 f�.P?'�glfg� a�r� t-�.e m�+arial 1-hat ��roialc� ot�����; se havP f�rmec� a � a.+er�1. morair_e com�5 10 rest on +,re flo^r of trP �Ta1 1 e�r( (1?,l 1 a. T�'1@rP ;+ �o�s r�t ha.�e ��ist;,,�t ridr�elike form �. Rt1+; iF 2T1177�'�.P,C� •��1.t� 1-}1P. P'E�n�r�]. PiGT^i-.lf' �" P'7'nliIl'� T!10"'A�.YIE' 1�ft on tre final mAltin� of the ice((12-l�ll 1?. I�? �om -p�si+.; on an� S'�7'17.C+17�"P +he � Q+.P?'a,l mora.in�s rP,SPml')1.P, +r,� +�r�ir,a.l and recessi on�l �n�r�ir.es( (1��11 a. Ri�+. �!-h?t= �o no+, cort�;r nock�ts �f str�tifi.ecl ma�PY•ials sizch as are common in 1-?�e fr�n+A.l morai_nPs b, m�e s+.or�s in the la+eral mo.r��nes �re m�rP co*�TMonlv �n�*ular +,h.�n t;hose that t�rere C�7'T"]P,d ne�r +hP ras� nf the �l.�.c;er D. ?`i�DIAL 1'.ZOF.�II?�FS f (1 �i 1 l. '''`�er_ a+r�b�itar�r c*1ac�er 1,n;+Fs ���t� ��e in t}�P m�in ��n~ron +.�e )ateral mora�ne on the tanstrPam si.de �f +.hP �"ribti�;s�rz,r r*lsiri Pr -j�;rs +he 1.�+Aral moraine o+' trP ma;n �1 a�i Pr ^nd f�rms a mec��.al moraine - 6- �. ��q+.Prz.�l sn a�,cumtal�ted rests unon fr.e �ur?�,�e o? t�.e �;laciPr, bvt or_ the f�.n�l meltir_� of the -i.ce �+ ;� �eno�if-ed on +he fl��r of +he ���von. ;�. rTere �nc? +here a �i i s+;nct mec3; r�1-morain� .r� a�^� no1^r ex� s-�s or fi�e floor of � �*1 ac��_a+e�7 ��,11 ev �. 2t ��rot,l�' sFem i-�n-t- as the material o�' t�e me�?i�] mor�;_n� *�r�s �ra�lt�al].v 7et doti�m di�rinr� +,re m�lt;rm �f tre ice, it bFcA_.r.l� �i s+r;_bi,+ec� or (ji Spr rSr't� , and so b�c�� a nart of fi �'f',nP.,?"?1 ma.n+7.e o.f �lr;ft on t�e flaor of thF �a1le�.r 5. Short �ec�ial-mor�.ine r�_��*es TM�a�* 1�� nresen+ Q+ the ,�Zan�+ion of a tr�h,�+.�rv ��rii-h +�P m�.i.n �*a71ev E. QUTV�i AS FI DEY OS I TS f(131) 1.. nnT�rs+re��m frc,m the +�rm;n�l an� re�es��onal mor�inPs n�s+ ntaAn.tit�es O'�' Sr�Yl(j `iYl� P7't�VP1 �t'P <'�.rr�(?r� ni�'�" �1,. �}�(? lr��'}"E,'7'S ?')'lt�+' f'ntt�P f'T'017� '�l'1P, PLP�'f;7.n�' 1C2 '�,� Th�go esZ?''.�S R�'lrl vrAZrP,1S ZOf�lj �"1�8 StY'E?13^'S �;C7 'F�'1P.i7' Ut'�1n�'t Cfil�A.(;i�-�T �nri _ , 1-,1111S COT'T�02'1�.V �Afi� '{;O �;�'iP. 6A`trr�rl�i;�.Or 02' �lx�_1�.7Y'�P' l�D Of' 'f;}�.4 f10�Y'S �f +,he ?ra� ���rs b�Trond +he nos;.+..; on of t�e ice front 3. �ucl� o»twe.sh denosit-s are �a17 ed va] ?�u i-r�.�r_s 4. ThP�,* extend. from � fetiv mil es to as mtich as 20 or 30 mi1 es bPlc�vd the +ermir�l mora�.ne .�i. '��hf;21 'f%]P, p'ls_iC?PT'S f'�Yl.��ltr P1P.�1P,(� a?!razr ?�n[� f-1'1P, S'f;T"'�.T?18 �?F'(`�?T1E', C;1."'i?'eT'� hAZT�)'1[�` �P.SS cierr,:S i-� �.arr��, '�",h.E?3.�" V!-'.10!`1'rle5 1AIP,r'e lnCr'BA`SP(� at'1(� 1;hpz� Zn�nre al)1 F: i-O lotar�r ?'1�.e7_?' COttT'SP..B +�'1rt�Ulrh i-hnS� 1.o�SE �p?�oSi+:s Of' S'�Yld s�r�? �razTel. 6. �'OSs1.7�1.�r an. ti?nlif+. r�i' �f-�P, ra�1m� 'npl���d +n r�ttirl�Pri �t-1�,Pi]- zrn]Or��i�5 7. T1'il�c i-hn gi-r��m �haYtnr,+l s=�7'e i-o-c?�?r r��+r�n�l��d b�l q���r +11P nl� flnn�l- Ti�.!1�Y1 � P,T+'P�.� (�? f�'� si.C;� nl t'�r?e� .�y'}ri �f-l�n r`nlrtyl,•n1']1-$ Of' t'l-tE'. Olfl f'� �?(�(j p1 a�ns apr�^�r �s +e.rrs�ces nr t?�n�'-es �s ,,,i��l� as 10� f eet 3boz-e +he pr�sPr_� s+re�ms R, n,+, Pa�h s+�r�e of tr� rP+r�a-f- �� trp ;ce �ra.st; n�,^�nfi,ti.F,� of sili-s ��rere ,�r�Gl�ed ot�i:; t�e•rnn�l .+h� -i. cr� f'ront, so +�na.+ fhe ro�?; �s o�' s+raf°i�'iecl san� �nd �'r�t.Tral �n�v be �'�tand a+ sever�l lo�ali�-iPS �n �F}?P, �Ta]le�r, �?tat �tsuallv +,heu lie -j�as+. ?�elacr t�,.e froni-a.1 mnr�i,,es��l�l) IV. PrPGSITS OF DISTI2'C1^ GL�1C,I_'�L rPOGHS((�_�1.11 �. Tr +ti,� �,n �Tuan re�*;o.r. nr(�nf' 1'1Q� '����n nl,+c�;n�� nf a+ 1.�^G'� 1-1�r^n �is�ir�t �7 a.�.i a.1 51-��e� di�rinr* +�,e l As-F lon�* ner� �d nf Pr�si on, i� � ]�-��- "�'f'1F,rO�f�� �'r� RT�� q'1'�f� T"_P,�'�'lf'.T'� �r. P�� T�^P. P,ri(�8.r�a nf' tl'lY'PP, disa-�nc+ m1�ci�.l eno�hs �r_ t,�,e Ple�_s+ocene ��i�t�r^* of +�,P S�n Juan. 1'Toi�r+q-i�s, Colo.: Jot�r. r�enlos�y, vol. ?.,O,x�?n. 3�'�-40q, 1912. 2. Tn th� earliest of +,hese, T�•hich. is c�l]ed thP Cerr�� star�e, ?.,/ the p�,lacia- t;on ?n�s t;he mnst extens���e, a.r_� trP mnraz.nes of' thi.s s+.aa�e r�ve been 1 �r�elv rem�t%er� . :� � 4. 3. ? 1.4 a+j�r�od, ''r. �r., ^�eene p�1�,�3�1 c�en�s�ts o�' soia+h���es+�rn �`olorac�o: TT. S. ��eo1. ;1]rzTB�T prof. P�.per 9F, n�.1h-1�, 191�. ^_ felar scatl-ere� remn�rts, �11 of T�rl,i �h e,rA a1�n„e �r o��tsi�le of +he modern canvons, ha?re bPen f�i�n� at sev�r�.l p].��es �ro,.,t +�a .narff�_n of +,hP ran�e The r�lac� ers �f the :i.n+erme�?�;.a+.e stA�e, 1-ro�m as t�e Pvrar_�o, inre.r� -in+ermecii�-Fe in ex+ent, biit; +�e,r occiipied +he *nodern cam*ons, �nd a-�Pir m�raires a.re f�r+.her d��^m .+,�ose c�znvons anr? hi�her �n +.hP slones t��n t?�ose of the l�st stqQe a. m�,.� nur�nao r�lacier� �ere �s a rr�le fro*n 2 t-o � m;lf,� lon�er +ran 1-�e �l�c�ers �f +,hP 1�st or "r�.s�onsir. s+a�e b. r�tos+ of the +ermina7. mora.in�s of +hP n��r3n�*o ���.cm ;rG ra�� heen remoTrecl b�� svbse���Pnt erosi on e. The ] a.+eral moraines rem�.in, fl�� a+ mamc �1 �ces the �Ut•,nrash �lenos;t�s of tl��i- s+a�*e maz* re ;dentified m�e �1 �c�i a1 d.enos�.ts ���hi�� �re of i�*+ec�.�.�te si �ni�'� �ar_eP in +hc� nresent discla.ss�_on �re +hose of the 1{ast or "�-iscon.sin e�l�cia]. sta�e, .vhi�h h�ve -�- T1srs s. 6�� bPen de��.r;bP�l �hnTTe in deta;l. V. I:.9r'DSI.I�L D�;POSITS((ln._1=1� 1. �''hPn �hc� 1 as+ �� �_�aers �lis�np��rec�. ir�m t.he San Ju!an ?,�olmtains +.?n.c� c�.njTon r�ra7 1 s�rer�• �.'- mam.r pl � ces so s+Pe� th�.+ as �^rP���,Pri.na� �.n� �3isir_+e�rqt; c�n �f �t-re ro��-� n.roc�ressed ?r�s+ ��aart;.+;es �f th� ?ra+erial sltamped of'f' e.nd. slicl t� thc� rQsas �f i-he c�l; "fs. ((14)1 ?. ThP 1.an�sli.�3e masse� as 1-he�� a��i�mtz� ��e h�tiT� an excPe�3in�Iy ro�ar�h tono�ra}�hv( i 1 511 � c'1. �'}1� 6'�(�t�Ofr�"3')�'!iT TI1�V T'P.SP,TTIr].P S(�n1F,�T�I�'�' 'i;}l'i�- nf' �, F'l R.CI £11 ?11C?2'?i1I2G' r. Rta+ ;n ��rfra�t t� t;Me mnra�r_e i-.he �nd_i��du�.l landsli.c�e m�s� com*-��nl?T ?'1'�S OTIE? ZOTIP'c'1" AX?S� �^*1"ll.�r ?�?�!.�P,S �'� r�d�e7ike, �Tl� t;11E? lont�er aFis�or c,rest o:� t�e rid�e ��ri11 bP apnroxir��+elv nara.l]el +o +�e clif{ fr�m ,�rhich +.h� m.as� slid :�. "'h� ]ar_�sl;c�e rn�.+Pr-ials �3-if�'er �'r�m t�� �7a.c,'�.1 de~��s�ts z.n +hat t�^ev are +�nr�vlPr,�n� thP �n�i.�;_c�iaal stones do no+ �+�4P, �olis�ecl an� s+.riated s�irf�cc�s slac�h �� a.re nre��nt on +.?�� s+ones of +..�,e rr1 A�� a1 �7ri ft 4. ^�±P 1 a.nc�s15.�3e c�en�si+,s �3o not cnn+��n so 1�rP a�*a.ri �+y �f s+�r_es as +?,e �l.a.��al �e�osi+s, f'cnr �-hPir m�+Ar-i31G *�us+ come frnm +ti,P fe�r� fo�m�+.ions renres�r+Pa in +rP r_l�f�'g �,�,c�r� +h�m F� ThP 1�ndsi':i�e masses �ire a1�o ��' sma7lPr nx�-�nt +i��n ,+,hP �^1�cia1 �.P,�OSIi'S� fiYl� 'f".�i'1P, C'7"I'S frpm ,.rhi f'Yt i-�'LP,lr Y�n�?E' r0"'f; qT'!? t7cU.Al ��,r i-.n �P, SP,F'ri 6. There is n� ass�rtment nf -bh�-m�i:�rZa7 in +h� lAn�'sli�e *nasses, �n�l in +�ha-(-, resre�t +?�eT,* resP*nh1� +,�P �pnosit.s IP,fi; h�r +r� me7+�rr* �ce 7. A�^on�r +,h� l�n�s1,'de �r�s�es thera arP small „n�lr�inP�! �3enres�inns, �nd in stac�. denress� �ns ] a'-e5 m�v f�rm �.. ThuS +he nres�nce of 1���Fs nr nonc�s in 1-1�e lo�se �?en�sits �f the moim+.�;ns is n�t a nronf of �f-�� a�l��;Al orzr�in for +'���sP �epos;l-s t,. �t, s�me nl�ces land.sli�?e ma.sses check dra�.naRe lines �n�l non�i +-he sfireflms, �o t.h�t l�.kes h�ve come �nt-,o exis+er.ce. F. Ia.n�'sl?�es ma�r coma iro� i;he opnos�,te si.des of a mount^in �anitron an�? ?neet o� thP floor, or th�v m�1r ceme •.ra�th so �reat. zrPlo�ity fro*n one �rall of a c�mron 1h�+, thev cross +he strea..*n coiarse and Q. �ide sevPr�l hun��rPd feet un +h� f�r+!�er slope he accumul�t.��n of loos? ar.r�ular m�+eri.al �t. the b�se o� a cliff ;n. +.he unner nort�ons of � c�m*on, r�sn��ial7s! in +he r�rent catchmPnt s�,�`n�,g� iS Sp01<'P,ri Of' r`aS 'i'£i�.Us. a. The i.nd3?Ta.�u�l blorYs havP f�ll en a. ie�r 9.t a�i*ne b. I,ocallti* ir_ t�es� basins, an�i in � fe� pl ��es farther �rn,vn the r_an�*or_s, hna�� massP� of i-al��s m�zter-i�1 ha?�P r�drl�n o„t or f].rnrre� otat �'mm +.�+Q �1_i.�'rs, flnd as th�_5 »roce�s i s ��or_tinl�Pc�, o�e 7nass af+.er anbther follo�tii.r_� trP same �rs�.�k �n*,+m +r� �orn+a�n slope, lan� �'orms are nro�t�ced 1-�,�+. rPSPm�,le �re�i-. mu� f1OT"�S� r,?+ thP�= are com�os�d. of Pn�ula.r +alv� blocks. c. Ciach rlenosi+.s h�ve bePn deGcribec� as ro�lr s+re�.!r�s 1� and are somF+.i�^es cali e�] rock P� ac; �rs, +he +P,-m imnl,,;nm t.��+; tl,e mass� �- ��,ras frozen ar.d mo�-P� r�.s a M? a�; er, althoiir*h Zt wqs h�eTri 1;�� loaciec�. ��ri+r +h� ane�u� ar fra^�mPnts of ro�lr tvas-!-e .(�] F11 1 15 Ti�e, rrne�i-, I:�n�s1 �de� in +h� San Ju�n I���unta;ns, Colo1: n. c. �reol. ��,r��P•r Prof'. Paner 67, lgng. ZTI. LAKES :4P.10'_'`('s TzIr F�OT7T'TTt'�I;TS ( r lg� � ((nre!�omi.nan+lzT refers to S�n ,T�aan T_`oian+.�in�sl�t'-Ps11 ( � om i+t �ct l � VII. TOnr,��,"�TI_?L �� T,O�.,ITS IrT T.�i� I��,rGT C"�T,YO?iS ((16-17� 1 1• T?l �ir?;aii'�fSTl 't;0 t"rf', P']�(`�si� � 1'311�5]7f�e� ^nrl Tf1L1C1—fln�er riPnOSl�'S 7.11 1'1'1P_. C'aY!'•OY18 'f"}'1A1'P.. '�r� f*7'��i- f3ri111'2 '-'C('1�R1171.s?i;i071S Oz1-^OS�fa i-,1�P �TtOU1'1�8 o�' +riY�t�+�r�r strea?ns�(1611 2. The siae st-ream taSt��11V �nr!ec ov�r a?�nrt.• s+�Pn c*Y'ar�iQnt. �nc3 ?-�r7n�*c ] ar�� �uantitie s o�' �'r�srment-�7 m�+�r; �1 or s+ones, ,^rh;.�h hAzre been snmc�v�rh�t ro,zn�lec�, an� ,rrhP.r. +�� Tr��i;Pnt is �eet-easec� �s +.he +r�btzt�rv rP���Ps i-�+a �ain �*�J].P,r it 7m��t �en�s;t ;+,s loa�1ii16-17)) �. Th� hea�-;er m�+�r;a.l �s �r�pne� first, the s+re'�m sanar�+�S into SP,Z*.P,Tf1I �i.�+.ribiztar-ies, ^r_� m�r� �n�l m�re of +he ]oq�l �s �rop�ed, -P- t1I'p+-"i 1;_r 1-�1P 6tp�?.l 1 g-I-rE;�"'fi 1'1'1i]"� 7'F?�1��'�; f'rr'lm fl�tE? Cnrii-in179� ��T*� Fi nYt nf i-�� ����.+ers �rP +'�ne s�r_ds an� �i1� s<,r� 1_?.;� �m�m((1711 4. Such �.n accumul �tion has ifs anex �t. thP ±nrna+.h of +he +rirtata.r�T �or�'e an� 510j�P,S radi.qll_,y for nP�rl�r 18Q° �'r�m +h��- no�nt, t;�v�rarcl t�e bn++om of' the val? e�T, so th�+ ;+ �o-��s to rave a fan7 i'�-e form. 5. ne�os;t.s o� t�is ]r-i.nd from two sides of 1-h� cam�on ma.Y *nPet, or a �i.nale fan majr �d?ra*?ce fn +,h� f'3T't:i'lE?r ln�a.1.1 or th� ca.n,ron, �n� 1-;,us t�e s+ream �oii,-se ,rsi ll be bloc),ed an�l a l a're ��=111 comP i_n-t-.o exi s+ence VIII . ST�tEAIri CC`tTi-�SES Iri TI� L:4'�G�R �TAII,EYS ((17-18� � 1. The a�tu�l chan�el �rrhi.c,h +he stream. follo•us thr�t��h �a canvon that h.as rPPn �lactafied and affectP� b•r �an�sl��ies, mud flo�rrs, �nd torren+��1 �enosi..ts �s ext.remAl.v n�.r���. 2,. T�� cond;t'ons �rP so �T�.r;��1A an� fih� ninnl�er of nos�i�1P �omhinat�ons of +r� fac+ors 1-ha+ h�ve i.nfltanecec� t�e. loca+�on of +he stream �s so are�.t th�t thP select�on of a si-t-e for i-re d�� f'or a resert*^�r requ� res c+�reful exami.nation of �'�P c�r.,?Ton t'!�Y' s�me d� st-arce ur? and c�.oti�:m -���eam from tr�� �ronosed sit�r, �nd a f��1.1 ap�recia.i-i on �f trc� �c�olornic cor_d;+.zo�ns �crnss +rP ent�re �ridth o�' th.e c�nv�n ,�l�st beloTr� tre reser�roir. (� 17) 1 �. The s+-�es�ns of +.re S�n J��an �.'o„n+a�ns are all �•outhful7 4. ^�*en af+er th? �rea+; deepen�ne� accom�lished c�t�r7na� f.ra thr?e e+a�es �f Pleist.ocene e�lac�ation t?�P s�-rear!s a.rA lrn�*er�r_� thei.r co>>rses. �. It apz�ears i-hAt- the movr_ta�ns are s+�l] Fro�nTin�, �n� the b�se-level to ���hi c�h t-he st.re�*ns are deenenin� th�� r cot.�rses is r�a.r� 1.otivFre�i ;r, +�e ur�at mota.nta-i.n mass. RESI�RTTOIRS ( (18_ 3g)1 ((omi++e�)) �i� � ,. �' �J ZTscTs R. s2o-E �t?Ti?;TIr? ���_F I�?.0?? On�: IT': CAS�, iEF�PI�1?, T��OT��IS, ,4T`?P.. CHEI�OKEE COiT1�T?'IFS, TEXAS b�r FY'T�es+ F. �?t�r��'t�rd TTpi1-P�7 Si-.�+,e� �Teol �r*i rr�� Su7'�*��r G�nr�e �tis S*�i+,h, '�ir��tor 1915 ((�;�. ref.: P,ab. of the �. �., 1Ra�r l�F�: *6?,0. �on+ri?��\�+ions to e�ono?+±i.c. :�'Pn10�'�r(sh�rt *�aners an� nreliminar�r 7'P,�(�'"+S 1, 1�1�, pf37"� 1� T�E',+;A.� S?I'��.7 ]"�nrinl�'i�q1S� F'XCc?n1' f'17n1.S; F'• 1. •�AriSO*�? Fi?1� ?i. S. Ga1e, menlo�is+.� i.n ch�ro�e. 1Q16. �ri, ?61 n�., '1_? �7:�. '�'�P.� T7'OT1 07'P, 7ri (',qcc� T,Fq]^�Oi1� TR<�rrjg� aT]ti rh.E�Y'O�e2 �0171�'%]E'S� Te�. , b,r �. F. Rtar�,l,ard, n� . 6Q-109. )) -�- I�?C��' QP� IT� CASfi, ?"A�I(1rT, 1t"nP'�'IS, �"'D C�1i�',�()�'E_r �:�ZTTT'�,Ir'S � `t'T��'X/iS bv Ernes� F. �'tarc�nrci ZT'L�T FTI1d g?p-�; tTSGS B. 6?.�-E 1915 �oY,+r;l,n+i�r.s +.,n econom;c �eo]orrv, 191F, F'art I(na.aPs 6°-1�?91 ( ( :4rstr�ct n�t�s �nd par�e ref�ren�esl ) ( ( l,f _ fontr�+es 1) ( ( � , . .. - 1 - bra��rets�l .......................................................................... Plibli she�l ��i-ober ?.'�, l gl � ����?'e5� I� TT: `Pi fl P nR��� �r �O^finptS �11!� l j ct O'F' i 1111".+r�f1c7T'1Si � zTTTRonITcTlorT( � s�-�o11 1• iL�7k.ik�k##� i'i- �Rr�c f��rPr1-p�1 �-.1'1��1-, A 7'P.CnT1T1=3iSS?r(`<' nf' 't'}'iP. 9rP,H. �"' Tt'larlp ip 1-l�0 �'; ���z7 �.r��r 1°14-15. a. A�corcl;ncl,r +•ha ��rrifer snent frn,r z�,��tr� ;r. nor{;`hP�s+Pr„ Tex.�s ;n +?�e al�tl�mn•,of 1�14 �. !� Pln`'t" OT�^f1Y'1177'1P, i"imp� F'f?r -�-1'�c rP�11�'f'S r1f' P,7r�l-pYlcir.� nY`C1Sp!qf+�-ir�m ivere +hPn on�n for �r_,�ner�+�on. C. ��P. f'OZ � OSrl7 �'ir* T'in�4-eS nt"1 t;�''� n1-� f� f�i ri Rn(� '!+S �P.�-P,l O.P.r!nn'�; �l7'P.. 1JT'P.cE'�2'i'P.c� in +.�,� h�ne +-�at;, +oRethPr ���i+r t�P l�+Pr3+i�r� 7 i �i-ecl af t,�� �„�? o�' +�e �aner, +.�P« mav ft,rn-i sh -F?�P �ss.�.nti al fac+s roncernin� se?*Pr�l. o�' +he mos+ fa�;nrt�i?1� si+t�a+e� �f tha nrom5sin�* deno�it.s. �. T�� r�p�ri-s l��r ni�*�1,,1 P, YE�71P_P��,T� PPnrosP, ar.�l ot��rc nf +?�� earlt* Te��s Si,r�e�r (lf'��-1�9?..) contain � m�ss of c��i-� ��r_�ern�n� niatcronn;nm �f �re in ?Q or m�,-e co»n+i �s, hi.�t as t.ha,r are not i.17.�aS+rz�+P,�1 h•� �P+a;.l��. col�nt•T maps +.rP z,a1uP �f ml�nh o�' +�,e text 15 �or.Gi���ra��l�r ] es�er_�d . �. Tt07'P,OVP..r� t']'laSP, P,�'r')V �T1ZTF',S'�1 p'�'3'1()Y�S Z�TP,rP TTt!?(�P., h@f'nrP, SVS"FeP151f1.0 pr�5p��t��T1�' n�' i'i'�P COT1CrPti011s�rzr nrf?5 1'la� 27rP,T1 C£�?'i'1P(� Ori b. .�n� l i++]e tivas lrno*.�n as t.� +��ir N�rt,i�al c�x+ent an� +hP i�nox-i�i �,�c�. i ron carh�nate c. T�e lamir,a+e�? �re bPc� of rherol-PP f'o�,n+�* tivas b�++�r l�no?r.m, be��ttse i.t ha_� been o�ene�l bs:� m�n;nc* in sP?�ere.l nla�es. ?. `T't*ln �?r.lP,? P,x3II1-i7?�+lC1nS n'f' ?".1'IP il^On nrP,� iI'1 '{'1'1'1" fiP,1f1 h�r� �ZrP,�r?sr bPE??1 ma�1e bs� t;he TTn.itPc3 �t�tP� rT�olor�; ��l G,�r�ev. 3. Th� f; r�-F �r7qS R. rPC`.C?nnEL1 g�.�?'1('P, n'f' ?"1'lP Si'1"�t'f'1t*r��}1�r qnr7 +�P. i T'n71-OrP, r�enoG;.t�c �,�r I,a��*rence !'. John:��n 1� in 1�?Q6-1�£'�. � f� <Tohl'1RnT! � I. r,� T1��+ i�^nrt r�tri !n?7" �f' 2'tnr!-hnrn T Ot7i g j?n+a Tl� _ � P.fiS�P,r'71_ `T'E:3CFiS: �n'��'? �',nTtm.� IS'� SP,SS.� HOl)�`P., F�'. nnC. �.n.�'� l��F''. �'. A71(j. 'f;�I'?P, SPCnTl� P'3F Ei ?'aDl� iE'C'n71?1�� ��'-37!(`p, Qf +F?f; 7'��Tft"lf"3F+P..•,n T»p.t nr t;hP or? (��.Sfr'+C�" b,f �'� f'. �'cl��l 2� ;n 1914-. � 69 F;C�'P.1� F. r.� TrnYt nT^Pc ��' nQY'i'�'!p3"i'(?T'n TparqS: TT. r. !iP,O�. Sltr?-e�r Rull. 26C?, pn. ?4f�_���, 19n�, C. .TO�IY!�Ori�g rnpn�'?' �nP,S Y�nl rC1TiS'Cj('Y' f}'1P. F'C:OT10?^lr f'eaf-tirPc Of' 'f'�'tP, iron- beArin�' �'.P,t�osl+s.(fFc�l1 C�. (lf 1�;.S rn•,n ••:�or�: ';c�-P.1. s£i`rs: '�`T'iPr(� ,�nC?� �°J�re i.tt Z*iE'�nr -- a. t?r,'pf r(?poi""� on -F112 ?17'G'SP,l1-h �011rii+'tlY1 F�TI� f'l?'f'i7rP, t�I'OgOP,(`+c n{' {-hn i1"nri irir�l�rt'1^�? �Tl� t�21 f�7t3R1'Tl'�.�'iC1t'1 (lf' {;}-�� rii.c�4-riCi- p�*��}-h n, zriPti`r i-n SP,Z.P.,(?"lnm �7'F?S f�T' MOt'E,' rlg+a,i�ed rrnrlr.����6�_7(li� ] 1 Tt�� report �rra� Y�ri Pf� �7ni � ?i It de^cribed con�l;-F��rs �+ ro*nnara+l�P1•= fez�� Iocal�ties _�_ tTSGS B. g2Q_r., '�) �n�' i_+s c�ncl>?si�r� utgth 7'P,1ra?^� to f,�tt,r� orosne.r.+s of t.�e iron ;ndv5+r�• *^; s*�+ nc,,,, 1�e rP��r�Pr1 as cons�r�r�+-iz-e i.n +he 1� r�h+ �f resi�lts of rrcer+ nro�nectinc�. L:OCATI��i A?'� F.XTE�'TT OF OR.F; F'IFLD( (7�-7211 l� 7'l�p ir�r-�re (�ig1-T'iC,i; nr' T1.�*'+L,oq�+-�?r'r1 TP.XflS 17�5 ��+t*iP.�'71 l�R.�"l�111P�S ,r�i�0 '�C�T Al'�'a ..��.z'O ,'ii) t T?� `�ytr3 rpnr�f'�'iay1S ��� `-iilr? �E'j(� 11T• `r�T'1'� T'�F'=1S112"PS r�taT�l��r '�bOla+ 1'?F mi l r � ;'rn^ nnr+h +,n gtit7-1-1� =JP_c1 17.n ?'ti�. F'S f'T'nm a�3.�i- +�� ,�Te�+, (��e �'-i�*. ?.)i�Qt>st n. ?,Ail 2. P�posii-s char�c+erize� as brov��m �ron �re have �ean no+er� b„ +he mPx�� rapin�"1��] �taT'�rpV ip t�"1? fol7olnr:i_no� �l COtiili-jc�S �r.*ii-}-i�17 'f'Yitg a.^P,�l.:���f��� �, �. �. n.r_�erson (' s�mp (:t�SB !',1�Pr'O�P,E', r-rer�� �arris�n ��er�� �rson �!n1�1r1I1S �rrnaston pTa.r�.on. A?n1^ri S ���aco��loches Panola �task ,�,' c1Y17.?l8 � en Au�*�a�t; ne s!'1P.�17�r Smi.+,t, j?-� c?�t� r jrari 7,�nc3t �ood T�e c��.stri?�lai-ion �f +hese ores, �Ti+h t,h.P ex�eof.��n o�' certain de-�osi+s in �amn, uopkins, and tTnshur co,�ni;9es, -is sh��rtm in a ceneral �^,rav on P] ate IiT �f +hP Seconci Ann�a�.l neport or +�e Texas reol o�ic�l Surve?�, nvt,li5he�1 in 1E�90. ((7011 A l�i-er man, �sho�vinr� the sqme ore deposits �ti�ith minor a�d3�fons and inc7vd�na� also the 1_i�nite oui-crons ancl m.ines, blast .furn�ces, a.nd nrod�acin� oi7. ?ields, �ar�s nubl�i.she�i in 1912 by '��illiam B. Phil?ips, d� re�tor of the TTni�ersit•T of Texas Bure3u of �conomi ��eolomtr r�nc� Tecrnolo�-�r( (70-71�� _ S�uth �n� sotithwest of t�-is are� isola+�d �eposii-,s o�' bror�m ore have l.�e�n n�t�c� in s�veral co�n�ties, one of �onsiderable ex+,eni- in G�nza.les ro„r+,r ha�r�n� 1-�ee� re���+�.1�- z=� s�ted bv �r. Phil] it�s. f i�71) 1 7 711�Person».1 nnm.�,ul,;ca1-,�,n, DecemUer 191�. 6. T�nouranh3c mans o�' the D��n�erfiP7d, 1in�?en, and 4tl�n+.a 1F-mini�te c�i,�c�rarmla�:, a].7. in the r.or+hPrn na.rt nf +h� iron-ore fiel�, kaT*e he�n i csue� ?,•• -t-},P 7Tn; te� S1a.�e,� ��oloPical S»r�*ez.r. ((7?11 THE IRON OR.�((72-98)1 I. TOPOGRAPIiIC RELATIOI?S((�2)1 1. T1�P SUr?a�e of n�r+.heqs+.ernTe,r9.s ;_s a n7 �te�u, ��n tn 60� feet abovP sPa ] e�rel, th�.t has beer moderai;elv di ssPcted bv erosi on 1-o d�)nths �f ?,�n ta 40� �'eet. 2. A�'uch of +he sl�r$��e is a�era+l�r ro11;n�, t�i.+,h sh�l�o�nr st_rea.m n�.]ie�,s, bi��- +'�e hi�hest x�or+.,'.on� of th.e for�**�er nl ateau are nc�t fl�t-tonned ridr�es lv-ith s+_,eep slones inc:ispd rt.* sh�rn ra.�*ines. �. Th�s� fl�t-�opnt�d ridmes a.re �en�r�ll�,r narrcnv and crooked Qrd h�a�e ?nanv sptars or bra.nches 4. ?Tl L�ZRC'P.S� ho�*,*eZ7'c9r� �f-hf?�r i�r�_�P,71 OU'f; '1Y1f0 level 3Y'C?�S 8 2R�].P, Or more i.n �nridi;}1 5� T�,eeP h-ivh 1P��1. sirea.S a.re n�rticul�rlv 1�re11 �PTMeloned in rherolreP � o�,nt�, �� Tl�p�r hq4P. pPrS7Sf2� re�atas� of' the r�rPa.tPr resis+n.nce t� eros�or offAr��l rz* �ertain reds of h�rc? sanc�s+one �nd_ ]imon�.t.e �vii-h �,vh9ch i;hev are e�pned. II. GEOLOGIC ??ELATIO?TS((72,_�a�) 1. Tn +he irnn-ore ��strict of northea.stern Texas tre st�riace rork fnrrnai-.i0�'1S ronSi"•'f; ['h-ie�'1?* of' SaT?�, Cl'1�r, p^r�aS*P,1� a'2d Si11;� Zra.1'�rincr �r^�+l�r ;n �;heir �?e�rPe of in.c�.nr�+ion bu�� nre�omin�ntl•, soft nr 1it+.le consolidated. ?. The r?os+, recer.t denosit� -- ti�ose +?��.+., �'orm +re �+ars, flo�±� plai.rs, nnd t',B1"'"ti!'P,.S of s+re�ras -- �re af� �,�.a+Prna•�r �.�*e, l�u+.. +-he e�re�t ?f1�FSE?S Of S�TlC� �77C7 r�£3.�T 'v'.i"�'1 �^�l��rh +1'�ra l7'O]I�O�'P �P,�051.'f"S 9r8 QSSOG7!l.'�E'l� are Of ea.r]�.r TP.7'�;lal^ZT &P'8�"�OC;P...?'1P,�. USGS ?3. 6?,0-�; F�mtarP �.i(71.1 �__('i,-f-1 ir� r:'�,'� O'�' -}-1� .P, +']nr+!1P,-�F�"prtl Tp,7C��c, i1-f�r'—C)Y'2 �i-ig-4-rir"1-� ('r2n�t�^'tr Yizr A1g.�oY?r1�,,- *lllr?SSE',71� ,�.-i�"�h '� .'';f''.'?1'S 1'��j T',. �+'• !�l]?'(`�?��'� • r',. � P,' �/ � a , q. t �o X P ��`r��' ,.ip� 3 -� 1'���0 n.. 4.,�e� ( N�'� x Y ���`�`F XQ..��O � �.xy 9 .-- -%'��, � �)t1:<�rsor� _ ��_ _���r1' ,p���narSN�'� , l ��'�1. � x�1,rF , - � " ��'�/ \ �7:: , -Aa py} ' �'�1 �f ' ' _;_:;..-�' � � a i j1y;' �/ �y ������ -----� i � f ��•q �� 1R' --'�!-- j' � � �., J a J5w 7�x � :-'.� y . F �. ,�1 _ _ . �� ,�`=- �' � ' j � +� �%'�t� J ' �_--=� � � : -�,....�„��: _. - � , ; �: � � _ — . f , " C�" r��1� T�"()�1Y1'�'� l Y'1 .! 11t �• ?Rnt�nt; ��1n,�n f??1 ��h5�f'1jr f�SS. P'�Fl1�C. mar� s�• mn s� s ti�* �� r�r �r�si ,_._. �; ._ ; :�, f,;.; L_..� _ l�r P,—i� n-^ r 7'n r^ }r.nr�; (T?�aml,rr T'f fpr� +n i � �..i— •1 p 1 (��n,f � � _� _`1 L_ ,._ '.Zl �c}� ;'17r'�arP I ;_�t nf nrF_nP�r1„� `^r��i-s 7.. Ro��riP uill �. Pr��it+, �. l�.sa�+er 2. "Ta+,e,-s 6. �'�.rr� �' 1.�. r;, �1,�r+ z� F�i�r.i.r� %. �TPrniP'�n ll , TTn�+tnod. �. G,i�r�..,i-,+ �. �rr 1?. ZTP�l's ,� _.. __ .. � `°LL _ ^�n�rox, . '�oi�*�� qrv -af ; r�r_ ore ci � � 1 r� �'- ].3. S'-^�;P m�ne ln., S� �t;e m��e 1F. St-ar R� �rPs�ent 1G. Ta,sGi P T'•e17 e _ , . ., , . � y„ , 4� .,- �• , I' , �; , • .�r �. .... ,r�� . .-r .. � � ,'iCif'+: , n'?'+r•�i. ..f�,.�',{•...1 ,` ' �� I. .. �' , . r �v�..� � : ,. �'i� '��'' � • .. l n`_. . / � ' I � -!� ., � ' . ,^f �- � r ' ". . � �1' .. � '} �' �' .. . r � � .�-F i � � � . . � � �� j . . . ' , ' ( f" �"^ f rv ^r �� T. ? � �_y ''�rt' � � � ry.,,r : n' ., . . !. � , . .,.�r ,.r` � � r _ . � . ,^�• ' �;yl' �� • y �ry� r��� ".T.. -r�rfF' ,r y C' RT �1�+line o�' �eolo��c fo?-m�+,;ons ir nor+,hc�ast-Prn Tex�s bro,�m-ore c1i s+r,:_et( (73)) S1rst�m S�riFs rTro��t� an� forma��^n Thick- YIPSS USGS B. g2�_E 1 ; �f-ho1 c� �v �17Af"a,r71_EiY'jr RPf;P.ri.'t: �''P.!?'f' }'1t.7�?'j��"i�t; f�E''.�C1S]t;S� Cnf1S1S'i;- inm �f ',rcr�,,r;, rnd, �r black 0-FO s�ndv cla,y or si lt; of the low ��v��rflotiv �'P,�"I'G1.CP,S of +h� hip�h s-F,r�r��S; al �� nre^t�rit fl��ti- p1 ai.n ?na+eri �] s, inclu� in� S�rifj 9nr� mr�trnl ��ArS. • . . . . . . . . . � . • � . r . . . . . r . . . . . . . . • • . . . . • . . . . r . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . • . . . • . . . . . . . . . . '?ros; on i.n- +er�al ............................................................................ � P�lus+r;n� �n�� m.ar;r,� �c�n�s�ts, � c�ns;s+ir? �f len1icla.lar mas�- ] es of ��rellol^,; sand ancl clay; i.n �� � a n]a�es, lensPs of �reen cale�r- i r�}�k �'�o�,r_i;ain ��us, �*7�vconitic, fossilifer- b f��rM�t-inn 4�� olxs *�Pr1. Reris of l.i.�ar_ite and . 0 7-i �ni.te. S�me ��' +,h� cl.azrs � Y. ��^ry��r f'ngS'l.11f'�Y'0175 CA� Cs1Y'P,C�l7S n �o�,�r�+,gons. ForT*��.+,i.on as a , . � ?r,�1� n1 E� i s r18C7 � P,r� �tr f'P7'1"1]lT7.n- , OIiS � . ....................................................... ..... � i,,�llt,�;-rinF? ?,n� mct?"7nP C�E.'„�OSifS� TP7'+l'i2'V .T'',OC,P,Yte . !'.nTl6� Si-inrr ni' 1"C'�, ferr�a�i�nl�s � � ; ndtar�+�r� an� „r�l��.Y,7 �r altere� . T' !�:?nl]11i' ,�'P,�?71%�.T� ,�i�iQ mrn�r•i �nnr7� i•rjf'1� C'qSi-� ()f shel.�s, . o f�?�*�+a.+;.on 1�rsrs �� 7 i^ni.te���nd clay, and u t�eds an.� ��r_cr�t;.ons of 13!non�.+e. , p Th? f orm�+.;.on as ��uhol e i s . c�nsni�tzoizslv ferri.�ainni,s. ................................................................... i palus�r;nP, m�r�n�, ar.d �it+-or�1 '°T?lco� f�r!nat�on �e-��,s;+s. n-+e� n�i-: �nrrv ferri��- 7I'ln7)S (�2T?OSl'�'S Or' iP1'70?"f.'iriCP. ........................................................................................ 0 _;z,_ USrjS Ft. 6?,0-E :i. The +�Ffo �;onere forma+;nrs trrh;rh �,oni-�in +.he nr;n�,ina.1 �et�osi+s �f br.n•nm. nre �re +erm�� +r� �+Rrn,�,t Selma.n fo_rm9+�on. ���' +ro �no1� T"oi�n+.ain,: �'�rm�,+;on. a. Thase forma+.;.�.,s �.onsti+li�e �t-.�,e l o�,�rer tl�rn-+hirc�s nf thP C1 a;��rn� a�rm�p b, mheT,r o�rerlie +,hA �"rilc�x �'orrnA+,i��, ,9ih; �h i s a] so 1^aidesnrP�d in +he area, a.n�l tn +re soi,th +.hev ian�er�;P +t,_A v��va f�rm+a�ior., the tormost f pr?��+,� nn �f the (`•1s�.lb�rr.� !�ro>>p 4. T'�� mo�t recer_t nu+1 in� o? thF s+,ra+i Rranh�r of e�s+Prn Texa� i s th�t p'�?'A?1 �V nE;l18�P,7?� Z� "r�'1()SP, ?��PP.r lE 71�1�c1'.r�'t;FC� 1'+Y q A'P,O�O�I( ma.p f}1��; �ro,�p5 +o�*e+hPr +?�e ";�ol�n•i-, ce�m3r� �n�? �'ook 1'.�oimt�;n formP'-,ions, b��1- in IP_O�"P, �F?'F'.�.1.�.f',f� 7`'la.l�t�'1)'7� 1.'�: 7!la�r �jP, p(?ccil'��� i-O f��.f?P,]"P,P..'�;�a'}'P, �"�.P, i't,4�n ?Oi?Tl�tl�T1S.((7211 c T.i.. ',..� -, '•iro;.�,,^�� r� n�-.�,.T,.,� „m.] .� t_. c.t, n-" !-':,(, . •] 72 .??Pt��.sen, A1Pxan�ler, �T��1oa�v �nr? lzn�ier�'roi�nd t�13�'B?'F�i �� +}�e so��+haast-err_ -�3rt of +�,� mexas !'o�.�tal Pl�in: TT. S. rx�o] . Siarvev t�rq+a,r-St��:�lv Ps�.nPr :�'�F, p-�. ?6-R3, 1914. r. I'f; }1�S �"`E?P,�'? C�P,'E'P,,"?�1i.TIF?f� -1-1'1�l'�' r�f' '{'.j'1�? rif?1�(1Si1-S (��SC`11GSP,� Z?1 f'1'l�S na�,e,- -F�n:;f? pf' tti'lP 71nri-1'IF'A1'21 (`nl]ni-1P.S� �'ASS, TTnrric� TT�T'lnY�� f171� TTnS^17T'� '-lTP. C,nTnT�7't�'1SPfl �r_ +rP �A�1ani- 5�1��n fnrm�,+;�r_((72-7'�11 6. _±�n�l +.hns� n��,� T?Z,s]r, rhernlrPe f'rnm+,�,� 1n +h� �ooti� �!"onr+��n fo*-m�+Zon.ii7:�1� 7� TY,� O('C1a1'TPl'1(•P ()'F' t:�'IP 710ri-1^�rn �P,�nS�'�"fi ?n i'ha lnifr�r rn�1rS �fi �111P, 'FO 'f'�"1G' f'ttri' 1'1't�i- tl"1P. StT's�+,A �'?.l1nE' Fl Slirrhi' (�-j•� �11 f� S()1�'+'�'1-5017�f-hr»S'�'"P,r��� til�"P,�'f'�Ori� s� th�+. t�,� si,rf a�e b�zrPZs +�,P e��^�c �f +�� ro�T-s, �xnns;.1�* t.h� older fot'!'��,i-in?-t� t�rnm]^es�;�-ol.. n�rttil.�.arr? r�7?rl �nr�f-��,���i-,r,�?,rt�. f?. A sv�cinc+ �?e��r;n'-i�r. o�' +h� �iari'a�e rnrma�}o�1G in +his irnn-�rP distr��+ ( ari 1�E;S'}'�P A'ino?'! h�r �f�9.t�'I'l1'Ir� +�ng� nnT'� i.OPS (�f' nP.1tSGPn tF ntii-1 i_±�,o, pf' 'f'.�g Cen�zo�c� �onosits o�' +?�P mex.�s C��s��l �'lain 1� vrh;ch r�la+P to t.hP area. i( c�a.rt ars+ n. :�A1 �. 1 7:i11 n�u�s�n� �1P.XF1�"!�f'�"'� n�. �i+., pn. ?7-?.�. �, Tt,� �':ril��a f�rm�+ion, ��rrinh is +he olc�e�+ onp Pxn��P�l in tre ?��oT�,m-ore (��S'�rlr'd"� O(',('11711f?� �Or�'.�nYtS �?' lirl(j(?rcnp� T�pY�f�P,r'S771.� ?TAYl 7,��'?(i'};� ,�'i??1�t�'1� r'r'Cf?n'.�.� �,�rnOr�� T�0712rj.nS� `T'ii-U;:� (',3m")� TT',���"it)Y'� ('j'Ir37'OI��P,� T't�.C�r� ?"92'l(�T?� '��l''"?SnYS� �n11(��%i� ,�'.1'tp,��zr� T?�if`Otrr�O['ti1P,.�i� .S.''il'! �il]�'L',8i-i7�P,� �n.C� �'9.11.71e (;01�pf7F?E=. ��5�7�'il"I�' SlC�� 'i. 7'�' (�Of;fi 7'tc�i-. C'!3Y'r�r f'P,T'rlicr"Ipn�'c l�P.?lnSi.-�� nr' Pl',p2101?1� f' 1T'�1�nT"�;��'1rP, ](1. TI�P r"011]'i-1-, Cr��.T1�71 f'O''?R?�'1C?t� i� E'Xt�nS�?t� ].T7 ',1s1T'�"� Of' :�.?7't3ren�'1� Nr�i1r�P..t'POTI� f'1�+�rpirf�P,� r.+l��l'� r:rpmEr� ?I.�rr'6^7±� ��nrjn7l� 1'RQ1^ric� ari� (',fl`?S (`(�1�T'!i'7f�Fi. 1 �. Th .n l�(�nlr T!()itrtf'il.T1 r'nrmai'� O7? i S E?Y'�7�'F rl i 7! 1?n17c1'n� � anClE?'"SO�?� �'}"IP,Y'O�P,P,� TT�C'nfr�l!1nt,nc� �;qr� �,17m1i�'f'inP,� �.'i3���8.}'t�?1A rnl7n'�'iE?g�i%Z�� ].2. qs ;,,�?i����,� ;r t.he o1�t,7iTP �1,�--e, ((�?,�+ n. ?;411 t;t�e ����,T+ S�7mar �nc� ���Y �R�n�+�in: #'ni^r».+-i nn� �re ?�+r.�1 �Ti c�� �v s;mi] ar, al+�,o,imh '-he ro�k �`n17ni-9�71 ?m�+'r (`sirr��* m�r� ('Za�ri �%�—%��\ ` 1:�, T?�e ��enos,'+� o�' brovan:�re �e�'er��� nro��is-inrallv +� +has� t-�so f�rm�+-ions c�iffer in ��r+��r imnort�nt r.P,St�P.�+.g� �s ,r.ri.l ]�e shrn�•;n ;n +t,; � na.per. i�74.1 � ]tl. Ci�1 -f'he? r7F;pCnA��� of �Y'OTl OrF?� �t'1('��)��nm hni-1� 1i�?lc�rl��'P. fi71[� 77'(�I1 es�rhon�i-.e� Sn fa.7' 'iS O�SP,Y"�f;C� tiitr �I-hE? �n?ri_-I-P,r� f{rp GGP�JC'i?i-Pfj Z'I�_f�'1 f''�s�.t�r0?'1�f1f' S922(j. a. '"711er� -the s�n� i � mor� snarir.�*1« a1 ei,cnn�+� c+.�� �er,os�+s ure 1_P�n�r l.r' 17'OTl� ttT��� �Y? f�P, �P.�S �"h?�' £i?'P, (`02'1.nnSE'C3 nnlST Qf' S7��1'fl SA.TiC�. �'!O fer,^i7p'irl(1t)S C�E',i�nSl-f-c {-1'1=i+ Cn1��(] �1P, �4-P,77�leC� ,'r^n nrP. �*'P, �nl'1T1(�. 1�. TY'C?71 ptrril-P, �'1�5 t!�'Pn n1�GnrTrnr7 l_Y1 a'hC' La7103C1C�� 7.P.(� ?C>T1P,� �U�' 1n rrl �-1-1�r�]�r T?1�.n1x+E' 7l]�a'11i;�.�'�PS� A?'�r� '�'n l'� C`?7? ?7i?i- hP. 98f.2^'i�?P.C� 80 '1Ti"�n'"'+'at'?i- n, ps�r'f' i2l ?"�f' ?,F',Tl%S1.S n�' '�ti1P n� P, A.5 1S e?T'1�EY�i'].�T nIF11rF'Ci r�I F''�stl�f C171�+P� 16. `T'�P. pr'(�vjTrl'?.fP. Snll�"CB Of' f1ZP ? rnT1 l S tip] i C?�rP,rl 'i"(� �E? 11�c fE)7^T'la�*i.Y1nl1S S�T1_CjS �n� clat,s th�+ inc7osA +he ores, 1-�la+ ;-F- is nrol�ar�s i-hat Fhe ores +}»ms�1�.e� �ssnT„ac� +1�ei� n,-Psc�nt for�^ after t-�F: �la;l�orn� se�;��n1-s �;rere c?enos�.+ed 3n�1 �'?s�(� �flP,('.nmP_, 9- ] �Tl� �7'P.,ti. -4- 17. A�1 the ore �aterial mav have passed throu�h fih� car�onate s+a�e '�)Qfr�r� ��('n^ti71"' OX1.C�� 7.E'(3� �V+ i;l'lr�rp ; � E?�r��lerif'8 "r}'I�Li- SO'^�' Of' f}'1E limnn;.+e c�enosits nP�.r '-he s»rf��e are mi�ratin� c�o?am?nrard throta�*h sn],ation ancl rede�osi.tion. III. CuAP�C^FT?((74-7F1� �, r:fIT;ERAIO�Y( ( 7411 l, T�,e �rP �nns;�+,s ��;�rl.r of li.m�r_�+e, or �'l�rdrat-er7 sr�saui�x��e of ;ron (2Fe?0;�.3��?,0�, Y,ui- i+ ;_n�lu�es otrPr hzr��r�+ed oxi�les of 9.ror_ �n�3 is t�optal�rizT +ermec? b�-en�.m ore. �. `?'Y1eT'P, P.T'P,� hC�ZrJA4f_�r� m&.Ylz,r C�P,pnS''F� Of' �-1T?JnTlit-.P, VT3'iiC�'l 97'8 f'01111C� i;0 P'Y'�'aP. 7.T1f0 i?"OTl C3I'}1pTlr'1�',G'��'P(,'n�� Of �*�rzrjpn' C�P,P']'('.P.S Of' pU7'7'��,T belcru +t�e o�id.� zed or v�re��+-��r?c� z�ne. �. The bro�am ore �n�l +he carbona+e ore bo+h con�t-ain m�r� or lP�s si..lica ar.�l �.lt�m�_n�. and ot;her imnurit�Es, as in�ica+e� �n +�.e ch�micnl an�l�*ses, B. FORlv" 0�' DL+'POSITS((7�}_7F11 1. Rotr +.he hro�p,m ore an� the i.ron carhnn�+.P oc�vr in nodul�_r �nd �*eod�l fnrms se�re�a.ted in P1 �,»cnn�+ic s�a.nd s�nd c� a�r ,'n tNi.n lenses and �rr�mt�lar lec�.r�es, �n�? also �s m�re or ]Pss honev- comrPd t�in sh�Pts an� lat.rers, finc� �'ra�!Pnfs, crl�s+s, sm��l isolated nodtiles, an� irreml.alQr ma�sPs o? qlmos+, en�?less �Tari et,y 2,. TTncor..Golir�ated m�teria.l, r�s;dta�.l rrom the br��k�n� d�Tm nf snch ma��eG, is fo»n�l in ma��r places �t the s»ri�ac.e. �. The b�+arn�m � v�e o�°ci�rs �ls�, nart� �tl].arly in �ent-ra.J, rherokee C,o�antv, in � rai-her pers� stent l�min�.fied bed, 1-] /2, to 4 feet thi.cic,_ne�r the 1-op of t;�P hi.t�hes+ t�1?le-lfanc�. 4. _Ann+rer co•�mon f'orm of ferru!*inot?s denos9_t is t.r� conr�lomPrate +r�t crnos ov+ on +he s�_�e� of manv strP�m �ralleys �nd a.s e�-en in. nrocess o�' �'ormat5on. in eert��� si-ream beds to-da;�T.((7411 a. This con�loTM�er�te occurs as loc.al lenses of nebbles of sand- s+one, �nThich ; s mor? or less fe.rri?�inovs ifsPlf, ne'��] es of li.moni�e, an� loc�111r a, fee�r �rhi�-e qua.r+_z �el�rlPs an� an�ul�r fr��ments of sili.ci_fied ti^sooc�, +h.e �Nhole beinp� cemen+ed t,one�t-her �v 1-imon�.te. ( �74-75� 1 r. B�i�'l.ders of t�is con�]omer�+e re=��r t�i.c�Unesses o�' morP ��h�n 2 feet an nlaces, bui- ;.+ ��n n�t bP cons;dPred as an ir�n ore((7F11 5. Th� prz.ncip�.l fo�-ms o�' the i ron-ore �Pvosi.+.e m��r +,rizs be sta*^mari?ed �s (1) Resi.due.l, unconsoli.d�ted �enosii-s of limoni+e (?,� T?oc�ul�r,� �*eoda.�, a.n� concrei-ionarv mqsses of ].irr!on;+e 9�� iron ca.rbnn�+.e ('�l I�mi»a+ecl be�?s ofl limor_1.�-e IVG. DISTRI�TTTIUl� OF DEPOSITS((7F)1 1.. Fe�•ri�,��nni�s denosits eu�h as d.e�crihP�i abo�re qre r�r�r�c�eri st.ic Of' T�Rnt7T1'�" SPIn]�.11 9rif? �',00�' n�Oti��'�"fi7n fprm%3�'.10715 'P6}'12r@?'P,r �',�.P?r �T"� exnosecl. in the ?1 �oim+.ies of nort�eas+ern 'fexas here+.o�ore em�merated, ��ut in on��,r 6 or 7 of these colanties �ave t;he denosits ann�.�red of suffic�en.t promise to Tu�rr�r_+ prospect�n� or de�elop- ment ?. F'orem.ost amonc_* the co�mt-;es +,hai; cnnta.i� prom-isin�* denos�+.,s of br�nvn ore are Gass, P�orr; s, ?,'�arion, an� Cherokee, �.vh� ch �re discussed in th�s paner. R. �ther co�mties th�.t may be considered a� h��rin� deposi.+.s of nossi'�le fU+'l7rP val.ue are T�x�shiar, u�r�;.son, Ane�erson, �nc� ��en�? erson . 4. Al� +lies� co»n+ies �rere �is�tec� bjr fhe �nrr�ter duri.n.�* the recent reconn�.i ss�nr_ �, �n�' �ar+icvl ar 9.nqiai rv ti���s *�ade re,mar�' in� poss9.b1 e �r��� in o+h�r C'O17T1_+lE'�� svch a.s a.re in�i��fAd ��r t�e Tex�.s Sta+e ma.ns, �tafi, in ?rietnr of the �nformation obta�na� �n� +'e shnr{-. +iTM�e a��il �ble �.t ti�raG n�+ conc; r�e.r�;rl ,:�z�or+�n+ �i-o ex+end tre re�or.na_iss�nce fa,ri;�+er �+„ +,h�+ t�me. .ri, T}�pr^ arP,� f�OV�1'1�'SS� lAI1'F;1'117? CP.1'-Fn;» r8Ti19"L�'7l-Ylf* C'Ol7n-�-iP.S� rin�' �r�cit;P..� �lt +.}'1P T^lT'1'}'E?T� manli (�P.DOS?'�'S Of' j�?T'niniYl ()t'P Znrl�irr 1'fi'vj�+i-. 1,e ivorl-hY o�' c�e�elopment i f' t,h ,u were si tu�te� �d jacent to a _5_ USGS B. 62,0-E T'�l�i"n:�.C��711'f; ?"T�'IIC�'1_ �a(� nni- 11?arr�n-F +l�r� ��TIS'F"T`tl(`.}._inrt r7f a ginmlP, Tf117P, n.f' S'�llr 'f'T'�fk E121f1 1'rn?r1 ?nrh�r+}'t i�4- �r,rZll 7tr�}- pq�! a'i; '.'�P2�P,T"]'� i-n.��17] OY'C,' �iI ZN�1�''' n]'! B . V. DEPOSITS I"1 CASS COiTNTY( (75-��6� � � A. fl6�.�.iI�� HIIL!(7�-7��1 1. �nmr- n.,, i.:h� ri+nG+ ;y+�pnrt;9rt+ ri��os?i-g nf 1C!rn,nrn nre i� �'P,X�s '?.rP. �nrithiri �'`-1fiC (!n1�Y11'y� �11'{'�. �1F'rn� .�35 P.1..4,E',�1r1���Y'r,� +-'�1�? ,7�?T�pgi+-.G !3rF? T.,�I�.f�F',Z�T S�?p`?,•p;����r3 i. (�F?r��-�-ir} nf' i-'nr'c�. r�P..�nSi+S �rE? Zr•;�i'1-hi7�_ �lin A�I.f'i1'1'f;fl �r-It1�'11l'�P r7I]^(�7'�.?l�'�f'•f ?11�t�Df'!� ��lr -(-'�,�p TTnI'�"C-'� �i'�ifli-.P.S �rP,O�nmi_QA� �1�5"STP,?T. 3. �r,,� n�' the l,�s+ tT,�o1�m of +h�s� �len�s;ts ;s or_ Rnt.+r�e N;�1, a��,at 7 m� 1 Ps �ue ?�or�t-h �f 0.+1 �,n+� �n�1 ?, miles �rr-st- of +h� TPx�s and. Pa�;.�'i.c T? �.'t � W�izr �:. �Ond] P, T�� � 1 l:' � fl at-ton�e� t*t�7�P,� Y'1(��'P� 1-:�/4 mi.1 as lont�, i'.1'?C� �'ll �''�"1P,Si', l�'�rt Of ?r*11i �h i c ��n1i�' `1,n�1 'f'P,P.'� F�})n?rf; +11p j-1@,�rOU� lri f'}t.P, s�arrot�ndinr� no��ni-r.t, or 460 feet abo�Te sea 1�TMP1. 5. T�P h1 � 1 �'lag rpSi �t2ri P,rOs�.o21 7Rnrn su['CP,�"f't711�, +h�.21 riAi mhrori*1.P' arPas, on ac�nv��t of a r�a,n of ferr����.no��s beds �ho--e +�e 40�-font 1 ez*el . ( (7511 6. T�^P bR+�l'I''ore or.. �n��r7e N; 1 i ; � �'�,ar.�' in tH.� +on 1� +•� 'iF fPP+ of +hP �� �*t,Fs+ la.nr� on 1-�e r� 1� .((76� 1 ,' S�s follo�^rs: 7. 4��nPr�lize� sP�+��n fr�T *nan�r +.est ni+� and nrosner+. +renches� �'rP!'!8I'f�� 1 Z('C� S(.'C1'� np nf �r�;_1-iea,riT1[r ��'� G 021 '�OZ'Yi P T�7.11 ({�gll FPe+, ^Ps� �'u`i�. �'��^�!*�e''�+s o!' 11?'1oni+P in ton soi.l , �.n n7 ares nr��+,i c�7 l,r sol i d �re �*r��rel 1-3 l e�?,r*e of nodular l�r�.on�.t,e., morP or l�ss solid 1-ln Scales an�? +,hin bands of .limon-it.�, �r,Tith � fe,^,� +,rYcti'P_,r 1�ZrP.7�S O� 18��'P,S i27�F?Y'� R,!liT�a.i'P.(� t�T�.'l �'1 P'� <'�17.( 071�t'�.C' S�Yl�zf ].'iz7P.T"S. `n�r' ]1Pln�ii'P iTl f:h�S CC�1?1(��f�n]1 1"il'iP'P.S frmm �i_e�'�S pf' i'�'1P, �'1'!� ���11P�^ nf' STRAl� C!'1�?�S t7T? 1;0 m'i�BP,S 11 f�Pi- +�i�k an� -i� sn�+�;ere� i-rro��r�'h ?rP,lIO�Y1.S�'1 'f;.n red s�nr� an�i �l�,v. It o�.c,ar� �n �C��s onerla.pnin�, rrnzmrly len�-ici�l�r s'-realts, or ?�roken ar_d �?i�ron+i.nt�olas s��r�s. The liman7+P �onG+.;+,ia+��, in t�P s���+i�ns ohs�r,*eri, 7,(1 ta :�n par �.?rt., ?-�z,r ?rn1 timP, nf +?�� r� i rt. Th1 c�n.�Ss o� I;mnni+�_� sanc� anc� n1 av ].?,-l� 7r�n es�.rlio�atA ;n nn�tal �,r mr�ssPs frn*� +h� r3; am�{;er o�' ar. a.�orn. ian to 6�nches, or i_r +h.;n i.rrP�*ia1�r �enses,,,'embedt�ed or -intPrG+r�+;_fzed in �?.�t�rnn;+%.e �and �n� �reeni�l,_�,1.3.��- cla�r ca.l_lec� "t�tz�?-f�+n �.ia.r� Tl�� iron �arrona+� ;.G -ip r�en?rQl nnr��?� alt-ered to li.monii-e or �o rF��;sr �±�r�ra-I-e� ox;c�e� of ;r�n, ��,rr;ch form a sc�.] e or cmas+ or vars*ir_� tr; �lrnes� aro��ric3 +t�.n C�r�7nn�i-�? 1?Uc:l�'Us t3n� ?10_~!�!' rrf3r�'g ��rj�ich -in+t;r_ SPct- i;he _rta�Ses. '�'hiclrr??S� of c�xT�osPd n�rf•i.ons of +,he lanoxi.c� i^e� l�ed s 1-� �'. *******, and. t-he �*re��+ �ar; ��� ] it�* �n th� c?mess anc? exi-eni- of all +he rroi^m__-ore 7^�TRreT'S ;� �asi J�r ciPm�ns+rAte�3 b�r +t,e use nf a pick. ((??11 Q. T�e ol�l. Si�lz�ht�r norti• iron +'vrna�e ?v�s ruilt nc��r Roz�rie ��i11, we�+ of Spr�nr��3a1 e, in 1�64, and opera+ec� l�nt; 1 Anr� l, 1F6F. ((7£�) 1 1 �. ThP,-e �r� ot-her smal 1 t>rn�,� ar_� n�- ro��� ri dp�es tiv:i.+.hin fl_ ra� it� of ? r?ileG of poti�*i.e �il � �n ���h� ch sma11 Y•�siduPs of ferru�*�n�l�s m.��eri�.7 are �reser_+, bu+ prora�lv n�t in la.r�e enonRh a.r��s +n t�e r;orked inde�endPntl�r Fi. T�TO�TH�'dFST �)F ATI�Ar�TA( (7E�11 1, T�.*o �Pp�sit� of br�vn ore r��Pre no�Frl nort?�Tvest of .�tl�zr_ta. 2. �na �?�o1?t 2 r�,' 7?� �r�l +�e SF'C`nn-a aroi�t. 6 mil es from �he to�m an� Arnn+, 7 mi1P srn�+hPa�+ of Ant;i S�hool �?. Tri i'l�� fjrc�'�,-IIA�?3Bfj_ �1'�'Ei 1'�.P,�^�' A1'P, n'OOf� S17rf qf`P, SI'1C1��!i�nrrS O� ore, bv+ lit�-le nrosne�tir� has bne� �lone t1_-. Tn 'FliF? O�'1'IF,T' 9re3� Z.�1Th1C'}1 � S �'1lnTR711 9.S 11'�g 71iqf c'1'� 'f"7'!�f'�'� i-,1"lP, St�?"f'&.CP, r��n�e +he 4nn_fo�+ c�ni-rn�,- r�n*��a,-s +� �e (`OT.rPrp!� h�* � c�rc�Pntr3tPc1 den��it of 1.o�se res�r�,aa1 br�rm ore, in �l���s 1 fo�t tn ? fe�t '�'h1.C�� 7'tlT?tr;nrr frn*^ 1'irtn my��T.�l +n 6_i2'�Cl'! Ztamr�S 7t'_-jXP.f? �,��i.t"�1 S(��f1P, (�iT"t A. �T�'?'P. ?3 711T^'innr nl' 1'1t'n8?7P,C��- ip�.'�S 6't'O �F fE?P,f' i7l !�eT?+"i? ha.�e Cj1SC1OSE-'C� -6- � �rpn•-jgiYlcr -�1�ni'P'1'1 S?'?'-1�� F'�.!'8`3 ni' O1'P,. b. ThP �l;�t�n�e t� -Fr� Texas �t- ?'ac;f-ic� �?a.i.l�ra�* a+ '�tze�n r,itv �s 5 miles i.n �.n �ir line. C . r'�.AR T3I�TIT�S i (7�-79) ) 1� T�,� ne.xt an� l�s+ fazrlv larce ar?r� of brol�rn or^ t�r-i+�±;n +?�.e A+,1.s�r_+a ��a�dran�]e lies �r.-1 to 71 *r_il�s soi�+hti*jes+, of �+lanta �nd 1 to 3 mi.lPs ri0�'t�t'V('Ef; Of 1-�r� `i'eX3S �?'�P��ifl;� T��l'!.11rT3V Af �l.�rinS, ?,. T'^.� �,-n,_h�arin� qrea o��l,�iP� +.h� tan���. par+ ��' a�ranch;n� woode� r;d�*� �nc� li.c�s ��nPral�tr �rou� t'�� �6n-foot letrel �. SO^?P, mini.r� of roncre+,ionar�t ��+on�+P n��r t-�P sl�rfae� �a*�s �arr�ed on ;n f�r?^er �re�rs +.o s�znnlv +,hP b7 �s+ f��rps3C.P, �t Je�'fPrson, Tex. �a. �n1v 1�p ore Zr��s taken b. And +,he �l��r_s ror_tain mlzch ore th�t mi�ht n��T 1-o tivash ((7�'11 �-. �'�'1P, 11^lnl'?�i;.P.. I1P,9I' �l?r1r5 .l S�.SSOC,? �'f".r,(� ��r�'�-�'l OXI.C�.I ZE'Ci �'� FiLiCn7li.fi.f!. SflTll� � l,ta+, t-'��..s ��nd. anpears +o �e ]eAnnr in ��al,conif;c ool-it;es �.nc� +.,o innlii�e a 1ar�er �ro�or+,-ion of sz.li.c� s�n.cl the+ trat of certain areas +.h�+ ��vP �een dem�nstr�tecl io cont.ain ,-ich ore. ((7P-79)1 F. 'T`�,vo deen nrosnPcl- nit.s �h��,a.ed at +,�n �+o++on± ;ron carrona+e ;n concret� on�rjr an� 1 enti.cu7 ar formi (7Q11 D. r10PTH OI�' LIP?DF'I�; (( 7�1-R1� � ' ]. In the Iin�len quadr�.n�*]�, ,,�?�;ch ad��irs +he n+1an+.� qua�ran�le on +,t�e tiaresi-, t�+er� ar� s��r�r�.] ar��s oT^ brov�.m. ore. ''� �`�� of t�.e l�r�es+ ar ,�r�ic� o�cl,n,,'�s +��� ,^ron,ae� +�1�7�-l.and ir. +he sricini.t,�r nf �en.-t-ra.1 �ro?re School , n. +a �1. -n; l ac nnrfh. �P T indPn �.. Thi s�rPa. �-in��m 1a��.11v a.s +he Surr�++ +ra�t, ; s ci,i; r,� head- ?arafPr� o�' Rrn*m'+tLT1 CT'?P?r b. A.lon� t1-�e latera.l 5looes of v�r�;nh lim.on,'+� crons ot�t in hea��r led�es, �Q�erallv 1 fo�t or mor� th-i,ck c. There is also Yntxc�h del,ris sca,+-`ere�l o�rer +he sl�p�s c� . T�,�� �ros���t trenches nn bo+-1, +,t-,e �;as-` and �re�t sides nf ���,am�n �reek sroti�� clear7Tr the rel�+ions of trP limoni.t;e, r�l aconi.+i c san�, an� cla�! anc? the fairlv sha�t� line of �lem�r��tiar. he+vJ�en t;he oxi�?-ized zor_�, con+ainin�* l;mon;+e �n�? �re11o1vi.sh to rPci��sh. ml�uconi.+i.c s�nd, �nd the nnox�.d; zed zone, �ontaininc� 9.ron ca.rbor_a+,e Rr_d ?�reen �*lauc�ni+�c s�nd anc� p�r�en-ish clatr, or "b»cUfatr' e. Thzs un��reatr�red znne �loes n�t s�.nz��r?�ere ex+�n.d to t�e f�ce of' the ]�i1_1 Y�ut. i_s ro>>mMl�r pa.r�l]el to the si�rface, �t; 15 .+,o :�0 feet from it, excPni- bel.o��s p;rovnd-v,r�'-er le�-e1((79i� �. There are se�r_r,r�l areas of brotirym ore in thF I�nden ql�a�rar_�le +h�+ m��r be no+,�c� ;n passin!* �.1�n� thP r;da�e roac�.s retvaeen I:inden anc�. Centr�l. Grove School an� between I�inden and �'�tlan+. a, �nd t?�ere � s some ore-ree.rin� l�nd in the immedi.ate vicinitv �f Linden, riat all of +1��sn arP r�1.�tivPl.tr lanimnortan+ rnrr-i.nT to i;heir sli r�r+ exi-ent. ((f?111 4. Tn +hF so�zth��n�t carnar of 1-he c�taa.�'ranml P, Y,a+tveen rlat �.reek snd �oncord School, �. sPri es of knobs extend�mm �or'�i��rrest for a disEance o�' �bout 2 mi.les re�.c?� �n �.119ti�de of more than 400 fePt an.d �.re 1'P.t�Or{;P.(� +o carrv valv�ble c�e�osit� of brov�m ore. E. SOUT�,�I�ST Or' LI�?DETT((�l-Rti)) 1. In the n�.rt of rass r'o,.,nt�� so1,+1� o� thP I in�en and qt1�n-t-a qiaac�r�.n�les, .�ah; r.h. h�.s nnt �re+., re�n to�oe�r�.nhi cal l�r mannecl, there are S�srP,)^A� Or2— t�earinr� are�s Z. n1'!E'. 7�Y'f:E1 'f'�'1�'i' 1S �E?'Yl�' f,if'f'1�'e�'�r TJ7'OSr1P,ri'E,'(j ��r +rench��, '�ii-c� �Ilf� d.rill hales lies al�o�at F mi7 Ps soYa+,heas+ �fl j�n�en and i s kno��vn ] ocallu as the Prui.tt tr�.ct(��?1)� '�. From 8 to 9 m�..7 �s soiat-heasf oi' I�n�cn and 11 +o '? m; 1 es northwPst of the Tex�s � Pacifir_. Rail_t,��y, an ex+�ns�--n l.imonite-beari.n� are�, h�.s �`P?11 pl"OSXI.P,C�P,t� 17�r fii,*O Or TTlnrp ir�T!-OrP COY^_:�3.Y!1n5 '�'1'1'�1; �'l�ZT9 �'10�tiinp'S t"�'1.P,T'@. i��`1,�� a. mhe ore i,s foimd on the hiah d;�r-ides a.n�' t-�blelards b. :qs �ho��rn b�r +�,e +rencres, some places �.�±e rearl�T t�arren, bu+ �n bd�h�rs +h�re i a�. r�i.c�!er c�n�entrai-� on of � ron ore tha� has bPer sePn b�T the ?;r�i.ter else�arhPre in nor+he�,s+,�rn TexAs. c. Th.� s arPa cont��_ns the nroperties 3rxi��v�a lo��] ]v 1rnoz.�m �s t�e uarris an� Je.rn-i �an +;rac�+s d. The ?ol) o�r�in� section, sho�.Fm in a shalloU� trench �boi�t 1?� feet lon�; _F_ USGS �. g?�_E ?'f111?'li'�.C�1'?ll"� ,"r}']�C'r ran nni- �v�rr�r+i- �f1�r� C'�71S�-1+i7r+�n1't <t� a S�ncr1P, TS!17P, C�.'� S'�llr '4'rc�f'lr FiT1� 1'7'C1�'r1 ?"�1�+� r+� i i' ',"r-j ]] ?ln�- pntr q't; t11"eSpn�- -f-n hAtll Or'2 �\! 1N� f'' n7! 6 . V. DEPOSITS I"_? C.4SS COTTFdTY(�7�_��gll � A. B0�'iI�' HIII:f f��_7811 1. �C1T*Ir' (�'" i;}�m m�c�- impnr%?t'1�1- rlpnpgil-c (�f' �+rflir'T'1 nl^P ir� 'T'FXF1S a.7'A 'n'i'i'}1111 r3SS f'.(il'r1i;j7� �17� 1�F?r•n� :'�g P.ZSF;Zxr}�F?Y'P,� i'1'1P ,�<.?nnS�+'.0 '�rf; r�rZf�P,ZV SP,pri,r��-.erl ?. C,er�-.a;�? n�' +1��s� ,aa�os;+� �re z�r'�;+�;n ��,e '1i�lant� 1�-mi�»�P� nla�drana�le, maT�n�� 'htr -F},E� TTri+,e�i S#�a+es reo]o�,'ca1 SZ�rtTev. ?.� �,,a �f the l,�s+ �nrn�m of +�es� �1e�na;+s is on Rotv; e N; � �, �hoiat 7 m� 7 Ps due nor�f-h �f 0.t1 an�a an�l ? miles �r�s+ �f f.h� TPxas and Pac�.fi,c T?A"l ] WA�r 4. Ro�*ie ?ii � l i s r� f? at-ton�ed �^ro�c�e�? r1c��P, 1-�/4 m;1?s lon�, 1-�e }71-E''�'IE?C'f' t��rt Of' �r'1-ii rh i g ?1-�(11�+ `�.�in 'f'PE'.� £i})nnp '�-!'?P �6.�!OlZ� l_1'1 �'}'1E' slarrot�ndinr� n��ant.r�r, or 4g0 feet abo�re se� l�vPl. F� Thp Y11�1 �'lac 7'P,S1�i-arl P,*'C1S�nn TR�r� �UrC'P.f,�?'tal1�. +�'?'3Y1 Y]Pim��?O?'1.�'la' A7'P.E1S� OI1 EIC;I'n1�11t Of' Ll r�-D Or ferr"��no��S �f;C�S �hoz�e f}''P, 4!)�-f'Ort'f; 1Pv�7.((7�11 6. T�P bR��1T''�rP, on. �io�raie R� 1 i ; � �'o,an� in the +on 1F +.� 3F fPe+ of thP h� �*l,�s� lan�l on thF hi 11 .((7g� 1 i s as �'ollo�^rs: 7. � s��n�r�lizA�3 sPr+=nn frnm *nanjr +est n;+s �nd �rOS?�P,r-I-, i-7'P,ri�l'iP.S� �'rP.nAY'f3,1 l 7,P.Cj. SP,C't'' nrl Of' Qr'P,-}i��T'�71Lr' �?E',� G 071 ROZ'V? (' T�'111 ((�61� FPe+., r'F?Sl��ll`��. ?'di3"'�^c'',''i�:S n{` 1'!.?'10T11i'P 771 {'n''? Sni.1 � �.11 L�� ^.rr S nr�.�+,i �37 1,• s�l i d �re r*r�t•e1 1-3 1 e�r*e of nodtzlar lirmon�+e., morP o.r l�ss solid 1-1� Sc'Q� eE �ri!� thin barid5 of 11mo]'17t.r� i�^,�li-h � fPir,r ith��t�Pr• la�rers oP le��*es �n+-er7am;r�+,�c� tar�+h mlaucon�+�_c s�n�'�r 1�zrprs. "'1,.� 1 imnr;+P �n tr� s cc�n�;+� on t-�nmPs fr�m �i.�C S Oi f.�'1P, '}'}1i(;VYi?�^ n'f' STRf�l� Ch.''?�5 t7n f0 mg�BP,S ],�' fppi- �.�1 rlr �ri� l � Sl�'�i-i-grf?C7 i-1,rt�l7.fr'!'� �rP,1� C�"V1S�'1 1;r1 rPCl s�n� �n�3 cla.v. It o��,ar� �n ��a� o�rerla.pnin�*, Y'o1.7�'h1V lena-icular s+re�.lrs, or rrokPn �ncl d.is�on+invotas seams. The limon�+P c.on�i-;+.la+,��, in +�,a sn�+inns at�s�r�rer3s �n i'O ?(? i)P,7' c'Pnft �,.* ?rn�11mP.� nf' i-1�� �'IT'f. �'1"]1C1r71E�Sg of l;moni+�_�. sanc� �.nc? c1 �,v 7.?,-1F Tr�n c�rrc?r�fA �n 710�11��.Y' masses frn*~ +h� r�i�mater � r, � . . . . �n A�orn lan +,0 6�nches, or Z.n �t-h�n �.rrPRizlar �enses,"embeflHed. or intPr�+r�+,'_fiP�l in ��.�.l��oni+�.c sand �n�? ?�reen; �l,-�1s.�t- cl.av calle� "ru�?rf�+„ c� ��r. The iron carrora+.c� .;..� in �*�nPral n^r���r al+�r�d +o liTnonite pr t-o rF��,•sh h,•�r3+P� qXi�es �f ;r�n, Tarh,:ch form �, s��.le or ��rtas+ of �rartrin�* tri�l-nes� ar���ric7 t;l�.� c'�rbn1?�t.e nt�clQtas an� �1o�m rr�r�-5 ,,�thi�r in�Ar- sPc� the r,aeses, mhi.cl�nPsG of �xn�sec� nnrtions of +?�e ianox:i�li.�e� heds 1_� �. *******, and. the �re�,+ �*�ri ��; 7 i+�* ;n thic?rness �.nd exi-eni- of a7.1 +he �y'Ol�rn.-�re TM""T?r2T'S � � �asi l�r dPm�rs+r�tPd b« the use nf a pi�k. ((?�l 1 Q. T�e ol� Sizlnhur rorl� iron furna�e ��r�s rizilt n�;�r Ro�rie ��ill, we�'+ of Sprin_�^�3a] e, in 1�'64, �nd opera+.�,�_ i�r_+� l lanr; l, lf'6F. ((7A) 1 1�. Th?,�P ar� other small l�nn�,s �r_� Y1q.T'n"d r�d�es tivi.thir_ a ra�ium of ?, miles of ��vri.e �il � on �^�h� ch small r�si lues of f�rru�*;.nrn�s ��i-er9 a.] arP present, btzt proba�l�r n�t in lar�e eno�a�h arPas +,o �e ;^rorked � nd enend Pni-1�� B. t�TO??TH'�V�ST (iF ATI:A�"TA((7811 1. T�ro �1Pp�sit� of brrnmm �re r��erP nn+P� nort?�Tvest, of qtlanta. 2. �nP �rol,t 2 m; � P� anc� +�e s�rnra n�oi,t. 6 mi.l es f'7"r???� +he 1-oPm an� Qr�l�t, j mil� srn�+tlPa�+ �f An+.i School �. TIl �"�8 fir�i-.-IIA'f'1?t�. �1'�?A 1'�.P.� �- ti1'P, fi'0�71� Sl7rf aC`P S11(1tFrinmS n.f' ore, �ut- lit�-le nrosne��;ru� �as i��a� �lar.e �-. Tn +ha n+h�r �rea, tv�i�h 5 s l�nnt�m 9.s +-he '�rai �°rs tra�+., +�e 617?'f'�CP, f1�r1TrE? +h.e 4:(1(1_fnni- f`n71�'n��r A11�f?'a�'S �;!) �`(? (`Osrprp� ��.r 3 C��?('�'?lfT'3�".P.Cl de*�osit ofl loose resi�l»1 brorm ore, in z�1���s 1 fo�i; to 2 feet 'f;l�j(;]'� T'�7'!vincr f'rn*^ 1'iT1P. mY'�?'�� 'f'� 6-12'!C}'t 1\1??!!�S Tr!'!XP,f? �!�7.'t',}"1 50711P, (�l7"t A. �TP?'E' 9. rill"n�"Y' nr' 'nrOS'�P,Cf ?Jl'�S 6 'FO �F ?'P,P,�" iri !�BP+r }'!�.'Te (i1SC1OSF'tj -6- a n�-o�^i sinm th�„Ph Sr!�J � a.*-ea of Ore. b. ThP �lis+�n�e t� -F,r� Texas R• ?'�cif�c Ra.i.1-�,*a„ �t �ue�n �atjr ;s 5 miles i.n e.n. �;r linP. C . A1F_AR BI�TIhTS ( (7�?_79) ) ]. The ne�ct anc? 1�.�t. f�;rl.v larv�e area of rroti�rn �rF 1^ri+?�?n �he ��1+1�r.+� ��taadr�n�]e lies rr.l to 71 *r_i.l�s sol�+htiveG+ �f n+l.anta and 1 to :� mi.la,s � nort-�,tive�t of +�,e Tex�s �nPA�;f;� pa�.l�Arav �t '?;.?T,'ns. ?,. T�.e n•-�_��arin? �rea Ot'rlt�'I.P�, f.Yt.� ian���- par+ n�' a�ranch,'_n� vsoode� r;d�*e an� 1-i.e� p�enerali�r arou� +.,�e ?6n-foot le�Tel :�. Some m;n:irm of concre+ionarZT ��mon�+e nP�r t.�P sl�rfar_e tar�s �arried or �.� f�rr^er tre�rc +.o sl�nnlv +,he bl�s+ fii*-nr�.ce �t Jeff�rson, Tex. �. �nl�* 1.ir�p ore trra.s ta1_Ten b. 4nc�_ th� �?��ns cor_tain mlzch ore th�t mi�*ht n��r to ,vash ((7�')1 4. T�e li*nnr�+e ne�r Riv-irs -is �,ssoc;.�tPd ��r7i-h oxi.dizPd �l�iuconi.ti.� sand, 1,1a+, i-'��..s cand anpPars +� be 1 P,£i?'!P,r ;_n t�� anconi_ti.c ool-i.tes And +,o in��llc�e a la.rPc�r p,-��ort-i�n of si.lic� s�ncl th�+ that �f certai� �rPa.s �ha+ �ane �eer_ demonGtr�t.er� to con+.a;n ri.c� ore. ((78-79)) F. T�,vo dee� nrosnect nit.s sho�R,red a+, +,h,� ?,o+a �m ;ron c�rl,on�+e ;n con�r•et�on.arv an� 1en�ici�]ar formr(791) D. ��10P.TH OI' LIT?DI�:N((7g_R11) ' 7. Tn +he I i.n�len r�uae?r�.n�*7 e, ,^��;.�h a� �n1ns ��?� �ti a_r+� qvac�rar�1 e on +he ztirest, tr�re �r^ s��trer�.1 ar�?s n�' t,rot�m ore. '�, (�t7� nf 1-�.A Z�Y'�'P,S'� Of t?thic'til O!'rllj�i,AS -!-��P �^�On��Pt� 1-a.1�1E+-1-�Ytd l'Y! �-h2 - vicini�!-�� nf ('en.tral �rone 6chool, 4�-o rr,l -�-i�es nnrth of TindPn � �.. T�,� s ar�a fi�rn.,r, local.7.v a.s +�,e St�rr�'-t, +r��t, ,; s cl,i; �,� head- _ �lraters o�' Tio1*?nan C2'P.P,.�r b. �.lon� the lateral slo�es of ����; ch limoni+� crons otat in heat�r le��e�, �»n�,-all�r 1 font nr morF th-i.c1- c. There is nl.so ??�uch debrj.s sc�++.ered o�rer the sl�nes cl. TT�m �rosn�c�t trenches on botl, +,t�e �;as'- �.nd ?rTest s�des nf R���,�n�n Creel�: sroti�� cleariz, the rel.at,'ors of the 1�mon;t-e, t�7aconi+;c sand, and c] a.� anr� the fairlv sha�l� 1;nc� of C�e?T!�7'C'��',107� be+�,^.r�en +.he oxid-izPd z�n�, �or_+.a�r_inm l�moni+e an!? ?�ellovaish 1-o rP�l�lish ml�i�coni+i.c s�n�, an� the lanoxidi ze�l zone, containi_nc* i.ron �a.rbon_a+,e �r�? �reen �lauconii;�c sand an�? �reer_is� clatf, or "bncl�f�t" e. This un��reatr.ered zone ��oes not t�.n���rrere ex+�nd fo t�e �'��e of the hil_1 bu+. i_s ro�?m�l?r parallel to thP si�rf�ce, et 15 +.,o �0 feet from it, excenf belovl p;rovnd-i�ra+er l e��el( (791 � 3. There are sever�l are�s of brown. ore in the Iinden qlaa�ran�1P +h�+ m��r be noted in p�ssinm a.l�n�* the rida�e roac�.s between I.inden and Central. �rrove School �n� between I.�inden �nd A+lant�, and there is so�e ore-'he�.r�.n�* l�nci in thP ir!medi.ate v?c�ni-l;`j of Lind�n, rtat �.11 of thes� �re rPl.�tivel�r ianimnortan+ oti�r�.nm to �;!1P_,1�' sli �ht ex+.ent. ((i?1) 1 4. 1'n +1�P so�?th�rest corner o�' the qtaa,�'rana�l e, be+t�reen i+'1. at �reek r�nd �oncord �choal, a ser� es of knobs extend�n� r_or�E��rest for a dis�l-�.nce o�' about 2?ni.les re�ch an �.l�;�tu�?e of m�re than �0� feet a_n.d are 7'P.nOr{;P,c� to c�.rrv zra.lt�able �enosi+� of brofim ore. E. SOUTT7�11ST OF LI1?�J�P�((�1_g��) 1. In tt�e nart of' �a�s rovn+zr so,�fh o� 1-1�� Iin�en a.nd At1�r-t-t� qiaadr�n�*les, �rrh; ch h�s nnt zre� be�ri to�o�r�z�h; r�l l,r manrPc�, thPre �re s��eral ore- bearina areas Z. nnE' 8I'f;&. 'f"�'19'1' 1 S �P,iYln' f,iC''1'1?*BZ?r ?JY'OSpP,r'4�(,'fj l��r ''I'P.,T'�C}1F"' �??7't'S � A2l�i d_rill holes lies abo,�t F mi7 es Sola+heaS�f: o�' 1 i.nden and i s kn.ot�m locallv as the Prui.+t trac�t(��l)) '�. From 8 to 9 m3.1es sou+heast oi' I?n�?�n an�? 11 +0 2 miles northw�st of the Tex�s c� P�ciflc �ailU��y, an ex+�ns��-� limonite-bear-in� area ha.s �eAr prosnected i��r t;ti,ro or mnrP ;ron-ore comn�nies +�h?t. h��-� 1����1;r�s there. i(F?21� � a. '"he ore i,s fo�md on the hi�h diri.des an� +arlelands �. �S S110��.71 �?I ?;�'12 '�1"PTIC`�'!f'S� SO?C1P,. D��1CP,S �i.�8 �''_P,ail?T barren, �Ui- in b�shers trere is � r-i_c�er c�n�en.i-r�i-ion nf ;ron ore th9n h�s bP�n G2<'11 �L7Tr '�;1'1P T7Ll'%P,Y' 81S�i°T�'1P,"'E? 1.21 T10?'flhp}?S+;P.1'T? TPXAS. c. Th� s �rea conta�.ns the nr�perti�s 3na�9a�a lo�a] lv 7-no�nm �s t�e N�rris an� �Te.rni �*an tr?c+. s d. The fol]o�r��n� section, sho�Fm in a sh?llow trench about 12F feet lon�; _7_ USGS B. 6?0-E wherP �r��r.m ore w�s fo.�mPrly m�r.e�a ?or tzse in the blas+ fizr.r_ace �� <Teffprepr��***'�'*a*.((sec+��n o^,it+ed�i e. Th� cor,cr.+i�„a*R� or� �+ +?�e +�ni�o�' +�i� sectinn:"So�1 �n�l resi�uA1 1;_moni�e, m�s+ljr ;n �i�ne�r-sh�nP� concrPtions 2 feet 2 inches" 5��+��n �n ol� m;nA +rench Pl m�1Ps sotitl�e�s+ of I�.r_�en't(i�2)1 �.s ri.rh a?Z�? is rPnnrtPd 1-� },.a�e . . � ?�PP,Y1 "IY1 P_'7'?A?- f!Pm=�n(�. 1"71�PI'' +.rr? �1f�S'f; f�irn�(`P T*rn,� �n nh�rA?'7nn.����� 4, F�rs+ f;res hatrP nartl�* c�ehl•�rQ+Art rm�.�h �f' t�l�e stirfa�e �re, A,� �-G'Y"171P' i f� ('^�.Or i-0 !� (�Rr1r �'P,� . i� f'S� i��'t}'li.c nni �3.1i nn cl.t?nt7�" �.T'r 9 1'TIOt^rt'1 3S ��<TP,7'711 "'�11 �7; ]]. �� tlq ?rlll?5 501�1'.�1naS+ Of I 1?1(�nrit�� � ,Fi. `T'1'I.f', � c1S'+'; t�nri-i nn nf 'i"1�� e qrc�a i-n �8 zri Si 1'P,f1 � Z�S 7'lnl^+�'? Of' �T�?T'21'. �'AYl n� l l and ;. s knrnr,m �s ?'i g�er �T� 1 1 a. �� Z.�rP,�l 1-�C','?"im C�tlf* f'p7` t',T`r]i-nr �»r!�itl"1P.y'P.Cl (111�.�. f�qnm�pni'S �lf' f�7'@ b„+ cta+- +,hrol�c*h s�me ntrr;+�fler�l,s r�reen san�s+nn� ard c?ar�- c 1 av at a d enth of 4�� f eP+ b, jhe nrP shoT�-n t,1. +he �h�1?o?rr n;ts �nns;s+s l�rr�Pl�.r c�f rat�er ri�� "?'].(�21P,V�� co�+ctret� ors, bt?t some n�rt-i or.s are sandy. c. F�rrum�no»s conc_1.oTMArate c�nt��n�ne� Quartz sanc�, rolan�?Pd �na.rtz pebl�les, anc7 �nRtila,r f�a�*mPl�+,s of s�li�ifiPc� z+ro�d tiv�� n�+ed on thP siirf��e. F, T.r�; ,�n L�'�,S AT ER (( g 5- £� 6)� l. In +.he soi,f�,v�e�i-�rn. n�rt of Ca�s ro��t��tv� on the „nr+,h side of i-h�, �RjSSOI)�"l� I�aTIS'#.S� ?1'1(� '�'f'X�.c t?��!tiM1f�V �7P,'t[tiTP,ATl A�TZrE'Pr 31'`C� I:asa+er st-ati�ons,� i � a.n s�.r�a of broti�m �re +r�+, �rsas formerlv workec� in se�er�l nlacc�s i;o sla*�nl�r �rP +n +�e furn.��e �fi Je�'fer5on. 2. The railv�ra.V cut at A,t*�n�c�r sro�rrs li.mon�+e �r. a thin ledr�p n�=�r +hP ta�, �sso�;�te�3 ?,*ith re���sh r�l��a�oni�;c s�nd; �+ +he b�.se is P..F?70SP,(� �11i� sh� 11rit�Xi.r1i ZPf� C1 �`* c nni-fliriinr* q fE?z,+r rtnr1171?S �f l.�"On C �.�'�t�n�fe �. T7c�ar 8�?r �tiaitb�., a+. thP so„+� e��^e o�' +�e colzni-?,, � l�d�e o�' l.i.mnr_i+,e hQs ?�e�n m;ne� or_ +h� s;P�es of +.h� �r�lletr of a ��^��.1 �rP,r�]r� q�p��� A. 7�*l1a?'+�;r nf' q mi]P, 11'�r-1-hpact n" i-}�±� rai,lirtrr�v a. T�?� le�r�e is m��F�a11�! 1 fo^+ 4;n��Ps to `I, ?'P.P?' t.r��t. b. Ria+ =�+1_a'nG �n onP nlare an exeP-�+i or.�l t-h-i.�l-n�5s �f F) 'PP,P,f; 6�nchPs ;n thr,�n rePfs, S(?t�3rQ.+.�f� b�:T t�rt�n ler_s�s ��' �1�v�oni+,•a ��nc� �- ,'n�.h�s +0 1 fo�t a;nrh.c�s t?,ick ri. m,a�o sm�ll iror_ ftarn��es �r�re �ner�+ed �.n Fy�_r?�.r �latrs in sou+h,.��e�+ern �'ass Conn+v.((�511 a. T!�P 1'Ta.s� fl�rnac.P was ern�+c�� ,=,z+hi.n a f�r mi 7.?c �f a,r-in��r se�*Pr�l �re�rs prior +0 18F9, �n� is belie�-ed +� haTe b?en. +he f;rs+, ftirna�e to t�+17i.ze �he hr�,:m ;ror ore of �As+ern mex.as(���-�sl) h. The oth�r f�arnace, lrnota�n �� t�� Ti1?�hes, ��aas rla�l�. A?�oii+. 1861 an� �,;*�s onc�ra+.e�? c3�zrin� the "��r�l �"�.r. Tt �Fae.s 11 mil�s solathe�s+ or ��uP�es St�ri.ncs. ( l t?6i 1 �II. DEPC:SITS IT' T����ARIO�? COiTP?TY(( gg_pR� 1 A. 2?r�:�1P L�,S ATT�R ((� 6- 87 i i �. A fP,1',t (�C.')OS"11-5 n�' �Y'�7i�m nt^� r,rf'1"? 2XaYil�ptnrl i11 fh8 71�1r{:!'�VTE3�'I;Er'Tl P'�7"i'l OY7 pf T."�ri.OT1 rO�,�t�r `�• .�"ir?lli'Y!�4'G6'i- p-f' f-11A T?igSnitri� �''3i'1£',RS f- r'P,X�3S T�`��Zln�.aTr (lT'P �1c`�.S hF?e?1 T?lIlPC� f�f' SE?�t*Prq.l T�� a(�PS 1+(1 i m1 � E?g trr�c+ O?� T ASPi-P,j^� ��F7� � 2'. I21 FL^'C�ii-in,� �{;p +1�F? [1rP. S1'l1.'�pf?C� '-n �TP,ft�rcC�n� `''�?X.� S}]iTJt?lents of lumn ore arP Y'P.T!Ort;�r� +,o �a�e bPen *�ade +o �irmir_p�ham, Al�.., aholat 190P-or lqn9.((�7�1 4. I.;ttle or nothir� �eeirt���t-o r? Ilno�rm �s t� ��he+�er �t,erP � s ore ;.n S?^�-1� � f'�E1'T^'E'�'1i"S �1P.� f�Rr �-1'lc, '�;Ol') � P.(� ^'�� �iS t'h.f' C�E'.P,T1c'c1 [;1�'�-5 c17'P, T'_f�t' •nnre +hA.n 5 t� 6 B�et bPl�rr the St7r1'�,CP,. B. SOUTIr�ST OF AVI"?�rLR.((�7_R��1 1. T�+ �+rac+ of ore land mos+, rP,�Pn�l•� c�e�elo*�Pd i.n A��r; on �'oun+.v, . lrnrnti� as the �=ilbert t,r��+., �s s���»�.+e�? in t-hP eX+relne north�.,.-eGi- corner of +h� nOnn+.V 2. Aho�at 61 milPs sovt-�Fre�t of ��rin�er an� 7 miles nor+r�a�t of Ore City ;�. It is +.anpec� b�r the Port �iolizrar Trnn Ore T?�il�nra,v, a line exten�int� fror� 7on��ie�r, Tex., a c3is+anc.e nfi :��out 30 mil�s a. Th;s r��d �=ras },vilt to +rar_snort ore f'*-�m tti,is field. to -�- IO�'lm?TjPC� an�' therc� ozrer t1,e Texas & rulf 1�ai_1�«a�r(Atch�sor_, 'r01pP,1r8, F S�.nta. Fe szrst�m) +.o por+ Roliv�r, on. rral.vecton Ra,y. t�. Tt �.s plsnne�l e�rentually ta �xter_d +he por+, �oli.t=ar Iron �re r��l- v�:av n�rth��r�rd to �onr_ec�+- �^r:i.+h the TAxas �nP�.�ifa� nailTua�r, nrob�hlv he+z�rt>.en Avi.n��" and ui�r�hes Snrin�s 4, Th� ore 7 S eXl]OSP,r� alon� +h� bro•*• o�' a hi.�h, f1.�t-topned !w!o�ded ri d r�e, knov�m �s 75-Acre uill . a_. The b��P of +.he �na;.r. ore l.e�?�e lies ahout FO feet above the r�il.�x�av sx��,r and, accordir_� +� comn�nv mans, is a+, an �ltiti�ci.e of ab�u+ 37n f'�et.(18711 �. The, �on+�o��r and sorfa�e of the hil � resPmhles +h�t oi' Rol�vie Ft� ll, @as� �'ounty, �n m�ntr re�ner.+.�, nar+-ir��].ar1z� in the outs+retchinr� snnrs �nc� reentrant ra�-.:i.nes on. �+_.s �Oi��B?"S i(��) 1 6. �n tre SOl7i".1'lP_.p�5?' marm;n of tre h��]. a m��hire shon,+.,innle, �n.�l crusher pla.t�'nrm h�,re �een e.rc�r+ed, anc� �r. ore chute, or �'l��*ne, ex_+enr�s �n�,m +o the railtv�v sniar, �?� f�et belov�.*. R. `T'�P C}'IU�E P,'-ir�eni-Z�T S�TAS Tl()�f- P,m?JZnVP,�I 'f:0 ('flr'Y'�I O?"8� 1'1,01�7E-_'�Tc1^� clurin�* +h� reeen+ minir�*, �s +•he �ro�u�+ frnm +re mine +rPnehes r„rns hal,led do,,.�n b�* ,,v��:ons and e�ur�ned on a nlatf�rm abo�e i-hP railtiRJq.V b. uP,re �he �re v�ra5 sho�reled intn +rree ch1�.t�G �rhi.�h dis�h�_r�*e�3 on �rizzlies, �here �t ~n��,s broken b�T slec?r*es �nd fed t�rol�r�h chlatPs into the cars c. ?'���o s+eamer car�o�s, e�.eh cons; �t�nc* of several thousa.nd tons of hi�'h-p;r�.de brotRm �?rP,� �rer�. shi�o�d flr�m this *�ronertv +o t�P fv.rnaces of the 11an ''�r"�d c�rors��? S.+,eel Co., near P�!ila�le�phia, Pa. , in the stz�*nner of 1913. %. QI1 � T'Or f'hrp'P, n7' fvrnace �N.`i.S Ot�f',�"EIt;E?C� T'!3T1ZT y�''�.7'S €i�'O �L?' +hP }'�Se of 75-Ac.re ?Till. TrP on.lzr e�ri�?en�e of �.ts fo?�mer �.cti�ities are a fe��,� remnan�s of r�lass�r sla.�,. Vi�. DFPCSImS Ii< A��GrRIS COL�?TY( ( gR-�p) ) i�e I�fJ�TF3':i{�,uT OF DAIP�GF'RFIELD((AE�-89)1 1. The iron-or� map nlablishPd. b« the TTniT-�rsi�`v of Texa.s Rureau of rconomic reoloav a,n�a mec?znolot�v s��oi�rG � 1qr�P.iron-bc�a_ri.n.� �r�a -r�e�t and nortl,gle,�t afl Pa;nr*�r�'iel�?((8�1) ?� So far as could be �scert�.in�d. bjT � rQnic� reconna,issa.nce and inq��ir�es, tre s�o,�r;n�s of �rA ;.r_ th� s arAa are limi.ted to S�;T'Pf91?3 of vertr red soil a�soca.a.+ed z�rith a t�.�n man+le of res;,�?ta�l lim.oni+e t�r�vel . ( ( Rf?-89� ) 3. This li-�nn�.+.e a�r��*�1 ranPe� frnm t;he size of shot- un to +.he s�ze of �,v3lnuts and is hi�h in iron ((F'9��1 �l-. p� eces of the 1ir�ani+,e �r�zrP1 +.ra+ a.rP c�mrara+;�e1�r fresh �r,�e�r to be f'ra.�ments of +,h� crus+s of v�nde� 5. �n +he crPct of the r;d�� no,-+,ht�re�+ of na�n�*arf;el�l, ,^rhi.rh rea.ches �.n aJ+,�i-�acle of mnre 1-han 6�n fe�t, the ro�k is mns+llt ferri�a�-i.novs silica s�nds+,one, �.�r�-ain-ir� here anc� there a s-F;reak f��_t�lv .rich in iron, bla+ on +'.ne �^r�,�] � i-no lat�r ln. 'lr�jT1. �V�P to re remar�Pd as �.n ore 6. Rolal�e,-� of r�7.auconi+�c sands+.one, sl; ��tl�r fPrrta�in�i�n ;.n s+rea�s, are �1so �'o�m� snar;n�*1�* on +he cr��t- of +�,e r:i_c��e � . S CiTTT�IL<' �°�ST C�F DAIT��GLRFIELD ( ( �zg_gn )1 l. '?E'�.Y' +1i.E? ?,!fnrriS-('�SS CO?t�'1-f-zr 1jY�P� T.,�1+h1Y1 11 TRi.ZPS ri�rt�'t �I"LC� SOV'�-1�+ �f +hP 1+�1ssovr:i, �'an��.s f.• Texas T?aill�raV, 1.i�onite 1ed�es cron out �t abnl�l tr� 5C?f1-f oot lev�l aroianc� +�,e ri_r2 0�' +•he tlnland 2. �n 1-.he TTor��ooc? an� b-"-her nei ��horin� n'! �ces SOmP, surface min;n� �r�as dn�n 12 or 1� �,re�,rs a�*o to sup�lt• the bl�st furn�.ce a+. �Tef'L'erson. a. Ther=� i s muc�h ore �ravPl. over i:he su.rfa�e in th� s zTicinitjr, and m�nv bo�.�,�lders (( si�l ) of concre+.i �nar,y ore or �rcellent qualitv. b. Some rowlders measure 1 foot 6 inc�hes a_n c�.i.am��er. 3. The rTi ssot�ri, Tr�nsas, and Texas �?ailti�a�r cut at �reals switch, 2.� m-1es north�rest of �Tumhes S�rinms, shcr��rs the follo�vin� secti.on: � ( � seci:ion omittc�� } ) � ( 89� � �, 89, �;c1.-e�, F. C,, 1^he i.ron �re� of nor+he�.stern Texas: TT.S. �eol. ,'�'i��^ZTetr ?iu71. 26n, A. :�52,� 190.�+. _ -9- US�xS B. 620-E 4. Ir_ a vrell a����e�t +,� HP�?-e��'s �o++on r*ir �+ ZTea.l.s s�•�itah masses of ; r�n cs�rrn„�+e �rFre �'oiard a+ a den+h �f �bov+ a� f'e�t ((90� 1 a. I imon.;.i-� sPam� ,vere a.� :-� fo„n�a �+ i�+ermed.,: a+.e dep+l.ls b. And in n1p�Ps �'�lms �ncl crlls{-s of ��rPer_ fihrn��s m�r_?ral _ occlzr in c���.t5es in +r� 1.zmoni+e c. This m�nPral ��.� bear, r�ef-erminP� �1• '"', m. S�h�ller,o�' +.he Trn�+e� S�-�+es �e�7�ci_��7 fi��,�rezr, to be a. rj•�rniis irnn �t�nsnhai-e, ne�r �ixfreni_+.� in �omn�si+,ion. 5. Soia+�, of the m�a.in D�i.np�erfiP7.�l_�Tiz�*r�s Sprirc�s ��rASrC?Y1 road, » m�le or m�re fror,i �reals s��ri_+ch, +here i.s ml?c,h rich 1 im�ni'-? scatterPd ahou+ +he siir�',�.ce in t�o��rlc?er,T corcre+ions, nnc� nl�m�rnns shallov�r pr�s�ect +rP�ches h�sTe d�.:�c�losecl +�� nres�nc� nf' � l.ec?rF of l imoni+e a fe�^� �_nches to 6 feet thicl.c� underl�tin�* Ar a.rea of IYt?7'l�r 3C7'E:S. .ciOTt1E? t�j }-g� !'lnlrl�?'!'1'� �3SZrE �P,8Y1 1�17'i; !�piP,rp in h�,1'T'�'ri P'I'(�17nCi VIII . D�POSITSt:IN CHEDOKL'E COZJI�TTY( (g�_��11 A. VICIT�TITY OF �USK( (gn-g4)1 1.. The most valla�ble depos;ts of brrn�m ore i,n Cherok�e �ountv are s�.tiaated ne�r the tons of the nl�+.e�.us south of Jacksonzrille, t�±osP in the vic-in.�ty of �?u�l- prob���l�T be�nm +he TMc?�+ Fxi-�r_s��e an� �e�t, � no�m ?.. A�c'ordinm i-.n net�ssen 1� thev s�rP fn be ret�arded as l�elon�in� i;o t?�P rook �`o�ar.t��r_ forma+,�c,n, the unper ni i:he two iron- Y�ear;n�* di�Ti si �n� ��' +.hP (',� F3.1hnT'71P, ?rat�p 1 �0 ?leussFn, 4lexarider, on. cz.+-. pp. E2-6:� ;i. The �enosi-Fi� ;n +i�e ,7ir;n;+v of R,�sk ��a+ ?ti�ere exa*n�n�d rv the v�rr�ter arP of a+,vpe e�+; r�lv �i ��in�t frc�m those of �ass, �Rari �n, an�l P'orris CO1�Y1'�:i PS �?',r}�i Ch £lr'P. T'P,^'4.1^� .P.C� RS T�C.)la7'1't' S�ZTM!.3Y1 zl:*P, ��4�i � a. I1�st.��d of' c'.oI?si.s+;;�c* of irr�^'1ala.r� r�mi�'�».r�r�� �n� frc��'man.��rV m�sses of •nnr� ar l�ss no�tal a.r orP di s+r;1,t��c�1 throl��h 1� fo 30 fPe+ of b�c�s, +�s in Cass �onntv, ( i°0-91� ) �,. T1�� R.�isk denositr �nnsi sts essent� �llz7 of or_A soli�l ancl f�.irl�� con+,�rtaotas b�� of 7imoni+� ��.;+h a.lm�c.+, no res;.�.iaal ��n�e�+ra�;�n nf nre �bo�re anri bu+., 19++1.e �rP in serams an� n��iale� b�lo��r.((91�1 �. �'he"�fi��on;i-.e bed ne?r p��sk iorris � can nP r?-�P +�o nf +?�n t'la+.-toA'�ed nl�fie�u, a� �n a.lt--ii-ia.de nf fl1,ot,+- 6nn fpPt;� arcl is overla�r_ bzr 1lnconsoll�a+ed a�ra.v san�? rar_��r_r� f,-om 1 foc�+ or 2 f�e+, +,o ?,F nr '0 feet in +hic�-ness 5. The ore bPc? ranaes f�om 7 or 8 ine!�c�s t-o 3 anc� e�er_ 4 fePt �n t.h�cl-n�ss, 1„�+. �-he m�rc� com�non +,hic1-n�sses are bP-t�rreen 1 fnnt '� inches and 2 feet 6 inches 6. 4i, the ton o�' the ore bed, howe?Ter, is a"�and c�an," or latrer of m�re or lers fer.rv�inrnis har� san�s'-one, from h�.lf' an �n�h to � inches th�ck a. ThiS sand can r�a�r Y,� sn].i+- freelv from the ore in m�n�n� 7. The ore l�ed is i?nmediatel�r L?nc�erlair_ h�.r a few -i.nches o? li�ht-�olored clay, relow tia�hi�h are 1_�]VP,rS of s�n� �nd sofi-. sandst�ne, some of �hich is �l auconiti.c. �. At thP rasP of the ore beci ro+rvo�wdal and roetlive prot�al-eran�es o" l.;r�ont+.e ex+end drnnm into +�e �in.derl�rin�, c1a�T, so th�+ the bas�l sl�rfa�e � s��r�r irre�l�lar a.n� nr�s�n+;s a stron.a con+rast to i-.he lai��E?r Sl7r$flC2 9, Tre nre its�lf �ossessPs certain charac+eris+;es of texti�re anr�. color +�,�t m+�l�e -i+ easil�.* d?.stir.�lais'��hle ft'om t'he �rP� of +.he more northPrl,y c o1�nt; e s( f g 1) ) a. T�c� c�l�r, �'or ins+ar_��, is li�^ht bro��^m or buff, SP..�87'?1 s?�adPs liml�'�'ET i'1'1.�71 t;}'�_A.i- pf i-1�a prC,' Of' ('tiSe ('p!�T7tTr� P,XCp,pi- �;�r�'1,P,Y'g +}12 la�+-t-er a s och�ro�is ( i91-92i ) �J. TYif; ll''?nP,r ? f;0 4 �Y?C11�S C)1' nrF �*ariPPallt.r 11aS f�n� O�8T1 l o?T?-jT�n@� ?-».r�11P1 to the �eci, lined t�ri+h �*lo��tr b1a�ti �o�+-in�*s, v�*hi.�h here anc� +,here h�-�*e � s�ot �olnrec7 t�r; �h+ .re� (f 9?,i � C'. `T'�P.. !�2'P. '��low ?"1'1E; 1al?1i_nq�'PC� 1a�rf;r �rAS�71+c ft Cl)+^lz' S+Y'l1C+lJr(? *,nr'�1GI2 freshl,y �roken, 17? CnTl�f;r?ci- fp f yla ?T1C�?'P, et=enl'' C^11C�"E?'{"l OY1si1^y i;zTl�B of ore in �a.ss an� T�ari nn colir_{-;.�s . -1�- �i, T,1e orP �r-i_th ���rl�T s+r�actizre cra�ks and crur?bles on �,^���i-.�er;n�*, , and thtas i� kn�:�n �s "bia?f crtimblv o.re" e. �ccasior_all;�r a canit�;r con+,a;.n,'nm sand. or s�n�v clajr i.s fol�nd -in the ore 7!l. `T'1�C '?1)Sli OrE'. 7 S C(�Y1�7C�.� rF'CI t;n Cflr'r�r �, 7^.P,�`i'f','1.PG'�,`T �'17��''}'1 1�P,1"CE321�;*3�''8 Of' a1um;.na., anc? t.h.Pre m��� 1,� � re]a�ion ?�et�xreer_ +he �reser_ce of this �n�rec�-±.�nt �nd th� li.,*hi-, color of' �-.he ore 11. The ore from trP +,n*� of +?�e bed c,onta�.nin� hl�.ck-l.ined lamir�+;ons is s��d b�r furn�cP men �rho h��=e ha.d exner-i ence -in its use 10 conta�.n � hi�her nercent,a�*P of' rnho;��harus t��n +,�,e res+ of the ore in +he bed. 1?. The ore i s exnos�r� -in �, ?re�+ mQnv places A.,roian�i +.he rim o�' th� t»b1.e- land, �arr�.ch forms El?1 1rrF±mlllaT" cr�scen+ic area ex+enc�in� aro�at 3-3�4 mi 7 c�s no,--f_h,,ves+., an�3 �_�/4 m� 1 Ps so�+ heast of tre +oT�.m of �?usk. 1;?� A�'f10Y1R '1'.1�C? �"1E?"-F �Y'"�OS1)I'PS ftrP �F.h.�gA Y��'1BT'P i�Yt�' �7'P, YIHS 1'?.P,8T1 TTt.i_7LP.,�� aS� for ins+^nce� c�t. t�e se�rer�l �La+� 7?l�1'1P,5� :� miles nor+hz��P�+, 11 mi.les n�r+h, �n� 2�- m� ]�s nor+heasj- ��' ^l.asl-; ��- t'�a Si-ar and rrsseen+ mines, 1-'�/4 mi7es east of ''us1:-; an�? a+. f-��e m.��!�s 2-?�4 Mi]Ps sot�+h�qs'- of nlaslr, Trror��d in �onnecti.on ��*�1-h +ti�� Tassie Ttelle fi�rn��e 14. The l a+esh an�l mos+ PY-I-en.sizre of +liP St-ai-e mines a.re on -rhe ea.s+-�r.�est s-�nr of +he pla-`�au, }!P�'111ri�rfT a��ou.i-. 21 rn; 1 es n�rthtives+, of ?i�sk a. ThesP zFrorU;n�*�, ,•j�i�h ha�re b�en �na�+;zre sinc� 1�?09, ��r_s�st of OT?E',Yl rt1"�S h� qr_cl e�t-enci 1�res'-,nr�rd f�r m.�r� +h�n 1 mi1Q((92.)) 1��. � small�r arandoned nn�n �u'- tivas no+ed. on +he rim of +�e p1a+P�u �n -F31e z�r�et side of' 1-he Texas �,���''T�ti�r !�r] �^�ns ??a; 7rna.d, �l�o»t-, 1 m� le nor+.h of +,he State �?enitPn+,iar�r,�+at; ??»s)r,((�?311 a. TY�� +,h;�1�-r,ess of i-re, or� ran�es �'rom 7 tol6 inches where ex�^as�d r. mh.� or� 1^ras Z�ror�-ed h�re bv +he State 16. An�th.�r locali.t?T �vhere minir_,� i�v�s �one t+v the 8ta+e is 2 to 2,1 Tniles nnri-he�st of ??u�sk, �.rol.and the wec+ r;m of a northvrard.-extend;nr� lo'�e of t�e pl.a+oalz �� T1,P onen cut extend s aro,�nc� +?�e, e�l�^e �f th� hi ll for � mil e or more b. The ore bed, ra.n�es in thickne�s fro*� 12 to 30 inches c. nre �^•��_s c�Y•ried from thi.s ��a.c� to t�e State blast ftarnace ?�v a stearn tramroad d. The ].=�st opera+ions are renorted +� h�,�re l�een c�rried on`-in 1906. 17. .1 �oad exnos�are of the ore her� �Fras no+Pd on the tve�t mar�*in of t;tite plateau 1-•'�/4 miles eas' of �vsk, at the vrorkz.n�rs of the St�r and Crescent ft,.rn�.ce, �rrer� the 1�s+ op�r�+;.ons are s�.ic7 +� ha�re �e�n Ca.rrl.P.r] on` in 1907 a. The n,-e me�.sur�� �?. 1-0 �� i.nches in -!-.},,'_.r?rness a+ +his p].a�e b, T.Rore orP -i_s stil7 �.�railable here, �s -i-rA coz*Pr �as n�t. b�nn s+-ri»ned ��'f +� a.s �^ra�1- � +r; rlrness �s at +he �+�+,e mir_es c. �re �aras tr�m.me�l. drn�rn +o +.h� bl��+; furn�ce, A. d�s+ar_ce of �bou�- 1-1,i3 miles((93)1 1£�. Th� old *nines of' -(-he Ta.ssie '�e]l ft�rn�ce are 1 to ? m;7es f'�ar+her so,a+h �lonm +,�e inres+ mar�i.n of +he p1 a+eau, ,�r�+-h3.n � short ra�zl. n�' +r,� ft�rna.re ((94)) a. These i*rorlrinms hat-e lain. �c�lP for abou�t 2,0 zTe�rs �. In one c�ui- h��f a mi�e northe�.�t of +.,1,� furne.ce +h� orP l�ec� is 2,?€029 -i.nches t1�� c1r �and ; � �o�Are�l r;�r ;? +0 4 fPet of sanc� a.t t;}�e m�.rr�in of +he stri�p�.n� c. A p� 1 e of lump ore 1� to 3 fP�t 1�.-i �h, �p �'e�t ,n�a d.e, a.nd �1•0��+ 300 f PPt; lonp� h�s been left here. IX. CO���'OSITIOI? OF T'iE ORLS ((�a_QP� ) �!Omi1-;t�d�� D��IELOF'h`_�,'�?T OF TH� ORE DEPOSITS((gg_10611 I. L_ARLY OP ��R }1T I OP; S(( g� 11 1. The deposi+s of iron ore notec� in the nreeced���!� pa�es, a� ix7P�� ns m�.�tiT others ir n�ri-hens+ern Tex3s, were 1�no�rm and vrorked from time to ti�e on a rela+.,ivelY vert� s*!z�1 � sca.le -t-� sup�l,y ore for several small for�es and fitrn�ces before �nd dur�np� the ('ivil ?^Iar 2. qs a reGvlt of +he r���.d ir�i,s+.rial. dezTelonmAnt +�s�+ followed 1-r.e wa.r trese sma].1 f„rn�ces soon became inadeqtaa+.e to co��p��e ti^.�i+h l�rmer pl�nts fart�?er er�.st, an�l thev fell �r_to d-i.svse '�. Tre ore neede� t� sunnlsr them tiva� obta��r_�d. fro*� th.e m�st f��To1^+�?�1}r exn�se� led�*c�s, .�nd nn i;horo�?ah nrosnec+sne� ha.s been tandertaUen IT. IIT. _1i_ USGS B. 620-F �mi;�_1 recert �r��rs. �. Tn.�l�e�, e�*en` t�he ore nee�le�?. to sn:�nl�� t�P moderat.e-ei.zPd b7 ast �'Z�rr_aae f?.t; �T�?ffP,1'.ciC?Yl �'J�?g Ol'?'1'�l?1PC� t121�.V f'rClm cl�all{)�,*.r 5171'f'sl.rp �i1-S� verv lit+'le T�P,C'�.`3Y17('t31 8nl)�-�^tF'Ylt Y1�'��'ln' 17SF',� Pii-1'tor f(?r' T"l�711?''f�' '�'" f'OYI�<''tlj'ra.'t'..n71 O'f' f 1"l P. n'' 8 ,'ri� ��h7'1.e?' OU'f'�-inP, C?f' L�7'P.SP,Tl'{ P1P,'t'1'1n�iS f'rlr '1'hp �pZ*P1r1?�mar�' Of' i'�lE' C�At�OS1+S 1.S f11' ?Ytf'P,r'AC+' 11'1 'i'�'1 �. S ('OYlY�P,ft�'.'I nZl � f'()r ZtYt� pcg f'�'1P,1� C'.�?'] �1P, wOrked nll � mu��, l ar�Pr s�a.7 e+.har ��re+�for� +�P�T are nof 1�Uelv +,o nro��e co*^mer�ia.11v t*a.1v�Y�le. PnOSP��CTI`TG ��0�? ORE((gR_l��li ((om;++edll ���St?LTS OF �:PI:ORF,TIOPd( �l�q-1�1) i 1. The tr-����: t-akPn r;tr "r-i1�9*�� Tn'+h rF�*arc� a;o exn]or��-i�n nf th? �re f�Plds u� to 1-hp clos� of 1911 �s srcn�vn sn i-h� follcrosTinm quo+..�+i.on, � �n� �t ?nav be adc�e�t t;�,�t nrosnPc+in?� dur�nm the 1as+ i-hree �*e�rs has b8P.I1 E,'4P71 P'n7't? E3Y1COt17'fi�''�Y1�*� 7?'1(�'L��.'f;�T!?' 137'c+�� rP,Sf?r�TP,S (�f j,7'021 OY'P.• (t10�-101)1 1�� 10�) 1 Phil? i.ns, '�a. R., Trnn �n�' steel. malrin�* ir_ Texas, II: Tran. ?mP, ,Ta.r.. 11, 1912, pn. 14P.-1�3. n'�h� TF*orU t-h�+. has b�en nrosectated dvrin� the l�s+ t�vo ve�rs �nd �^�hi c� � 5 st-.i.11 �n nro�,ress h�s sho?�m, amonm other i**�-�ortant th�n��, th?.t- th� ex+ent of the ver�r monc� an� �x+ra �res i s m���h 1�r�c�r t-han �ntrone h�� re�Gnr i;n �nticin�t-e�'� IV. i�:'I�?TT'G OR�� ( (1�1-1�7) ) 1• 2R�Yi111f7' Cln"t`FJ"t'lC)Y]S in i'.hf? 1'lnr{'}�prp. l'011?'�f'iPc }1�7.?TP 1�<�F�YI ('C1?'If'inP,Cj 'PC1T" tl'].n I^OS-I- i�3T"'t' �n +he Y'�C;l'1PS�' nl7i',C',v'11T1� Of' ('.nr'1CT'P.'�'i(1T'ts�.T'S� O?'P.� f�.ri� S'ln!p�-P, h�Tla ^+�-f-l�nrlg C�f ?117.t11?�.cr 1't9'c*e 1?T'e?Tfi.1�f',c1�(Inl�� V. CCiPTCF?'TTR_�TIOI��" t�I�' OR�,((102-1�6i; ( � Sm:i i-.t ed 1) UTILI��1TIOi�T OF TF� OR�((l�t;-7.0911 I . �'7F;��TErAL COPIDITIurTS ( (106-1�7 ) ) ). The rrrn�m ore� of nn�-th�as+er� Teras h�r,.P }•�Pr i�tilzzPrl. +n a, m�nor ex+eni-. for +.i�e ma.r.ufaci-t�r� of ir�n Zn sma71 ���31 f���es o?- fvr�±aces in �lr^os� enPrv cotant-zr ;.n ?��h�rh a�nnc3-si.2.ec3 c�.Pnns-i'- of �re occnrs 2. �-ame Of �-11P,SP, ftarnaces ?�a�re alreacl�T be�n mer.t��r.ed :�. This form of in.d,.,s+•.rial a�.+;zri+,y exis+e� m.�;nl�r be+wePn lt'56 anci 1F�7�. 4. ge�reer_ 1�7n �n�? 19�9 iron tivas M�ant�f�otli�Pd fr�m t;m? +o +,i*�e in ?ive or more srm�ll cha.r�oal 1�1 as+ furna_ces F. Since the l��t of these "l�rna�Ps �*rent oizt �f rlast several nlans h��re beer_ mac�e +.,� esi-.ar] ish iron anc? s-t-�el ,Fr�r,rs on the �'s�al.�' r,��s+, �s T*rell as at �o�.n�� betvre�� t�e �re field:�nnd thA �?-l�hom� cok;n�-coal field. 6. q mor•Pm�nt i.s no,^= un�ler ��ra�T +o es+ab]ish ar_ �ror_ an� steel indvstrv at Tex�.s Cit�•, Tex. 7. �*****, and �n the me�ntime ;-�me �++ention ras reen r�;_�r�n to the shipment of ir�n �re }o bl as+ fi,_rnac.Ps an �lAbn^�a �nd �n i-h� Atl �nti� searoarcl. (�1�6�1 II. T���9S BI,ASm FUP�TAC3S((lp�_in8)) 1/ �(17 n�im?,l.p� T;, T. � T'e'C>n„'�� nrtt i-l�� � rnn-�ra �i S+.r-i r,i- n� n��',t "'exa�: '"ex�.s �'��� . SZzrvP�T, Secon� ��nn. Regtr�1 (�'�r 1£�90�, r�. I.F, 1891. 1. �ne of +h� e�r1,r �]asi- furnac�es +o ia+ili�.e the locp.l �;11 er_ ftxrn��e ��- gP] i e,r�r; � � P, T��ar; �n roi,r+,•, F m� ] es �a*�i�h iv9s put ir_�-o l�7ast �n ..1�7�(�1n7)1 a. �'�!P ��n��;i-�: c+f the f„rna�? t�Tas 1C1 ton� o#� �nC��rl h. `I'hn pro�taci- tiva.s ai- �'ir��- hoa--1,1 �s1 rh�rcoa.l sofi- 1a+�r � h�rc? i.ron esnPr; a.l l,r si,i+�b) P f'or ch,' 71 �c1 as c��r ,,�rheels, was m��e. c. 1_:in�stone for fli�x tirras o�+-�inFc3 n��r ?lallas �res ,•ras +1,� I,00 nor+h �f Jeffe,rson, nF?7^ r7a.Zr f ont1� r�r i rnn, ar� r3�+�����, slzch •�i�?- 2. !� lar�er and mor� mociern cha.r�oal. b� as+ f�?.rn�ce t^Jas pu+ 7nt,o h7 nst T?ar�h J F, 1�91, on the nor. th edrne of +.,hP t�t� of J�fierson, qnd for sever�l �Tears this furnace �das s1��x�lied ��r;+,h ore ±'rom c�Ppos;.ts in Cass, T�arion, and I+�`orr�.s �ot,ntiPs a�ija��nt i;o the railroac�s. a. Tts antlu.nl cap�.mi.tv Uras r�tecl at 1:�,500 tons. b. The nlant h�s been �_nac+:��re for 10 or 12 vears. '�. Ther�: a..re three smal.l. blast ftxrna�es in the vic�na_t.Zr of ??taslr� ' rhProkee rolzntt=, -!-ha+ were bia�lt to ��ti.lize the ��novrn ore of +he pl.�t-eau, �ut a11 are no�.n* ;d_le. a,. ThP o1.�3Fst ftarn�ce �n.� thP nne ?�rhich ha:� had f�e mosi- us�ful hist.�rv is the nropertv of t�e S�'-�te of Tc�xas 1) I+, �r��s ori�*nn�.11v c�lled fhe Olr� A7calde, and �^t�s firs+ pUt in+o �?] ast in Februarv, 1F�n�4, �ari.th n s+.ack 55 fee+ t,; r�h �nd a bosh diameter of 9-I�2 feet 2,) It was des��ned. for an otatrvt of ?F t^ns � �la�r, or 7,O�Q tons a �.,*e�r 31 It s+ands �boi�t th��e-��a�rters of a m?le nnrtheast nf t�e center o�' Rusk, ;jl?.st o��ts;�� t�e ,rr�1]s of th? S+-Qte pPni'�er_fiarV, anc] h;�s tra�lr��e ror_nec+;�rG ,�,,+h +�,e `T'ea��s 8• rTev�r Orle�ns '�ai.lroad. �r.� the Texas State nailre�d �� The bl.�.st furn.ace �nd the ae�o�;a+e� ore mines �;�rFre ox�er�ted b�r convict labor, �nd consi.c�era.bl � �T' f�e p; �;.ron nrodu�ed_ ti��as remelte� ard c�st inLo iror �i�e �t �n ad;jo-in;r_m pi�e fol?ndr�r, �,l so o��med and one*-�+ed b�T t.he State � 5) The r�?rnace �,ras orir�inQ.11�r bU�.lt tn »GE= char�o�l, but l�+er it �a.s rebv�l+ a:nd ran on cokA b� The �'tarnace ra.s been oia+ of blast sin�e Dec�emher, 19�9, but in 1913 it �rJas rel;.ned an� nut in �ood sh�pe bzr the ?'exas Iron Association, 1v1��.ch had leased +he furn�ce �nd nlanned to re�ive onerations. 7) C�v�sin�* to l�nfavorable busi-�e�=s conditions �nd other reasons t�e ).ease .vas p�rmi.t+Pd i;o lapsc. ( i 1�7) i b. The Tassi_e �ie11e furna�e, ? mi_les sou+heast of Rusk, was pTat into b7 ast �.n T?�veml�er, 1�90 ( (10811 1) Tt�i.s fi�rn�c.e s.+,ands on th� e�sf si.de of the St. Loiii.s Seu+,h�rres+ern Rai1Ur�1r and dlari.n� i�s f��^� �rear� nf acti.�rit�r �rr^s sv.rrolznc�ec? t�v a flouri.sh�n�* t��r�n ?Pno� as 1?eT�r R;rm;ns�ham 2) It ur�.s op�r�tec� as a crarcoal furna�e ».r_d •(-1+ro nf t-he old charc�al lri l ns s+. i_11 s+�r_cl :�i The c�na��t�= ���a� rs�ted at 1'�,FOn tons � vr��r c. Tr� 7 as+ ft�rnacP to l�P huil� in rherol-�e roun+v ti�ta� +he Star and f'r�scent;, z^*rich Zrra,s pvt ir_+o bl�s+ in. T?ov�mher, 1�91. 1.) I+, s+;�n�ls on t.he so�,+.h ��d� n�' +'�e S+, Ioli;s S�t�+ht�,re�+-ern. �ail�.aa,v `��avt three-c�U�.1"FP,rS of �male eas+ o�' Rusl� 2,� Thi s f,arnac.e �.s sa.id +.,o h�.trP b�en oner�,+,�� �� 1 a.+e as 1907 �) ���*, a.n� 81 bric� ch.arcoa.l �ri.Jns rem��..r s+.�.n��n� 4� The c�pacitzr �pr�s r�ter� at 18,��p tons of n� P' %ron a zT��r III . SHIP?�.'�'{IdT�> OP ORL TO OT_HLR ST,�.TLS (( lOR-10911 l. �rov+ 19Q7-8 apnroximnt-el�T ?.,,?0� tons ��' bro��m orP (mos+l,y from i+rtarion an� f',asG �o,�r.+9 es� zuas sh; �n.a,d -�� +he R:i rTninaham ci i s+ri�t, 41q., a. c�is+ance b�• r�;l of 3.bollt 5Q0 m-i_1e� 2. In 1�10 a sample l,ot of 56£� 1ons of brrn�m ore w�s shinnec� +o Philadenlnhi.a by �rrx?* oi Texas �it,y, on Galzrestor. Ra,y. T�e rail ha.lzl was abatat �00 miles 3, T1Rro s�eamer c�r�oes of hi�-h-�;rad.e broum ore were shipped from narth- ,nrestern ��T�ri.on Coiant�r to Ph�.l�de�phi �, k�lat v,�a,T of the Por+ Rolizr�r Tron Qre nailv,r�.r and the Atchison, Topelra k San�� re Ra9,7v�•�tr tc, the !��al �', in the surr�ner of 1913( (1�8) 1 PAP?�;R5 O2vT GFOLOGY AP1D IPOT?_BE�I�?CS DEPOSITS Oi �t,STi�T'��1 T'��t1S t1I�1D I?ORTHEPN LOitIS I9TTA ( (109 ) ) 7.. Devssen, AlPxander, Geolo��T �nd_ undPr�;rotand waters o�' the solathern nart of the Texas Coas+al Plain: T�. S. �7eol. Survev '"T�.#-er-Supnl,y P�p�r :�35, 364 pn., 1,914. 2. rTordon, C. ��., ���lot�r and �.�nc�er�*roland w�ters nf nortre�s+ern Texas: TT. S. Geo]. "t�rttev "Tqter-Sian*�7�r paper 276, 7�? nn., 1911 �. Narris, G. n., Oil anc� �as in Louis�.ana,: Tr. S, rTr�o1. `�urvey �iull. 429, pl. 13, 1910. -13- Z?SrS F3. 620-F T` T'. �r Tht? `i'Fr�-'j�rsr ;ron �T'f?� r`'F' �_?"�'PaY�SfiS 9Y1�! TF�7i?��; riP,01• 4. P P'I7 �" O S f' � • !1 , e �-•� 5oa, �merica Bu7 7., trol. 3, nn. 4�_Fn, 1P92,. - 30- . TTSGS B. 669 BULI.T�TIN 669 SALT RESOU�CES OF 1HE I11`1ITi1�D STATi;S bv iN. C. Phal en TTn'ted St�_tes �Teolo�ic�l Surveti� GeorRe �tic Sm�th, ?�irector 1919 ((Bib. ref.: Pub, of the G. S., h^a,y 1953: *669. S�lt �'esources of the 1Jnited St�tes, b,y 1�7. C. nhalen. 1919. 284 pp., 17 pls.)) -1- SAI,T RESOT'?�CES OF TI�L t1NITF.D STATES' by �"d. C. Ph�zlen tTnited St;�tes !'7eolo�ical Surve,y �3ULI �TIrd 669 1919 TTS CrS B . 669 ( ( Abstraet not�s 1) ( ( � = r�uote�i fo�tnol;es) ) i i k. p�e�e referencel 1 ................................................................ ..... ((Pat�es 1-10: `Title pa�e, con+.ents, ar_cl lisf of illizstra+�ons)1 Il'dTRODt1CTIC�TT( (1 ] )1 � A. Inf orm�t 9.on l. Tn +r� sAa.rch f�r �enos-i+s of sn11��1e no+.fl.sh sa,lt,s carrie�' on ��r the �',eol.o�ic�l St�rvev t�nder sne��fic au+hor�.+.tr o�' r n�r�ss a�'re�t c�eal of �.mnor+..ant i.nf�rm3ti�n an sa�+, resnlarces �� the iTn�+-ed S+ates h�s re ,n col lecte� . 2.. �iulletin c�ni-��n�n� th�s inf�r•r+�fi_on as f�rs-`-. pre?��rv� :RzQs di�ri�lc��? int� fi.ve �arts, as fo17 o���s: (11 �teol���;T o�' f.h� sa1i- r3enos�i-5 0" i-.he TTni.i-er? St�tPG (?) T��or;es (ori�an an� formai-�onl of s�line clEposii-�on (3� Chemica.� comnosition of ��line mQteri.zls (�� S+at� st; �s of the pro�luc+;.nn o? sa.1t in +he LTni+c��1 Sa-�tes (�l Te�'�nolor��- nf the m�nvfacture o�' salt � B. Te�,hnolo�v oi man�zfacttare of sA]t 1. Part rel�fin�* to techn�l�c��� or m�.nuf�c�ure o�' s�lt omit+,Pd frnm the �Teolo�*i�al Siirvets nla�lic�tion a.s more �7'017F'Y'lv connec+ed tirith lhe vrork or the Bi�re�.0 of T��.nes 2. Th�t nar+, irrhi.ch �omnln.���n+s nresen+ hullet;.n, f;Y1P,rPipre �as been nrenar��? �or r�la'�lic�ti.nn �s �iul7�t,;n 146 of the Rureatx of r:Rines SOLn?CES OF IP�'F^'nP�'�.TZOl�?((11-12)i 1. T�'eco�nized t}ia1 ever,y knovvn d?z�osi_t of rock salt shoulc? be closely s+udied an�' tested from i-ime to time i.n or�er to mal�e comt�let.e ir.�esti�a.tion of t?�e l�OSS1h1P, occurence of co-�mer�;�1 denosz.ts of potash salts in the T?nited 51-.ates. 2. For c�enos�+s of orc?�r_ary roclr s�lt may ovPrlie, be i.nclude�i ,�rith:i.n, �or unc�er- lie dez�os�ts of notash snits :�. System�tio s�udv therefore rmacle �n summ�r of 1911 of i-h� br�nes, b�.t+eans, and �le�oe7t;s of' roc�1- s�l� �.n +hP "ts�+,..es Pas+ of the �o�lnr T�Roiln+a�ns an� in 1�cal�ti�:s consi.�ered most n,-omisin^� f�r notash a. Hunc�re�s o�' sarmnles of brines, b�t-`-erns, rock salt, s�n�3 cal�ium �hlori��, mam� of them. sent; in t�tr c�r� ]) Ars f�r oi.l, tvere coll ec+ed ior chemi��l 8x t�7� � r!ii- i 071 b. ThP �eolo�*v �f +he o�crrr�n�.es o�' +h� brines and s�l.+ �wqs i.n�*Ps+,j�*�+ed c. �ec�r�l.s of deen ,�rel.7s exam�nP� ;n ro*�P snme o�' +�er+ m�r*hf �he IT1nrP, c.omnl�+-e +�{'�`-iP_ �}lC�S? Fl�?'F,"#�V F)17r�i.rihE',f� l��r 1-}'l.F' (�1"f'E'rc�ni- �S+fi'FP, St17'1TP,ZJS �?. Samp7es nf the rocr�s n�sse� tl�.-nua�h �r_ +11A dePn r1r711inP'S ���ere s�uc�i�.=.c�(i1.1)1 4. Fielc] w��rk a.. !�Xf'BYl�@� nzTP.T' l"JP,S�-E;?'I1 l�'1Y'f ni' �TE;\"� Yn2'�' £iT7!� � I7(',117� P,C� 4i.5� f S i�n ODr.]"!i'f"' 71 P' n1 �n+,s in '"!vom�n�*, I i�in�*s-l-�n, �enesee; �nri T�mnkins r�un+,z^s. ( f 12) � b. rtT�r1,� ac+.�_z*e s�1_t nlan+, 7n I:olver f�en�nsula oi 1'.`�c�ir*nn ti^r�s v�sit.Pcl C. �'�q br�nes (�f' �'-�.1;�1�1'!(� �:'aP"Y]Ai'V� �!i"� �]'1� ISEI�';P,11£� C^ll�'!'�"l E'S� T�' C!11��TL 11 S�m�l�d ?� �"�hose �or_+ent- �f brom�n� i.n commPr�i�l �iz�.f�+,it�• incizc�tes n=�ri-i�l � de�i�•�a+; on �f seA ivater anc� t�!e occt�rrer.�e of mo+�er l;.quorti �. .Also br��_nes of �'alden, 3•;analarra Coiantv, an�i of 2��?�son an� �F�artford, �'S�son �rnin+.r, ','�I� Va,; those of �:'e� �s �olant-;v, Ohio, �cr�5s (�hi� �'iver from P,�ason �otzntv, ':'V. Tra., an�l t},ose of Pit+sbur�h, Pa. -- all of �rhi.�h are or h�ve �een vrorked for bromine - e. T?ox•thern Ohio and Yansas tivere re�riewed f. As i.t ��r�s rumored earlv -in 191� that potash salts ha�l bee� .founc� ne�r Go�leri.ch, wes+ern �ntar�o, �anada, that loc�litv visited and sam�le� obtained. -?- 5. F� el� t���rk of 1912 a.. Simi1 �r �'i Pl�l w��rk con-Finved b�r �c�rr� ter diari n� stzmmPr n�' 1912 b. Prir_cinallv b�r tr; sz+s to the sal t-nr��u�inp� distri c+s in i-he '"7es'-ern St-ates c. The shores of the �reat Sa1.t I,ake �*ere ins�iect.ed d. The salt debosits to the sou+h, in Sevi.er, S�nnete, and Juah count�es, T?tah, vrere sampled e. Sam�les of salt and br�ne �rrere obtazned from the sol�r-s�lt pl�nts on San Fr�ncisco Ba,y, Lonp� Reach, and. San T!ie�*o Ba,y f. The �eposits in the Avawatz 1�Roun+r��ns, San T�ernard�no Count,y, Cal., were exam�ned. 6. Practicc�lly al� the analvses resultint� from tYi�:s ti^rerlr �.re aiven un��er the �eadino� "Chemic�l compos�tion of saline m�t,erials" (pn. 270-277). TYPES OF UCCt1T�RENCE( (12.-13)1 l. S�lt is wideltr dis+r�ruted and occurs in many �laces in bec?s of suf�'icient �ize to constitizte rock m�sses ?.. It i s also fo�and in solut� on ' a. S�lt sprin�s b. 1�Ta+er of the ocer�n c, '^Ta+,er of �nland salt lal�es or seas, as rreat Salt I�r�1re an�' t��e nead Sea 3. T1enn��ts of ra�ti� salt-. t.hat. are in+;ers+r�+;t';e�? lr�;{-1-�'rnrks of ��ar�otas �eolo�ic �zor�zons(see n. 7.9�) h�ne hePn formec� rv the �ra�u�l e�ar?oration �f 1,odies of �ea ipra+er ciat off fr�m �he ma;n �rFan( (1?,�) ( 4. ��1+, ��ra+er o�' +he �nland salt la.keG �r seas, like �7rea+ calt I_ake anc] the nead Sea, h�s been c�nr..entrai-e� bjr e�ran�r�1�on +.,hrol��h la�k of an outlet(i12-1311 a. Rs'�i�er�l mat+e.r of such inc.lose� rodips of �salt ��a+er in �en�r�] C't'trSf'�1�1ZP.� otat -;n the oraer in •rr�;�h +.he soli�tlon ba,�o*�es ��+vra+ed. w:�_th the �ar�o»s salts((131) r. Th's order depend.s x�artiv on re19t?ZrP, amoun+s o�' the sfllts in +re w�ter �nd ;�artiv on the�r s�luhilitv 5. Rock salt of such uni�ersal occurrence that a Iist of the loca]ities urhere it is found ti^:oulcl inclla�e almost everv colmt.r�r on +he �^lobe 6. Tn the tTni.ted States ex+ers�ve an�l valuable depo�its of salt are found a. Central and v�estern New 'rork n. I�aho b. Pennsvl�rani:a o. '"dyom7n� � c. ��io p. nrobqbl,y several other d. 1���1 c'�' �an S tates e. jr� r�inis f. Kans^s �;. Iouisiana h. Texas i . ��e�a� a .� . TTt ah k. Arizona 1. ?'T��e l',�`ex i c o m. f'.alif�rn� a 7. Salt sprinr�s anc�. wel]s �b�tand ir_ ne-i_c�hl�nrhond ofi +he sal+. cie��ns�+s, ��a�x��a���xa�x� �nd �;�'lP,GP,� as we] 1 as the `^r�+ers of sa]_t l�l�Ps ar_c� sea v,ra+er, are us�� �s sonrces of +,he commercial nrodttc+.,. £�. The locat�on nf +he nrodvcin�^ sa]t- nl�n+.s in +�P T�nitec� State� is Ishon�m on +he ac�omnanvin� map (P1. I). �iAbsi-. _2A-11 MINE�'ALOGY.l�i(131) 1. Comm.on or roc� sal+ kr,oti,m mineralo�ica7iv �s halite 2. It is the chloride of sodium, comnosed of 39.4 pe.r cent c�lorine, vrhi�h in its free st�.te is a e�as, 3. T�?alite is r�ther nrit;+l.e 4. �ardness 2.5 6. Specific �rav�tv ran�;es 2,.135 7. Its index of refraction and 6�.6 ner ePnt o" the metal sodium. �n� has a conchoidal f']"&cful^P, from 2.1 to 2.6, that of nvre cr�rstals bein� is 1.544.?. -�- TTS GS R . 669 �. It i s hi�hlv �liathermous �. 7{; sPldom occ�xrs pure, bs�n� mixe� t^rith a va.riet�r nf other saline miner��s, am�np� which are a. Gvnstam b. Anh,yc� r-i t e �. An�(in �rermanvicarna�.lite, I�ieserito, ar_�l ��l,yhal.�.'-e d. �r -it is a�socia�ed 1a��fh shal� an�l sand�tone lA. Ra.1a.+e zsomPt.ric -in �r•Ts+�lli�a+,�on a. TTs,,�al7?* f�rms ctat��•s b. �"Ihi�h �.re��or�mom�V'�d�s+,orte�l or ,,n�t-e� in c�vernnlzs a�*mre�ations c�lled honner-shnnP� crt��i-als 1] . Also o�.cvrs mass�ve m�i.+h �ramal ar to compa�� strtar+�xre a. 1+,RassPs w�.i-h r,erf��+, clz�ica.l. �I ea,*aae �re co�n*non b. A_s well as fi�rntzs narie+�v, v�r�i��h is sa�d�+o be z�se�z�lo-m�r��otas a�'ter �vnsi�m 12. uas a �Titreous li�s+-er 1�. "JhPn pure -i.t is t}•ans�ar�nt and rolorle�s l�. Imnur�t� �s im�art t-o it �rello-^:�, rn,d, b�orrn, bl??e, an� n�Trr�le hues and �re resnonsible ior �.ts �l�f�'Pr�nt dPc*rPP� of trar�lia�encv 1F. It is re�.dily solurle in �.v�+er 16. Its charac'-eristic saline tas+,e is i3no�vn to all 1, 13 . nar_a, J. n., Svs+em of mi neral o�r, 6th ed ., T?ew `rork, pn. l�n_1�6, 18g2,. USES OF SALT((13-14i) 1. Lar�elv usec� for CLi11.ri'lr�r purnoses 2. I�Teat-pac?�in�, fish-evrin�, �iairy�nr�, ancl other inc�l�stri.es to preserve the pro�?ucts from deterioratio�n �. TTsec� extensi.�relV �.n refri�^eration �}, The chlorin�.t� on nf e�olc�- c�nsiames some s�lt( i 13� l F. TTser� to f�� a e�la�e on nottery( (17-14� 1 6. Fnamel in�* and pipe T�ror�s i(14i i - 7. Sa1t�r_� ca+.tle R, Clar9.n� hides �. T!�alri.nr� pickles 1�. C]Par�n�' oleomar�ari.ne ?1. In the form of brine, �t is l�rt�elt� iased �r t?�A ��Pmical in�us+•ries in prepara+ion of soda ash, c�us�--i� sod.a, �n.d zTar;.�l�s o+.her chemic�ls cnnt��nin�* a sodi.txm base C7FOI Of=Y Or' SALT DEPOS ITS Or T�iF�' Z�'TITFD STAT�'��S ((14-19211 1� GE�TE:�_1L DISTRI�3iTTI01�' aI�.D CtiAn,ACT��R( (14-151 i 1. (�f us�ful m;neral� fntanc� i.n the TTnit�� S+a1-As none perh�ps oc�.�ars in �;re�ter �run�anc� or is m�re ��dellr clistril�uted f?�an common salt. a. Occt�rs in crvstalli_ne lavers in+erbec�d.ed. ��:�ith �frPr se��*neni-s, whir,h maV hav� bP� n chPmi�al7y precznitated, like �ypsum, or tirhich ma,y be c7as^?.f'1P!� as �r�lina.rv cla�tic denosits, like sandstone and sh�.le ---the l�dr012 foMnina hi l ls or e�*er. mount�inovs masses b. In heds of dr,y, or nearlv dry, lakes, marshes,or alkali fiats �. Tn f arm of dissolved salt in natural. br�r_Ps th�t �.ss��e from salt s�rin�s or are found. �.n sal.t la?�r� or non�ls or in the ocean ?,. Fxa^��l.es o�' all t�ese mo�es of ocrlarrPnce v�ril.l be ��_ren in +,he descript�ons of the salt resources of the different Stat�s in ti.l�.ich salt is of oresent or of nrosnec+.ive com*nercial im*�ortance. �. 7'n eastern and southern narts of the Ttni.tec'_ States salt denosits do not- apnea.r at the s��rf�.ce �s thetr do �n m�.nv n+�rts of +,he it�est 4. Tn TT��r `�'ork, n�rt�ern Pernss.rl�an� a, ?�?ichi a�an, �h� o, Fansas, ?r�.r�i_nia, Loizi.siana, 1'Tee,r P.�exi c�, and eas+.ern and northwes+,ern Texas salt occtzrs in bec��ed de*�osits rre11 bel o��r +he stirf'�ce, ?"J�1P.re � t � s nr�+.Pcted. from the solzrent act,on of r��n 9nc1 e^rniand u*a+er b��* a man+7P o�' i�nerviol�s s+rA+.a. _4_ .ri. TTl �";l?.e ;,TE'S't',f?� _'l �'+'i;"'t;F;S� 1C1Q}"10� .,;�'OT'ii2'if_*� ?'drS'I-t r'rt `' �'3:'�.5� �TE�Z"T TRPX1('O� Ar� �,�na, T'TE'n9C�&� and �a1.�.forn� Q� I??E1T1�; e7;+E11S1.V2 Sc'�.1+ C�P,�OS1f;S are exnos�d at th� stzrf ace becaiase of ar�.d , cl imat� c conr� i ti ons. 6. Th��s t-he iTn-i+ed S+�tes mav be di�ri.ded �n+n eas+Prn and western parts with re�'ere�^P to �ts se.lt reso,�rces, t�e d�zr9.s�on bein� n�t onlv �eoaranhic�but clim atic. 7. The a�re�ter �a.rt of TTevada, lara�e narts ofl TTtah anc� C�l�_fornia, and small parts of Ore�on, Iclaho, �nd '."TzTom�nv� are i.ncluded �n ,+,he Great Rasin re�ion, so cal] ed, in which are 1-he clrainae�,e ?�asins of Iake Lahon+an and Lake Bonneville, tTr:o Pleistocene lakes. �.. ml�e basins of these lakes h�+�re been s+uc3ied by G, K. Gilbertl� and I. C. Russell. � 1 14 Gilbe?�t, G. K., I�ke Bonneville: T?. Fron. 1, 1890. 2, 14i1 Russell, I. C., Geola��.cal hist�rv a'�uaterna�r lalre of no.rthwestern rTe�ada; T.J. TSon. 11, 1�?R5. S . Geol . S UrZre�j of Leke Lahontan, S. �eol. Survey �� The conclusions of these �eolo�i.s+s rea��rd�n� the sal�nes deposited from the tn�ai-ers of these lakes, ti�e�r accumulation, the�r disap�ea.rance from the surface, and +,rP nossi.bilittr of f'�i.nd�n� them bel��� the svrface are c��scuss�d in. subseqvent pa�es o�' this bi�lletin.((14i� �. The clima.t;c and r�eolo�ic condit;ons pertain�.nr� to cert�in of +�e sa).ine dep�si+s o�' ,Arizona �nd T?ew FRexi co are sim3_7_Ar to t�ose of th� �reat, Rasin ret�ion, �nd +-he �eneral izatior_s b,y rTilbert and T?ussell for that, reeion hold for certain oc�Urrences of salt i.n t�e t'wo St�tes menti_oned.((].511� II . NE4"1 YORK( (15-44� 1 A. HISTOR�' OF THE SALT IP1DL?STRY((15-1.71) ( ( omitte�l � ) B. POSITIOtd OF I� IELD( (17-1811 1. The Sal�na or salt-bearinc� �'orm�tion outcrops -in a belt approximatelV 12, miles wi.de at TTia��rr� Ri�*er 2. Extends eastward across the centr�l tier of cot�nties to a point a little south of Onei.da Iake. 3. The otaterop then turns to the southeast, t�.per�n� �r�.dually, anci +,ermin�.tes in the uici.nity of Schoharie '?iver, Schoharie C ount,y . 4. Its g�reatest v�idth, �boiat 20 �iles, ? s at +he fooi: of Ca,yu�;a and Seneca lakes.((17ii 6. Sa.lt minina� 3.s cnnfineci to +,he re�ion soiath of t^.is outcropnine� belt --th.at is, in the ds.re�t�.or_ of +,he d?p of the beds-- as the salt beds, bv reason of +heir so7l�bili+v, c�n not exist at the svrf�.ce in thi.s reaion of ab�an�ant r�infall.((17-18)) 6. These fac.ts are brou�*ht out on tY�e maA (P1. III),((Abbrev.: Abst. p. -4A-)) ���ich sho�nrs -Fhe o��tcr�� nf +h.e Sal�.�a ?�rmat�.nn ancl +,he blaces in the S+�te vrhere salt h�.s bPen fol�nd in wPl l s and shaf'ts((7.8i� C. F�TEr?T OF DEYOS ITS ((18-19 i i i(om.i_ttPdl) D. ��RATIGRAPHY((19-201i l. TY�e salt be�?s of TTew vork bel.onv� i.n +re Salzna format�on of i,he ravi��a e�roi?n of roc�ks, whi�h in turn are �.n i-he S�ltzr�an SVSf.P,2R. 2,� To �.17v�+-ra.te t�e position of these be�s in t.he s*eolo�i� colum- nar secti.on oi T?ew York, tre section of t�e nenoni.an and Silnrian rocl�s is �iven below: (( see naee -4B- of abst. 1 1 -48- �(19i1 USGS B. 669 T�Rajor svb�livis3_ons o�' +,he nevonian and Silurian r�cks of r?ew York, sho�vi.n� position of Salina forma+.,i.on. l� 1 19 Hartna�el, �. A.., C1as�ifi.catlon of the �eolor�ic �'orma�ions �f th.e St�+.e of T7�,r� Y�rk: TTew `rork �t�te l'�t�seum u�n�book I�To. 19, ].ql�, tarle 1, b�tween pn. 24 and 2.5. nevonic........ Clntaric or S iliari.c. Chemuna� t�e�l s . f"h3ia+,�tar��aan...., �afsU;71 s=�ndsfnne, loca,l flaci.es.) .orta�e beds, (r'anles �e�ls, Itha�.a beds.) �neon+a be�s, l��al facies. SPnecan......... �renesse t�e�ls. Tvllv limes+one �:r1.an. . . . . . . . . . Nami l.+nn be� s . � �T���rcellus be�s. 1Tlsterian....... ��nonc�aoa Z1mE'C�f-()nP„ �chohari P p'rit. rsonvs �rit. �riskani�n...... �`ris��nv sandstone. pOr't' �IP,71 11mP,S'i'0118. B��ra#'t limes+,one. T?ew Scntlancl limestor.e. ��elder�+er�;_r�n... Kalkber� liries+one. (',oe�.Tm�ns l imestone. �'�anlit�s lim�stone. pondout tivater lime. Cavue�an, „ , , .,. ,. l'o1�lPskill 1 �rn�stone Salina beds. Guel*�h dolom-i.te Iockport dolomite T?iar�aran....... C1-i.nton beds, inclur�in� Rochesfer �ha] e at t�n. ?�e�lzna sanclstone, i.n�lurlin� Oneida �stivep�an........ con�lomPra.te. _ �s�;re�*o sand�t�ne. -5- USGS I3. 669 �. The S�lina format,ion �n r,entr�l �nd T�es+ern rTP,�r �'ork �s n�u� sub�iva�ed into +,hP followin� memt�ers, bes*innin�* w1+r 1-he hi�*rest: ( i 19) � l. Rertie water limP: ?,� t'iruil7 �.cen�,�. mar�nes-i an li^�es+�ne, useci for the `- mamzfacttzre n_� natural ce�r!ent in F;rie �o�ant,y. (This is the unper h�rizon of abundant �;ur�rn+,ertas.i 2. Cam; 111as shale: '�'�forkahlP F*v�s�am deposi+s, shale, an�l �3ol.omite. �. Svr�cuse salt. 7� trernon sh�31e: ned, �rstir, and �reen shales �.nd thin dolomi.tes. �. Pittsf�rc] shale: Sa�le interbbd�3ed w�.th d�lom-i.te; oon+ains a �roftzsion of eurv�aterids. ( �1.9) ) � 19 The r�mes here us�d are those in currPrt lase bv the TTev✓ �ork St�+e Geolo�*ical Surve�rl. 4. Tn east�rn r?e�nr vork the "��1l�ur 13�estor_e, relow thA cement k�ecls of the ��l ina, (%�r2'7 P.S a?�ri ef modif;.ed reapnearan�e of the "?i ar*aran faunai (?Ol l 5. I-!- tivi.11 be o?�s�rvecl,+here�'ore, +.hat- +he sQ.l+, ?,e�s of r?�ti�t York �.rP associ+�tec� u�i+h cien�sits �f �;vx�si�n, s��le, c�olomite, �n� lime:�+one. E. STRUCTZ1�iE( ( ��l ) 1. 7t zre.s si-ated that the Sal�n� Y+e�s �n tb�hich the salt denosi+s occur 9?'P, ZP]'1S S1"1�T1P,!� ?. ThP s+r;i-�� �r 1ir_� �f' silr�'a�e F9Xn(�R17rf�. nr' -I-.},_� sa1_+-??ear�nm fnr�n�+ion ; s eaGttvard, A.nnrox��ately nara7lel titi�i+h +�e sh�re �f I�ke �nt-ari.o, th�ti�mh h�oat�s�-, o" •f.'��e r��la��h tono�,ra.ph,y t�e lin� nf rnit�rror� i s tnr+..laoi�s in detail 3� The rerls �r lenses c�in to '-�P sn,;th a+. � loti�r �nmle �. �;Xr�n�ll2'P,S tirit� SP,Ctl.01'1S Of' C�P,P.T� Y'E'c'rlt't�S S11nV.� 'f'1�q1" �'.�i; ^,�ip i S I�.O"f; continuoias hi�t �.s reversPc� �t inter�*als, ti^ri+.h cons��lza��t �1,in to the n�rth �. ��rer a lara�e p�,ri; of the salt ��stric+ 6� fee+. a mil.e is cons�dered a fair a�Teraa�e of the dip, bl.�t it is s-erv irremul�r and. ran�e� fror� 100 feet or m�re t� 1-he soi�th to almost as mi�ch t.� -f;he nnrth, where reverse dins hane bePn nnted. `",�t 6. The sl-ruc+,ure is well shoti^m i.n fi e�iara 1. (( Abs+,. p. -SA-I, i F. T:�3E SALT �3E1)S ( i 2,0-23)1 ((omitted)) G. Ru�CC�*�DS �F SALT WELLS AILTD S�IAFTS (( 2�_41) 1 (lomi.ttedli � H. F3IF3LIOGR%�PHY( (42-4� ) i ( (o�ittPc?11 III. �I�.IICNIGA�?( (4�-6711 �. Fnr �ome ve�rs 1''irhi �an h�.s re,nk�d f�.rs+. r�m�nm +�e S+�+es �n hnth ql�ant�t�r 3nc3 va1i�� nf' +,he s�lt; nro�liaced ?., The salt is clerizre,�i f'r�,n, t��o �?,s{;;n.ct s�iirces a. Rock salt b. TTatiarr�l t�rines '�� The inc�ustrv base�a on rn�ti- ���+ ;G, nF muc��t mrea�Pr imnortance tj�an th�t hasec� on n�i-izral �rine.((4�11 A. �POSITIC�.� GF FIi�LDS((44�1 � 1. Salt nrorli��Pc� in thrpe d-ist;�_r��t; parts nr t-re 91;ate 2. T�,e �;stricts (see P1. I, n. 1?l�(Ars+. p. -2A-1� are �(1. In the sol�fhe�stern nart �f t�+e 5+�,+P al^n�; n�+roit and St. C13ir ��VP,2'S (?1 In apnrox��.a+,Flv t1�e ce^+ral ��.rt n�' t,l�e T �ti^rF�r pen�nsul a, �speciall,y in the �a�i.n�tr �Ta11e,y, �n� '� Al �nc* trP ?��e�+..ern sr�re n�' the I_otiver Peninsula B. STR�G�'�'iiY I�P1D STRZTCTURE((��._F11) 1. Salt produr,ed in the southeastern nart �f the St�te �nd alon� the western shore is der�ved from rock-sa]1- beds in the Salina f^rm�t�.on, unc�er7�rin� the '�.Ronroe rrr�u�(Siluriani -6- 2. Thai- pror3uced in t�e Sa�inativ 1�a� lev comes fro�r n�t�ural br:ines in +,he P.?arsh�,ll sandstoneiT��ississinz�ian)((4�11 3. The I ower Peninsula of 14"i�hie�szn � s a stTncline or basin� i i451, l �( rema9ncler of "Struc+ure and Strati a�raph,y" omitt.ed )) C.'I1EI L F'.EC ORDS (( 51-67 )) ( ( omitt;ed) ) � D. B IBI I OC7RAI'HY( ( 67 )1 ((omittedl) zv. o��Io( ( s�-�ol ) 1. Raar m�terial is deri�*ed from both salt be�ls and r_�ttxrr�l brines 2. T?o rock salt � s mined( ( 6711 A. POSITIOPI OF FIELDS (( gg)1 1. �h�.o salt. ror+tPs fro� tt�ro dis+ri.cts, one in +he northeAstern an�' t��e other �n the soia+reas�ern part of +�e State Z. Roth occurrences are d�_stincf �eoloc*i��llv �.s vrel] as r�eo�raphicall�r. '�. Their locat;ons are 9nciicated on the ��neral map �P1. I, p. 12 (iabst. n. -.?,A-1� �f , bU� thei r detai7 s are befter s�m,Fm �n fip�ure 3. ( i�hst p. 6A�1 , 4. The sontheastern fi.eld i.s an extens�on ��' the field in Nest ?r�r�*�nia, vrh�ch lies on the oonos�te ssde �fl �h�o ''�'14�7'. B. DEP(?SITS I�'; 1d0�THEF�STEBTr OHIG( (6�?-7111 1. �xtent((6P-70)1 ( i omi.t.tedi ) 2. Strati�raphV( i 70-711) a. The sal.t hori�on in the northeastern part of Ohio l�es beneath the T?orroe forma.tion anr' in the Salina formation of` the S�lvrian svstem l,. It ���otald ann^ar that the salt-be�rin� beds from t�rhich the artific�_al brine(brine formed bv alloti+rinp� t��a+.er to come in+o c�r..ta�t zr�i.th the salt bedsl i.s obta-i.ned in th�s part of the State are not ex+ensions of thosa of soi�theastern ]'�ichia�an, al.thou�h the sal+ in northeaGtern Ohio occl�rs at the same #�eolomic hori zon as that alone^ the �etroit and St. C� ai r r?�*ers �n I`,�ichi�an. c. T?�e reason ior +hi.s �as reen exnl��ne�i i�n�ler l'��chi�an, and, hrief lv, is due +o sL�pnosed sha7lo�v?^�a+er 9n the ancient sea.(i70)1 � d. Rownocirer ha.s clascif�ed the beds enn+ainin� roc]r salt in northeas+ern �hio as bel.onp��.n� to the Sali_na formati on ( i7�-71i � 1) This fc?rm�t�_on i s not kno�vn to otatCr'np �mr��rhere in the S�`ate of Orio((711) 2i But the de*�os�ts in nortreast-ern (!hio �a�h�ch c.�n+ain t�e roc� sa.lt are a south�rrestwarci extension �f i;he Sal?na fo�na+�on �f ATev,r `�'ork is novr �enerally accented �� Tn past some confusi.on has ar� sen from fact. +hat earl ier definitior_s o�' the T,�'�onroe �ncluc�ed the salt-l�ear;n� be�s, t1�e name bP�r� �ased to 9nclude all roclrs bet;tiveen. +he niandee lim�;s.+on� abo�=e and the r?iat*ara bel ow 4) Present �enera7.l.v accepted defini_ti.on of ��onroe, h��r.�eT*er, res+r�.ci-s that na.me t.o the str�ctiv mari_ne de-��s�+s overl�,Tin� t-he sa1.i--bear�n� deposi.ts(�hrrich accord-in�* to rTrabala an� o+.�ers are nonm�r�ne)and t�n�aerizrine; the �undee limestone, and. thP s�lt-beari.ne� denos�ts, which litholo�ical7.v resemble as weil as occunv the stra#;i�raphir, nosit�on of fhe S�lina formati_on of TTew York, �re cons�dered as unqtaest,i_onabl,y represent�.nm the tir�stern acct�mulation oi the Salina sea, althol?�h thev are not e�rervlvhere easilv sepa.rable from the overlvinp� r"onroe deposits, e�pec�allv where no rock salt is nresent C. }3RIA?E HORIZOTT II'T SOtTT�iEA6TEI?nT OF3I0( (�1-73)1 1. Strati e�raphv and Strvct�are( (71-72i ) a.. mhe surface rocks i.n 1-he Ohio �rallev �.t Pomeroz�.lie at the si.a�nit of t;h� �'�nemau�h f'or!na+7on, also �no�.+m as t.he "I o�,^rer R�rr�n Coal r�easures."1� 1 71 Prosser, C. S., '�e�*�se�?n�m���,7�+i�re o�' the C?hio �eoloa�i.cal f'ormai-.ions: (lhi.o Geo7.. Starve��, �+.h ser., Rta�? . 7,p. 25, 1905. -�A- iTSGS Bi1LI . 6gg F'j ��lrP 1. .� T1. �n ,, � . � - � ' ..,, ___ y�. ,.._— ..�.`..__. ----- foo�i . _ - r. �. --�_ _ � �, 3 � ' r _ _ . . �-=-_�_�.;:_,_� � __ ._____ , ; S-�C '' �—'t � � a.vo��, �� � f . . �i '�_ � �_ka�,� , � � - ,-- ; ��, t j , , ,r ...7 0��� �. . 1 � ,!-' O t. _. _._ .. � , ��,Pv"''' I _ ''y;i�^FS�p,,F: � � • � r" . . � ,. v L-, -� 3__ a t � rHESS � iE , . .. � , � �eo:toc*ic s��i-; nn �{;hrnt±m?� +�,P Sa1+ wel] s from I ��rrn• +,o r�.�„�C�rj_] � Cq ('.?^r,F?�,r� T.T� V� � c�n��.rir,c+� gi->..t1C"i-.+-17P, r�{' �T'1_n?ll�A,!Tc'i, ��T!',r�Y'11� f�r�i.l�n� � i,+,n�;-nnn �nr� ln'?f�Prl.r�n� Ss°l� 1?�(� ��fli-nr T,''. ei. T��� ��E?rr1] ] � ?'C?ZeT �'l1t^Tr' ,�'��"*f�P. T�17g � R17� 1 • � � � �, ��i;�i� • � r � w� , _ ... . 1_"r,.; �. „+�:y� , r�.: � t. : �' . �a'.:: 1 � �... ry . _ _ , � � i M` . s"�:Y'Y�. � `Allc Li�`,4w� � A! . � . . �. _ _ . . . . . �. r . . ,.. '� d 1 . . . . . & 4:. f '�w, ,�,_ �, � � qa . ... 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'�r ` � � `•. r _ - �SR �- yx-_t, i �yy�� ,)/'f 4YF k 9� --0 T;� ":.- . . . � z L. �t y'� .,,% - �'.:. . 4, � ! r � - � '� .� . ,�. . ��,�a.�: .....� Y�c \•^°'f., � -�c�i -�A�i-i`'�'` �k.�. .,,rriT'�, "ht"' t . ' - .' da fi�;� 4 �.° �� . ,.s� T .{'.. �c ; �_r,.'; �` 'F x,d ... ' _ c f.,� E 3 'x � s ' +` . .y�y�y,.y�.'y}.".^�'"?'.f"" t'.a`�r�nlra+._.,�F,�N.s^.�!i'� -ww'...�;....+e�,r ;�.r.,,� .�,,,-f,.,r.-+a.r+,.rF•.«._ ...«�1 a�'i�p��•M1y�, ^,qyy�,'.. . � ,4: _.+,� ,yn.7 s.. 'A`'�i+., w,a�« ,h .�:. . � , � � ,� ��.� sy .� i ' � �- . � �1� t��� � ��0�j��4�x��.� �.t Y.x �' _i, � . T.. \7j.�:.'�` " .� i '� '� . '�� � � � . . .. .. y�q � � �F } �� >�.�H 1.:�; ��� � .'�al t� X . ,�r6. � r .. ' - . ,��` � ' . ' � . �' A y�i -�A-�' i b�..� �,. .1 r.t�..4 ,��.Nbr7�`jar �'f Mdi. rd ,( '� 1."g'rv:.'Frp�^` s `` "�-..�'. S n � ' S � �,.�z�� ,.... . . �� � � , � ,�4�W - �{ ,� R �r� �'`'� .'�� cyr ��t'.�;� i�`r�' �*" 't �.. f �.:.4 °M L . J ��' �„� � �� ��;X, l y..t . 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F� y�- r� . . . - n "s' �� n .a. �-�ss,. . .. �X � a . ���� r� `� z �. � r «n �t gy r�. -� s,'r A r 4 - a �. ,F s � 5 .+ 'T y,e ��-�+ � �,� 'S^ �Yx' � Ra_ r t �_ A^?`.` '��' y,r�1..o-�.�, v '�� , � : . � � � a� rfy v� � .'� .ts"?�x�:-l�'y,r 3 I.i,� ; �, ��faatrvl�" � � �;� yf�"'1�1 ,� �S ., ? r ''`o h�'�;� a� �1r,p �-- u." 7R"' �t� � '*"F r � w- >�.1' `�"F1 1 f �t.. -'-? � _ ^�,�u -p - .. � . . .. . . _� z.. _�..� � y- .,,...�;i�.�. ��_' Y._�.o-.. ,.,� ,..��'�,�s"t�.w�� ` �q�.. ry�.t.� . . , .. .�.� - _ . . - _ _ . .. . . . . . -6A- F'?_fr'1)Y'P, ,Z Tl. 6� T?o� nf p�gi�rn ii]'Il0 S�l!)Zr!�'"'P' Inc'�i-i011 �f S�l,�f tia��r'_xs anc? nikaii �T�r?-s t�s3np� ?�r��e. � %�i::G��;;-;,�:.:�- t1�GS �UII ggg � � 'fa; v�or'�i f`a✓�c✓ � cl�efa�'� �AL+CN.�OYf"c�} AKY'��� �� ,� �: CKer•ri:c��j Rl,�may'� - Bc�rl�r�er� " — � , �,__ 1 y. _ : , , . � ' , �t. , ., , „ - . `�. � . , '� k . . � . . .. � . . � � , . . , k ` r: S� �` r," .. . . . � . " . . � . � , . . .. . _ � . '�'I: :� > . . ., . . �... �. . , , _ 'E : ... "` �. .i, . � � � � , . . .� . � ' ��- � . .. . g" S ' � } � �Jt�y � � . . . . . °. � #! �, t P t . , w� � � r ' .. � .. �� ' + ... _ } � t' � � d , 4� '� -�' I - y , � . e � � �.f.3', Y v,`'"^ : '.:� �� N , ..� :�' �:a+ 'i - � '� _ � t' � � b l0 20 3oM:r"S L"" -"_"1-----�—�'-----� _�_ I� GS B. 669 2. �har�c+er of �rine ((72,-7311 ( iomi+,+,e�11 D. �y��I_L R�Ci:?T'DS i(7:�-7qil � ((omi+ted�) E. BI�3Z,IOG�?f�Pxv( f g�l 1 ((omittedll v. ya�;s2� vz�r�zr�I� f l�0—�11) l. �"rest Virr�ini a is i?nportan+ proc�vicer o�' sa1t. from natiaral �rines 2. O�cur in p�.r+ in Carronifernus san�_s+.or_es A. YtiSITIG,+ uI�' FI?'�LDS((Apl 1. ?''atizral brinec now ut-,i_lizPd �re �'ol�n� �.l�nv� 0'�io anc? K�nawha r�vers �. The Ohio ??iver f i el� �.s an ext-ens� on o�' the area in Qhio :�. �Ra�on an!� uar�'ord, located in T,!Ta:;�n Countv, arP t-he �enters of +..he inc�t�stry in tri s��r•t ��' the St�te 4. �+��lder_, 6 m�1es abn�re Charleston, is the ��te of salt, rormine, and calcium-chl�ri�e inc?i?s+rv on F'anawh� �3ver B. GHIO �iNLR AT�EA( ( g�� 1 1. �'reol�e;ically a bart of the Pamerov dis+,r�ci- of �hio ?,. A,Tasnn, �ne of the centers of the ind.lzs+x-sr �n �'7Pst TTi r��n� 3, i.s l ocated ne�rlv �nnosii-e POn1Pr0V, ���; o, an�' �rar+.,ford i s a shnrt di s+. ance �'arther l�n the r�ver. 3. �r�^lo�*�* �i tha br�nes ntamn�c� a+ Pomerov, Ohio, lias alr�ad�r reen d�seus�ed C. I��1T,x'�P�iA RIVt�'R AREA( (��-gl l 1 i i nm� i;te� 11 D. RI�LICGF'AI'?�Yi i �'ll 1 VI. I'�''�'SYI.��TAI'�IA( (�1-�'4)1 1.. Sfl.�.'?;� �rOm1.I7G'� �Yl'� (9.�C;11�m C�lnri.de �fl�TP. �"P,TI '�h{-.a�nF'.:� i?1 ��'lP, TT!?1"'{;1'1 �'tf�8� �-���;t,Sl�larr�Yl� PA. `l. F'n..l'IV in 1914, �'10�''E','�7P.7'� {'hC� �I1f±t1F'F'Y'Z% 'tl1 �1'!-"+"S�11Y'?�'1 l'Vr'a,6 !�ISCOT1�;i71Llf'� :�, ThP n�i-iaral br�n�s b�camP Sn r�;llai;P i-.ra+ i� ��ras no 1on��r nrnfit,ahle to ��rorlr them A. �T�()I0!'7Yf (�1-r211 ]. :�it- �-11F? n�RP_f 1^�h2T'P, Sfd11- ?�It36 *1�Ofjl]CP,� f'�ll�r WP,l l g i+Tp�^n i,ri pp�r+�.tic�l�( i�11 i 2. �ne Tuell, one of +he deenes+ ;n �'er.r_s�rlvani.a, rea.che� �. c�en-'-h �f 4�0�91 iPet �n�? nanet,-a�-Fc� nParlv 4,000 fee+ o�' bec�s th�+. d.o not �ut�roP in the imme�-i a,te territnr•Ti (�'1-�2� � �. The brine is ob+a�r,ed �n +h;G v��P�l �.+ � dep+h of 1,4�� fee+ fr�m a s3nd des� �*na+er? in i-he rec�nrc? �s Sal�; sand a. This san�l i G nrobat�lv in the Poc�no f�rm�.tion� w?�-i ch. i.s of l�"iss; ssi- pnian a�e, ann m��• possiblv corresnon�i with +re Rerea s�nds+.,onel,� ((E�2,�) 1. i�2 , P,Tunn, T.�. J., �il an,a �as f;elds of +,he Carnea��e ��zadran�le, Pa.: T�.S. Ge�l. S��rvetir �ull. 456, pn. 11-12, 1911, T3. PRUBABLE SOt�TffiudARD F:XX^_'�T?SIOTI OF T�i� SE1.I�I2'A FORI�TATIOPI I?'.' PEr;P1SYLV�'_`?IA( (83a�4) ) 1. '�'wo recnr�s oP v�rv deep wells are in the possess9on of th� Sw�vev v�rh�ch incl�rat� that the salf-be�rine� formation �i ATew york State, the Salin�, prob9Y�1y c�ntinues S��)1;�?TNc�r(� into Pennsvl�-ania �, n,n.P �f thPsa recerde is f��+- nf the n�rrzck ri+.T* �r Pradford Citv vre�l, dr�lle�l bv thP Rra�]f�rd �een '°Tell ro., 4 m�les rort.h,ea�t of T�radford, l'"cK�an f',oi���t-,V, Pa., in 191?, an� 191?. �. Tre SP,Cnri�] dePp Trr�l l, '-nn.�m as +he A.Tc�or.al�? ti^re] ?, i s locate�? �b�u1 4 miles nort�e�r��t of I'�."c�ona.l.d, '"rash�n�ton roiantv, Pa., �r 14 mi�Ps southti�r�st of �'�tt;sburgh � � 4. ThP �?radfnr� UTP.� 1 a. nPac}�.ed a depth �f �,�20 f��t t�. Fnt�r �P�'s of s�lt are recnr�?ed as �Qvin� Y�enn en�o>>��Pred, w'�Zch rana�e �n thi.ckness from 10 +0 47 fePt �. Ton o_f' Yhi.�*�Pst bed i s 4,49� fe�=+; the 1,asP o�' i;he lowest � s e.t- 4,71� feet; the sA�t-bearin� �eris trere,��re ext.end. t-�^�l,�h ��.o+.al thi��ness nf 223 �'Pet F. ��cnon�.] �? we11 a. Salt vWater enc�untered �+ a den+h �f annroxim�telv 6,�'2F feet }. Rocl- salt was fn,�nc� �n t�e inter?ral be+ween 6,�2� �a�t ».nd 7,175 feet, �. Or a�nnroxim�tel,y 350 feet((831� ' _R_ 6. I o� of Brad_for� deep we11( ( 83-R411 ( ( omit+ed i 1 VII . VIRGITdI �( ( 85-89i ) A. POS ITI�r1 �i1�TT) 7;};mENT OF DEPOS ITS (��?,,r�� 1 1. (1nl�r economicallv imnortant dep��s�.ts of salt i.n �iira��nia are in the south�hes+ern A&rt of the Sta+e ?. These, vrith the �vpslam depo��+,s, exten� for '80 mi1Ps alnne� the va� 1 eu of' the �?�rth �'ork of Nols+..�on River �nd have been �l�evel oned ex+,ensi�relV in Sm�rth and 'rdas�in�ton co�mti�s. B . STRATIGRAl'?iY �?D STPUCTIJRE( (g5-861 � 1. The ronks of the re�ion are involved in an overthrnst f ault which �as been call ed bv J. J. Stevenson t�e Saltville fa>>lt. � ��5 Ste�enson, J. J., TT�tes �n �he �eolom; �a] s+ri�ct.t�re of Tazetve'1� Rt]�SP,�1� Tnr1.SP� �'''i7P_zr�F�'l� s]S1C� "TBS�!�71Ert071 C(�172"I�'iPS Of' S!il^rriI119t Am. Ph;7os. Soc. Pro�., �01. 2?, �p. 1F7-16�, 18�5. Tris d.�.sloc�+.ion br�r_�^s ian ramrriAn 1-imesi-one on the soiatreas+ �f +.he fai�lt line an�l thrusts t�em OV'P.r ianon r�issi.ssip�ian("To,arer Carbonzf- er�ns"iroc'-s on +.,�e rnrt�s�rest s��e The f?�ult nlane �+ the st�rfar.e ��^ a a�eneral d.i re�f�; or� +� +1,� northeast In considerin� the areal and eeolo�i� relai;i.or.s of t-he sa.lt an�l the �vnsU.m deposi_ts the are� sovt�eas+ o�' the fault li.ne is not jmpprf;Fll7t" T�±e depos�.ts �re conf�ned to a bel+ n�r+hwe�f of the fa�alt, �nd extend from the falalt; l�ne nParl�r +o the ovtcropni.nP T�iss� �s�pp5.an sanrlstone alone� tre i"ot of Pine anc� Little Brushv mountains to the northwest Accordin� to rckel � thev are conta`ned in the lower member of the Greenbrier �T?ewman limestone a. �an�es in thickness from 600 to 1,000 feet b. S�i�lv 11.Mes+ones ��rith one or more beds of �vt�svm �anderlai:n by bltae sh�les or slates c. In turn tan�erlain bv ct�a.les or sha]_v limestones con+a9.nin� thi.�k beds of rock salt c], This lower member of the TTeUm,an limestone seems +o be develoned onl�� locallv, as it h�s bPen rer.or�ed only �_n this re�ion((�?`�i ? g� F�ke1, �. C., Salt ancl �*vnsum �'e�osits of s��athtives'-ern zr,'.r�;.n;�: ZT.S. Geol. Sl�rvesr Bu11. 213, nn. 406-416, 19�'�. ((t,To+e: � . ... � eq�a&ls brrRrkets� �s /rTe�nnnan� abo,rell 7. 4c��rdin� i-o Fclrel +he s�.lt and a�.rpsl�m e�enosi.+s �re r�c*arcied as ra�r�n� orie��.nai-ed �'rom �enos�t�on t}�r����'h evac�or»+�or_ o" sea wa.ter an a n�r+.lv or P'C]'F7T'P,l�r �nc]osedf�si�)1 �as�.n, an� are of it!issi.ssi.�pian a�e, bein� o�rerlai_r_ b?� m�^si�*e be�s of rTeU.�nan li�nestone and un�?er7.ai_n b�r T�Rissi.ssi.np�an s��r',�+nne((�61�l.. �, 7n t1�e clPscripti �n.s of the area b�.* Stnse � the l.�cal forrnA+; ons are treat.e�l more in �etail ��6�}�Stose, �'_. �1., Geoln�*v of' the salt an�? p'vbslam �lep�s�ts af southtiv�s+.�rn Sr;_rr�inia: TT.S. �'Teol. Suruev Bta71. 5�0, on. 2�2- 25�, 191�. �. Stose divi_des I',Fi ssissipnia.xi rocks of the area into three formati ons, as follovrs: -9- USGS B. 669 (1) An �.zpnPr 1 imPs+one ca7 ] e�i +,he T'etivman limestnne, tivhi �h has a +.,hi�.l�ne�s of ah�,�+ ;i,�?� fPet. (�l TrP T?�n�r�dv f�rm�t;on, c�r_s-istina �f shales, sands+ones, an�l lime�t.�nes, �rrhi�h h�s �, thic�kness of 1,�?F feet more �r 1Pas, �n�? (�� Th� pr��e sand�t.�ne, wh��h has �+h�..cvness r�nR�Sn��•from ��?:;.��.�.a�� fePt b.Th.e most st.rikin� �'��+ ;n c�nn�c+i�n vri+.h the cvnsum an� sal+ Cj81�nSi_i'.S nf' f1'�l � f�� g'i-rlr`t 7 S �'}iA'4- i'�'1P.�T �.a.�?A �P<'Tl f'(�liTl� i.21 ni?an.+itv onlv in +he sha]Ps �f +�he �Ra��ra�v �'orma+;�n alona� +�e Saltville fa��lt � c. From these an�l o+r.er r��ta �tose's noncliisions re?ar�in.p� the ori�in of the s�7+ an� r�rnslrm �lenos��+-s �re �uite cl�ffer�nt f'rom th�se o�' F,f.kP,l 1) S+�se re�a.r�s them �,s lar[�Plv se�on�arv ar_�1 n^t pr�marv ?.,l ner:�.ved f'rom 1�91�!�r�nl7S-fi7'�'71��(`P.,�US s��imeri+s orlci.nellv cont..a�nir� dissFminR+e� p�vnsvm an�? salt, wh,c�h were nre�in- it�ted i.n a n�rt7.�llsr ;n�losed �rm o�' the sea. 31 m►�is dSssemin�tPcl s�]t and �vnsum v��a.s subse�»entiv concer_t.ratec� i.n +,he s�mP f'orma+� on bzr r�r�>>n� waters c� r�izl pt;na� al�n�* +he fault zone be+wPen +he !'arbon� fernus 3nc3 thP ra*nbr� �n ro�ks C. REC�i?'�S OF' D:��P i'�IELL:S T� �,�';�'� SAI:T??ILi.i�, VA. ((F�6-PR)1 iiomitted)} � D. BIBLI�GFt��3Y( ( �91 i ( ( omi.tted i l VIII. k,-Al�'SA,S((gg_l�ll1 �((beion�s th�s �bst. p., bu+ see abst.p -1D-1) l. nanked �'o,arth am.onm +hP St�+es in b�+,h �taar_t;i+.v and �alize of the salt �rodi�cPc� in 1915. ( ( £�9i � 2. The �t�+P nr��liar,es mta�h rnck s�]t anrl �1G� e�T�nor�L�� salt A. PUSITIOP? ATJD L�TEr?T Or' DFYOSITS((�gl� ]. Tn a smal7 n�r+ of Kansas (sPema.p, Pl. �TTII�(la�s+, �� _gA_)lsalt occurs iIl S!�lt; �9.r'shes as brinP, which on e�*anorat�on dt�rinv tre C�7'Z% SP,z�St�21 ZE?Fi�TP,S f3 �'.OElf'�T1P' O? Stilf% t�71� `�'1.VP,S �"}'lf'. 71f1TflP f'O '�'!1P, so-called salt pans. Salt +'rom +his soizrce i.s na+ known to be ui-� lized 2. Sal_+ ti1�hi.ch is noi�� workec? a+ Ivons and K»nopolis and frnm which brines are nov�r obtaine�l at Flls�^�orth, uu+�h�nson, S1-Prlinp�, I�rons, ar_c] Anthonv and were �n�e ob+,ained at o+�er plaoes 1;es t�tell bel.ow the surface. 3. Sa].t in the form of brine.��also o��u,-� in oer+�in �e� � ot' t.he Perms.an �ncl Penns?fl�anian ("roal T�easiares"1 ir +heeas+ern n�rt oi' t}-,e Sta';e 4. The nart of F�nsas belwo the sur�'a�e, of tivh� ch roek sal1- 3_s knnYun to exis+ � s -khe soiath-renfral. a. Bv examinin� the map (Pl. �rIII ((�bst *�. -9A-11 ) the extent of the areama�.r be re�.dilv de' erm� ned . b. Tncluc?es �?ice and �in��mr�n cota��t:ies, ne�rlv all of T'eno f`ountv, an� parts of Sal�ne, �lls:�vnrth, Iiarton, 1lFcPhers�n, Sta�'f�rd, ?iarve,y, Pratt, Secl�hric.l�, Barber, HarpPr, and Sumner coUn+�es. �. The hea��T l�ne inclosir�� the sh��l�r? are� is di-nnrm fro*� point to noint where deep we�ls have pro�red the presence of rock salt d. The eastern ]iMit of t�e sal+ a.n Kansas probablY corresponds closel,y to this line, as the salt approaches the svrface east�rard �,nd is th�nner th�n i�t- �.s on fhe west and north, where i.t probablv ex+?nds f'9"{'1�P,?' than renresPni-ed. ( (A9i 1 B. STRATIGR,'�YHY Ar?D STRTTCTTrRE((90-9111 l, Th� Salt-P��rsh Aresx((90i1 a. Accorc3�n� to Haworth, ( ii�Al`�SAS �( ( 89)1 ahs+,. p. -9-VTII. )) the sa1.+, m�rshes in northern f'�nsas anr� possi.bl�r �s fr�r sou+h a� Stafford Colan�v o�ta�n trPir sa7+ *�rincipallv from +he s�lt-b�ar�nt� sh�les of +he ne.kota san�st�ne r. Th�se sali- �earire� sha� es '���re been descri.heri as be;na� ne3r the �ase �f thP ta�ner nalrota an�? ran�in� in +.hi ckness from 1� to :�0 fee+.,. c. �n accrnan+ of their salir_e con+ent they un�ler�o erosion r�adilv and le�vA 1ot�r, le�rel. are�� ,F.,hich rP�ei�-e the lea�hinp�s fr�m a�'�acent C. D. IX. A. B. -10- salt-bearing shales si+,uated +.0 1-re ���P,S�;. d. The ori_�in of the salt in the marshes of Stafford Countv, ti�r'^_ether from the "T?ecl Beds" or the salf-bearin� shales of the Dakota, is difficult to dete*�mine, owi.na� to +he co�rer�n�' of inerti.arv and recent sands and �ra�Tels �. �arther sovth, hovresTer, the salt mar5hes of the area on Cimarron R�ver anr� the are on Salt Fork in Oklahom�. are thou�ht to come entirelv from the rock s�lt associat.ed with the Permian "Red Re�s." ` 2. The Rock Salt-4rea((90-9111 �, Tre roc�--s31t bec�s of KAnSaG occur i_n rocks of Permian a�e known b. c. d. P. f. �• h. 7. . as the 1':�arion formation(�ee P1. ?X, A.)i(ahst. p. -10A-)1 mhev e'.row thirner east���ard t� � noin+ l�e•.r�nd 'r,iPl�;nmton a.nd. Little River rind die out i�OS61bIV �rr�thrna+ comin�r near the svr_face Row fa.r the sal� anc� assoc�a+ed rer?s exten� ��restward. is unkno��m TTortht�tar�l �n�i sota+h�ntard �he beds are fa�rizr well. �-n�wn from dri.l]. records, f rom Kanopolis, Flls�^�orth Count,y, on. the north, +o AnthonY, Harner �o�mtsr, on thP so�zth -- t��t �s, �rPrtr ne�rlv to the R!�nsas-(?klahoma S+,at.e line. Fro*.^ the north to sou+h cros� sect�on of +�e State (P1. I�, B.� ((�hct. p. -lOq-)1 �t will 'he Al�SP?'VB�1 that the beds thin nort'�- ward(i90�) � � A most interest�nr� n��estion in connection. �rrith the r�eolov�y of the salt beds is their relation to the extens�.�e �;ypsum deposits in different parts of Kansas and o�' the �re�t Plains area.((91�) �he rock p�ynsum in the n�rthern p�rt of the S+a+e, in T��arshall. Coiantv, lies but a fe�-v feet al�o�re the f:ottonwood limestone, ivh�.ch woulcl place it consi�?erabl,y belovr the I!1ar� on form�.tion To t;he south, in �he �vosum cenl-.ra1 �'i eld, -1-he rock gvpsum occurs in the °�'e� 1 i_na�ton shale, which oRerlies the rRarion formation Tf, theref ore, the correlat�ons made bv CTr�mslev � are correct, the salt beds Zvere denosited at a neriod of time intermec�ia.t.e bets�veen +,he form�.tion of the T?arshall Coun+v roc��- e�vpsum and that in the vicinity of Solomon. 1 91 Gr-imslesT, rr. p., and Raile�r, T;. ?T, S., Speci�7 renort on c��rpsum �nd �trnstam cement pl�s+ers: Fansas TTniv. Geol. Surve�r, vol. �� pls. ? an�1 3, 1899. (.t�o+,note apn�ared with word KANSAS� g��t� n�a�e 89, a��sf. p. -9-VTI.T.�d ;s refer.re�1 to abst.�.9-�'TTII-B-1-a)) �((89)i Irirk, ��. Z., and Fiav��rt-h, �rasmias, Sa7+: Kansas i?ni.v. �eol. Survetr tRineral neso�zrces Anr_. Ru71 ., 1�98, np. 67-1?.�, 18Q9. (That nart of the rullet.in relaf�n� to +he r�e�loc��� of �ansas s�lt(pn. 86- 97) is b�r Haworth.) 1�"iELI REC ORDS ( ( 91-101)1 (iomittedl� BIBLIOGRAPFiY( (1�1) ) ((omitted)1 LOi7ISIAPdA( (101-116)1 l. I,otaisiana in 1915 r�znked fifth in �u�nti.+y an�] sixth -i.n VF,t.]L1P, o�' salt proc�uced, the nroduct bein� rock salt(�101)1 POSITIOPI OF DEPGSITS ( (1�1i ) l. Sa7.t occurs in tUro clistir_ct secti_ons of the ar�¢t�;n�rthern part and in the southern Aart 2. The more imnortant known denos�ts nn� t�ose the southern p�rt, ir c]ose norx�mittr +,o th 3. The loc�t-ions of the deposi_ts or sal�nes of accombanvinp� maps (P1. X and f i t�. 4) .(( abst. SALIT'?ES OF I�C�TIiER�T LOt1ISIATTA((101-10311 1. I ocation( � 101-10?) ) Sf ate, in +he northcentral worl�ed at bresent. bein� in e �*ulf c�ast. the �t�+e are sh^�•�� on the p. -10�- and -10E-1) a. Tn northern nart o�' Iouisiana, :i_n the val]ev of S�bine River, salt -10�- iTS('7S R'ITI.1?�',^Iri FF�, P1�.+P X, 1�1_� T,'Al' OF �r,',"T���;z�pT I OT�ISI �T"� S�;Ci..'T�,T^ I C?C n^'IC�rT r��r S nI IPT��S Frc�m ?n�» '��r 1 � ( , TTpa_+c'� _�,=111-; i*P.��S n _ r,i�-;PS _ t1r�c�� ma.�.n�r� jr� ���+;�.; 1 1^v I f1��i S� �YIA �?P.n� n"j,l's1.1 C1)rT*PZ* i v l r � �7U/7lEI U _ � _ _ ___. . ____ _ .. _. _ _ _ _ - . __ _ _ { i � � OM, i7 �f!" + ShrtvF�+�'r� o ► � _ �„�, -.�✓: .. ""� - � _ � � .•,,.? �, �a:•.: E:� 2�vi�t5_ saf+' wa��� �--�- - - ; ��� � �' , �� ��-� � � � �' � � � � Pt : �Ps Se� �-' !r rr'1� ���. F �,- , �.� �.� r„ , . � ,,�,,� s 1_ � �� ���� ; i, "� .i l��l�e//r,, �''� ; �s -- f�''I�{�[l�;-��c+�F� p ,� � �iserYrr{''�rlvi7 _ „ I � — �f t i �' �- 7'�'w .__ , . . � _ � �N�ajiy , , ` `i ( 4 _ , j _ _ _ �' l—. - - --,�- _ - - � ;. ; �� '� i,�icnf fn21 ;�Idf� �i� 1,n�- _� _ '. C,�tlsy�7F�-f �a17 woiKS "�'- ._w . .:. __.:.�, . ..I. � _ _.� . � .._. '�O � +" �! �: � f.S . - �_ f. 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In the valle�r of �fl� River' �re the follov�in�: 1 j�?a�m�l Casto.r Saline, 5 miles n�rth o? nn�hel7 P or �bnuf; 4 mil.es a�o�vP +he mot�th of nlacc�emona River 2,) Ca+�hntala S�lt Sprin�s, on Cataho?alr� Iake 3) Bro�m's Saline, 6 m�.les uf�st of Tul].os or 1E� mi1Ps sou+.heast of ',"ti.nnfi eld, �n nup:demona river 4) lTe�r reorp�etoti�m F) .qt Tochelle, Tullos, and Selma 6i P?orth�hre�+. o+' '"rinnf ; e1 r� ,'�rinn Par; sh 7� �f f`p�ar Rg�Tc�t� �) At Coochie Dome T,t,nor+ani- sal �nes froTM� �Rr�� �h �t�ch evanar�te�l salt v�ras o�ta;ned diar�n� the C'i�ril �"T�r an�t ParliPr, were ?��no�n�n �s T1ra1-e's, Pr�ce's, �a�lhUrn's, ar_r� ?�in!�'s, af+,er the n�mPs of +he�r resnect.ive o��mPrs or *n�n.��ers. A fiz11 a�,crn�n.t o�' the more �m�ortant s+�.] �.nes of n^rthern I olz;.si ana ha s b�Pn �z��n �y Zteatch. ��( (1�2� ) Ristineau Sa,� ine, t.he � arp;es�- sa] ine in n�rthern I ota� si ana, u*as in I:ake Ri_si--ineata, secs. ?�,?6,?5, �nr� 36, T. 1� r'., p. 10 �U. l ,1c?2., ,?Teatch, A. r., The sal�nes o�' north IoUisiana; a renort on the �;eol o�*�r of I.oUisi�na, p�. 47-IC�O, I o��� siana Fx�er. Sta., 1902. 2. I�istorv( (102)1 a. '"he ti+rorks at the old sal;n�s in northern I,ouisi�na, n�w ab�ndonec�., �.�rere act�.ve dvrin� tre �Svil '.'�ar a.nd for some time before it b. Since the w3r the�r ha�re not been ab�e to compete w�th +hose that produce salt b�T more imnroved meth�ds at, pl�.ces +ha-F hat*e 1�et.+.,er fran.s�ortatic�n faci.lities c. P�os+ of +,he ol� s�i ines WPrP, �re�s t�rhere brzne assuec? from the �*ro»n.�] in the iorm of snrin�s or �'�he�'E? �t �rr�s n�zmne�i in crla�e f ashion and eTraporat�d. cl. These hr�ne� in�'i��te +h?�t bodies of .rock s�lt li� belors. �. Strati�raphv((102.-103)) a. The s41+ s*?rine�s of TLO1"�;�lf?T]'1 Io�?i.siar_a are described bv ?Teathh as Pmerr�?n� penPr�.11V from TTn�er !',r�ta�PolaG oia+�r�ns an� �r� +.hus mep-�ed �n i-hP ���]��*;c m�n �r th� State acoomnan�rin� the re�ort of �iarri � q„� s'ea+.c�?�. � b. ���rris � n�tPs that "t�P �r,�+,acP�tas rocks e.p�?ea.ri.n� abrn�t +.he perinhc�r��s of the no*•+�,Prn sa.lines are not +he un~�Prmos+- Cretaoeolzs sta�*es, but rather th�s� at a�rna+- thP h.oriz�n of the TTacatoch marls or Anona limes+�ne --- that is, below +he Ar�radelx�hia c7.a`rs +h�+ c�an +he CY'P,'�£i(`G'Ot7S in soiai;�U�est �rk�ns�s." c. At�• Razr�,t�rn's �iist�neau, an�l �'ina's �alin.es, f'ossils ch�racteri s+;.� of the lzpper bP�1s of +he TTnner �re+.,acenns have hPen foiand. ((102�) d. Thonmh proof is lackin� o�' +he rr�t�c��;n,�s �t�e of +he hard leaf'- bearint� sandjr t�Vr1f,1C limeGtone that- occurs at C000h�e Rrake a.nd at Price's S�line �nc� 1-ha+. seems tn l,e �ssacia+�d w?th. a�lare�e bed o? soft ch�lklike limestone at Dreke's, the facts +,hus far collec+ed rather stron�l.v in.d�._cat;P it. ((102,-103i � e. In � lafer renor+, rv �rP�tch �( (1��� 1 some salznPs are noted as issui�e� fror!m roclrs h��her i.n the �eoloaic �olt�rnn; for ex�mple, the rri.ne from thP ATe�reet Salt '"Iorkd, tvhi�h issues frnm the St. 1_'?aur� ce formAt; on, the lower formati.on of the Claiborne �;roup (Focene). ((10311 -12.- ? 10? Harrss, G, n., and Veatlzh, P_. C., .a nrPlimin�ry renort on the �'eolo�v oi I�oi�i_si.ana, Iovisi.�»a �'xner, Stat., 1�99. T�e map ODnOs1+P, n. 44 nrP�e�es se�tion 2 on a�eneral o�eolo�y. See also The Fi.ne Islands, i�em, n. 261. �102)i ��arr;�, 7. n., The �olo�ical occurr�nce �f ro�k sal+ in Iouisi�na and easi; TexAs: F�on. �=eolocv, �*07. 4, p. 15, 19�9. ,ab�o fontno+es referred to on a�st, n. -]l-)) 1. 10:� �reatch, A. r., The sal�ne� o�' nnrth Iolaisi�zna: A repOri; on +h� aeolor�v of' Louis;_ana, p. 90, Lo�aisi�na n�ner. Sfa., 190?. aboTe fo�tno+.e referrer� to on abst. p. -11-� ) C. SALII�TES OF S OUT?�ERN LOiTIS IANA( (1Q:�-11.211 l. Location((103-10911 �. The mos+, i�^por+ant salt �iPnos�+,s of I_ouisi_ana a*-e lo��ted ne?r the southern co�st on the Fi�e Isl�nd.s, or S�lt islands a� t-he,y are sometimes called((103)i b. r?amely, Petite Anse, �ra.nde t'ote, Relle Isle, C'ote R] anche, and Co+e Carline (See fip�. 4� ((abst. p. -10 C-)i c. On A��erV Isl�nd (Pet�te 9nse) qnc] '�teeks Island (Grande Cote) rock salt is bein� m�ined on an extensi�-e scale. d. �ther loca.lities in soi�+.hern Iovisiana wher� the r�eolo�ic conclitions are similar to those on the FizJe Islands and where rock salt or sa.lt water, indic�ti.ne; the nossi.ble nresence of rock salt, h�s been folanc� in d.eep drillinp�s are Anse-la-Rt�tte, Preirie T��amou, ��telsh, Chicot, �linton, and Hackberrv.((1031) e. Bel7 e Isle ( (103-1Q5)1 ((omi+ted�� f. Cote Blanche(f10611 ((omittedll e�. Cote �'arline((106-1071) ( ( omi+,ted 1) h. Anse-Lr�-Butte((1�7-108)) i. Prai.ri e Iv?�mou( �10�i 1 i i Yl• fi71� 1• O^�ID'�-F,G'C� ) i ;j. '�rel.sh(i10811 ((omi+ted)1 k. �hi�n+((10811 ��Om�t;f2��� 1. Zrinton((109i1 ((omit+,edl) � IIl. HH('.�'�8�'�'V�l�-��1�1 ((omittedll 2. �trati�raphv((1Q9)) a. The apnellation "island" has been a.ppli.e� in soi�+.�ern Ionisiana to small c�o,nes +.ha+., ris� out of marshes v�rhich are sometimes dr,y and sometimes flooded tivi.th wa+er b. The �eoloa�y of' these islands has been described in deta�l btr Ilac�s, Harris, and jTeatch, � anc? others. 2 1091 Iiacas, A. F., Rock sa.lt in Lov�si.ana: qm. Trst. r1�in. Fn�. Tr�ns., vol. 29, pp. 462.-474, 1900. Narri.s, G. n., Rock Salt: Lotaisiar_a Geol• St]T'VP.V Ru11. 7, 1908. �Teatch, A. r., The Fizre Islends: 4 nrelimin�rV report on +he �eoloe�v of Iouisiana, pn. 209-26?,, I.oUisianr� �'xner. Sta., 1899. c. Accord.�n� to of islands is belonr� 1-o the (',rg-F £dC'@Ol]S. n Iizcas, 3/ "The p'eoloa3c�r�] formation of this series vndoubtec3lv nias�+ern�rv, while the salt denosi_+s Ter+,i�rv and are siannosed +� res+ on +.he � 109 Tuc��, 4. F., on. cit. p. 46S -1:�- d. Har*-is, 4� in h;s d;scussion (Avery Islanc�), s�-ates +h�� '�ua�err_ary aa�e. UU T..7 B vZ 069 o�' the �'eol��'?r of' �'et�+e A.nse all the exnosPd be�s are of 4 109;) Harris, G. D., op, c�t., p. 15 e. Tha+ the t-rl�� n�+,larF ����t;hP^s�rpctural fe�tl�res of these salt domes t�ras ian�erstoorl bv Iucas sPems ar�n»rent from his desrriptions And i.11us+rat-ions f. The e�plan�.+' on of the mo�e of �'ormat�.on of i-,hese �3omes is ano+.her matt;er, �ho�at urhich +,her� �.re manv conflict�n� opinions �. ThP �or.re�tness of Ivcas�s �c�eAs ��•ith referer_ce rot onlv +o +he occurrPnce of salt bvt also to the o�.cnrrence of oil tvas demonstrated in s� si�nal manner a�'ter his opinion had hPen nublished.!(1o411 ;�. S+.ructtzre an�7 �r�.e�in �f S�lt Domes((109-11?,il a. Tl�e �*PnPra7 c�-i.n of the r��lr8 of I.ol�i si �na i s sot�thPns+, �r at ri �*ht an�?les 1-0 +.he �er_eral str�ke �f th� Ter+i �rv s�nd rr?taceo�?s f'orma+; �ns of Tex�s, Arkan��s, anci Ioui siana b. TTn Sarine anc? T'ed �'ivers +,?�e ascent is ��de o�rer the ��e�Pled ed�es of �nc,-aas�n�*l�r olcler �e�lor�ic strat�a.((1Q�11 c. ��ear +�e siar�'ace o�' tre�� �'orma+�a or_s, �t the l ocal_i t�i Ps ,iust c*i�-en �n�3 at o+hers in Tex�s, +here are l�r?�e ma�s�s �f' c*�lnstzm, s�1t, 3nc� si�lnhur, P�+��Fr �1�ne �r &.S�(�!'inf'pf� ,r�7+h one �noi-her �nc� in pl�ces �f:ri+„j1 salt �rr�+P*-, n'�i , �r� r�s . ( (109-11�11 �? . T'��=5� chemi cal sPdi.menf-s, �T*nslam, salt,, and sulph�zr, �^�ere narl s recoa�nized �s bein� forei�n to the re�ul�rlv re�d.e�l_ sed.imentary cla��rs, sands, and mr�T*els �Rr��i.�h +hev acc�m�anied. ((110) ) e. Thev are a.ssoci at.e� vri.th Urhs�'- has been cal l.e� dome struc+ures or domes, an� in�erest ir_ t��1r s'-iadt* h�s bPen nuiel�-�necl anc] drilline� on +,hem 1�Pen nusrec� ��r;th zT��or since 1-he d;scovery of oil assoc;.�+,ed „*-i+,h +hem, bz,r A. F. Iucas, �t Sz��.r_�?.le Top, ^�x., in J�nuar,y, 1901. f. Trey have been stuc�ied ?�v FennPmar_, fiarr; s, z7a•,rA�, Fenned�✓, Iucas, -' ,, l•' ZTP�tch, and other e'eolo�*isi-s, �nd '-he1r rel�,ti.ons �-� one anol-.her and ��� L� to the Ralcones fa�alt z�ne of inex3s have been no-inted out. �*. The dome sfruo+ure is entirPlV �if�'�rent from th�t of the or��narv �nnalachi_an anticlines h. Th? c�omes �re belie�rer� b�T s�m� +o h�ve been .formed b;� p�as nressure fr�m below; bv ofrers +rey are at+.ributecl +..n htrdros+,�tic �ressure; anc� b•- �t�ers to i.sosta+ic movemen+s. �ti]l ofhers re�ard them �.s af volcan�.c ori�in, one such hvpothesis beina the vnlc�nic-plup; hvnoi-.hesi s o? Ha�Pr. l� 1 1.10 ��a�er, Lee, The mounc3G or the sotathern o:il fields: �;n�. �n�3 T�in. Joi,r., �rol. 7�, n�. 1�7-1�0, 190h. i. Tn �isci.��c�n?� the c�omc� 6�r17C+t7r� nr the ''�innfield arer� of Lo�?isian�,2,/ in vrh�ch +�er? �re +}ir�P v:re�l-defsned areas th�t su�*a�es+ +,he nreGence of �lome st�^ucttare, Harr; ���s mPnti on�c� an ir_�erest�n�* theorv of their orip��.n, �rrri.ch, �N� th ot.her +heori e�. 1-ha� nre�e!�ed i t, i s amnli f i ed in hi.s report for 19(17. 3/ ? 11�. , H�rr�s, rr. n., T�otPs on +he t*eolo�y of +..t�a i',';nnfield sheet: I otiis� ana Geol. Starvev �3u1.1 . 5, pz�. 8-9, 1909. �110)1 N�rri.s, r. �., poc?r ��lt: Lot�i.siana �7Po1. Survev Tiull. 7, nr,. 59-82,, 1908; also, The �eolo�iral occureBnce of rock salt -ir_ Iot?i.siana: rcon. �Teolo�r,r,ol. 4, pt�. 1?-34, 19�9. 1) Ins'-ead of a++,,-;rta+;.n� �he nres�ure nece�sa.r�T for the upli.fti_ne� of these remarkable �.�rc�al�r c�or+es with 1-he3r qu�quanersal d7ns t� �as, oil, water, or �ny comt�3naf�on �f' them under a heaw head, or to an i�*nPous x�lug, ?i�.rris re�ards the �otiver of �rowir.� crvst�ls as the �e�ent resnonsible for +heir formation. -14- 2) Al l�eoloaists �rho ha�e stud.ied the nh�nomena in Lolais� ana and Tex�s have -indenenden+lv concl��c�ec� thai- +he -sa.lt masses are sec�n�ar,y, and all tivill nerha�s admit that r�ra+er ha� been the dissol��i.n� and trans- portina� a�'ent. :�) :4cceptinp� those fundamental fa�+s, Narri_s reaarc�s nreci.nitation of the sa1t. fpnm +he ris�na rr�nes a.s bFina� due to decrease in � tempera+,ure and believe� that the "ur_lifi�i.n� force i_s am�lv accoiznt;ecl for bv the nower of p�rowina- crvstals." 4) Ne a�l�itces the foll.owinr� poin+s in support oi t'�is hvaothesis: (1) The concentric fi.�ures and stre�ks, �rerv f��n+ �n nl�zces, that mav be due +o �nfiltr�tinr� wQ+ers cr�rrv�n�* impuri+9_es. (.?,) The pl�nes of cleavar�e exolicarle �s h��inr� heen formed b�,� e�re�t presGure n�rmal to +he3r surfa�es (3) The DOc�r1Y formed an�l crizshed salt crvstals at ��nsiderable debth and oonversel,y the perfeo+. crvs+als fo��n�' ne�r the surf ace, as at Aver,y Island �nd Belle Isle; ((110)1 (4) The extreme puri.tv of the salt in the mines zrrhere it i.s now beinp� l�rorked at consi.derable depths((110-111)1 5) Durino; the s1o�N �roluth of the domAs b�r t�'s process surface eros:i_on would Arobablv nrezient the format�on of an,y sha.rp and eleRa+,ed hi.11 �!-ha+ titiro„ld. larmel,y �ncrease th� nre�slare at t�he base of the salt eolumn(�111)) 6) Indeed, some of +he olde?' dortes to the nnrth are topo�raphically � nl�ne or ev�n concave 7� Fpr flarther c�.etails re��.rd�.nr� the relations o�' tempera�ure �nd nressure to the denosit�on of the s�lt in these dome-sha�ed masses the reader is ref erred +,o Harris's report.1/ 1 111 �oe� salt: Iou�s�.an� Geo1, Survev Rull. 7, pn. 75-79, 1908; also �rnrrles� 4. Ti., Pa�in. and l��etall. Soc. Ameri�a �ull. 57, trol. 6, p. 44, 1913; also Fcon. reoloa�,y, vol. 4, np. 12-�4, 1�09. j. In order +o unders+,�nd th� arran�*Pment of the dom�� �n�? +hP �le+�,-iled '' structure conneci-ecl v�r�+h them some of the broader �eoloa�ic facts concerni_n�* the ree'ion as a�vhole must be comprehended 1) ThP rev�� on in which +.hesr occur is kn��vn as the I�Rississippi� emba,y- ment, which is structural7v ��ro�+ p;_tch-in� troia�h. 2) Easi- o�' I'�Fississinpi T?iver the d�ns are to the sout�±.trres+ and w?st af th�t river the �ins are +,o the s�utheast and on bofh sides and on both s�i.d.es the�r a.re much shar�er than the slope of the land toi�rard the �=ulf. (( sic) ) 3) Thus, Terti.ary and Cre+�ceo�zs beds whic� are exx�osed in the n�.rthern pa.rt of Louisiana are deep].v buried in the southern �art of the State 4i It i.s be7.i?zrPd i-h�i- strata i�pre�*nated w3.th salt 1�_e beneath this pitchine; trota�h 5� �s denosits accl�mulated in this oil trouv�h slips or f aultgn� oc�urred becatase of d�_fferential loadin�, and most of them nrobabl,y are related +,o the V-shaped area ealler� the I,�ississivpi embav- ment 6) There e�rould be exvected +,o resuTt from th� s fAultinr� a turofold. s��s+..em of favlts or an+;i�l.inal ri�e�es 71 The domes of the �'rUlf r���+, S�-�fies are hel� eve� +o be loc��ed a1 anr� these l�nes of tive�.kness _ �') 1Plhere stach faults or s+rl��+vrnl li.nes of Z�reakness intersect hot saline wa+ers from t�re�i- den+-�,s co�a1�3 mo�e iapw�r�l +o h-i.��ex an� cooler hori 7ons more eas� lsT �nd r�o*-� nia�.�kl�r +han e.t o+her noin+s alon� sUch s�rtacturt�l lz.nes. 9i At such *�l�ces +he older beds �nd thA ne�.�ver on�s irmTrerlia+..elv oTTerlvin� +,t�em ?�votald tencl t-o 1,u�1�1P upward in fourfolc� or quaquaversal arrane�.ement and t.o form t-.�P most pronn,znced c�ome s�E;ria�+ure. -1 �- 1�. F�n�7 i V, �+- i s t.h�ta�ht th�+ �-he ?�Aes�zo� c�n� Pq1 eozoic burie�l ve�T dee�l�r -in nl.aces 7n I ou-i s; an� An� m�x�s �.� The sal+ nor�r founc� �.n T�rti ar�r an� '�ra+�rr_arv b�ds or� Ri.na+,e� ir_ +he�P ol�?er r��s �) Prorarly of ear�s.� r�esozoi c �r later .PalPozoi.c a�P 8) `�he loca.l. s�l+ ma�ses m�.tr no��r he �.ncr��s�n� in si.ze the domin�* of stzperf'i ri �tl l�vers.� US�S B. g�g hPds ma�T n�t be mav h�ve an� causin� 2 1)1, ,��arris, �T. n., op. ci+., nn. 7�-79. ((absf. p. -14-)1 l. In �n ef�'ort to harmoni ze +he field ezri.�ence nresc�-�f;ec? i-�v tt;e s�lines of loui�iana an� eastern mP,XfiS� �. rT. T?o,-ton 1 has f�rmula+-.ed. a hvpothnsis th�t. is �robably the latest at+,erint at; an exnlanat�on o�' thP ori�*in of +.,rese s�lt deposits.((111)) :i 111 ,am� Tns+. p,�?.n. rnm. �1�] i. 97, nti. �?-1!�?.., 1�1 �. E. Rr;ef�y, re consi.c?ers tha+ +�,� m4�r+i�rv sa7+ den�s;t-� �f +�,� rl�lf co�,st-, �,nd� +�,� rr�+�c�rna.s saline� nfl Pas+�prn Texas ar_� nor�srern I oiai si.ana tiver� �nit� ;�+,��1 �.r t1,_� in+,rlls� on �f moli-en roci-s -into thP unc?erlv�nr� P�'! c�o,^oie sed�ments alor_a� lines o�' s+r1��+ura1 �^�ea'.-ness. ( (112)�� Thes�= �reat .f.aults v,TPre 1-hn s�+r�G �f f requent i�p�M1raf d di snla�em�nts diarinc* the �ubsiclenee �n�l �enosit-;.on:•of +,t�P �a.nc?s, �l�vs, an� 1-ittoral m�rine sPdi*�en+„s nf +�e ?��;s�issinni �nb��rm�nt. ��o'- ascencl�r.� sa1»+�ons, ��n+air_ina� calritzm �nc� mae�nPsi�nn C�AT'�n71a'f"P,S� so�l;um �hloride, carbon �;ox;de, an�? �rar�r;nr* amrnants �f hvdro�en stalphide, minp�lecl ,vith t-hc� artes;�n -eal�ne ��TaterS of fhe "r�tacenias be�? s These tiva+.ers ���ere forced lzrn�r�rd t� +he sl�rf�ce bv the hv�'ros+r�tic heacl ' of the re�ion throu�h char_nels that :^;ere onenPd h�r i-he �'ataltin� an�l movPment vyhi ch fook x�7 ace above t.he in�rusions of the :i.�nPous rocks �TrP�t �le�osits of tr�vert�.ne or calcareous sint.er tnrere formed nea.r the +hermal snrine�s wh� �h i ssued from +hese openint�s, r�nd the s�.nter continver� to form as lon� as +he hvdrostatic head was sttff�cient to ma�.nt ain. the f lc�w T�e selt tiF�as deposi.ted b�• �scen�in� solutions, Urhich became super- saturated bv the rele�se of uressure �s well as bv e�anorgt�on svst�;ned �t .+,hP surfa�e �s +rP rani.d ��ciamul�+; nn nf' s�nter checked tha flo�,v from snrinas Tn th�s wav +,re sal+ aenosifs were hui.lt u� c�ntempor�neouslv v�rith the s�dimentation ��' thP rea��on and f�rmed under co�rers of s�n+er as the�r �re f��,rld �o�d�zv. These �ovPrs nrotecfied +1,Pm from P,Y'OS�on, so +hn+ thPv ha�e `een nreser�red in the-i r enti rety( (112,i 1 SAIT_PRUDUCIP7G I OCALITTES ( (112-] 1611 1. �nl�.r rock- sal+. i.s no�ar nror3v��Pc� in I,ouisi anai � 11?,i 1 2,. Tt-. ; s mi±��� �n r'Tr�r_de rotF(i.�eevs Tsl and i anc� Petit.e A.nsei n��rv Islan�3). �See fi�. 4, n. 1�:�iiiaY�st-.. p. -1C1 C-)) :�. �Trande Cote( (� 1?-11 F11 � iomi.t-+�e�111 4. Petite Anseif`i'�5-116i1 (lo��t+ed11 BIF3I,IOrpgpHY( (11611 Vea.tch, A. C., ThP salines ot' north I,ouisiana: A report on +he �eolo�,y of I.oui.sian�., pn. 47-10�, Ioi�isiana Fxper. Sta., 19�2. Descri.bes 1-he lo�al �e�loe�r of +hP v�rio„s s�lt �vorks and (j1SCl]RSP,S the �eoloa�ic st.ri.acture an� his+orv of' t�e re�i.on. -16- X. T�A,S ((116-1?6)) A. LOCATIOrd OF SALT PRODUCI2TG �1T?`r;AS (( � 16-117)1 l. S�lt in TPx�s in recen+, vears has come chi.efly from Pales+in�, Anderson f'otar_+y, an� �=rand S�J i.ne, �'An. ?andt �oi�nt,y, in the eas+ern pa.rt of fihe sta+,e.(�1161i Z. Color�.�o, r?itcrell �a��nt,y, in the western part of the 9tate, formerlv nrodviced salt, but only solar sal+ nm,�r cor.!es from this nlace.(()16-1171) 3. Some solar s�lt comes fro*n ('r�ne !'ovnty also. ((117) ) 4, The indus+r?T is of lar�:e commer�ial imaor+�nce �.nd �ons�s-`s c�ieflv ir_ the manufactu�e of etranor�tEel s�1+ �. Bia+ +.he salt fnI-med natura.11v bv so] ar eve.pora+i on in +he pla�ras of the �vesfern an� +he lar�oons of +he so»+rwestern pari-s �f t;l�e State i s txsed locallzr. B. SALT DOT�`ES OF EASTERIv TLXAS((117-11E�)) 1. Iocation((]l7); a. pook salt has heen enc�tzntered �t the follow�np� loc.alities in southeastern Texas, �.11 �^�i.+hin the area mapned as Pleis- +ocene and T�ec�nt bv Deussen: � 1 117 neUssen, Alexander, TT. S. Geol. S1ar�Tey i'�a+Pr-Sunolv �'aper 3'�5, pl. 1, 1914. See also Fennem�n, N. 1',�., �il fields of the Texas-L�uis�.an� Guli �oastal Plai.n: TT. c. �=eo1. Sur�rey Rull. 282, pl. 1, 1906. 1) Snind]P+on, Jef�'erson f'�t�ntv; S�vr I�ke, Hardin Coi�ntu; Hi�h Isl.an�l, f,a1$eston f'oUnt;y; n�mon P��ound, �.razori a Colantv; and na�rton uil l, I ibert,y CovntY 2) T�ere h�s bnen a sina,7 e men+i on of s�zlt in _ dri.11�n� at Ratson, Hardin �ountv, 2/ where, accc�rdin�^ to �n observation of the drillers, 12 feet of sal+ was encolantered in a irrell nor+heast of thP �Pn+er of the R�+son field af a depth o:f' 1,��7 feet or 1'�� feet �r���e the oil rock. In the absence of otrPr mPn+�.on of s�.lt in this field the obsPrva+-i on can not be finallv aCCP.I�'�P,C�. 2( 117� Fenneman, ]'?. ?°., on. ci+.,, P. 5S. :�) Accor�lin.� to Narris �i/ streaks or salt ha�e be�en fovnd at Kisers H:i.l l, Rrazoria Co��nty. � 117 Har*-�.s, �_, n., nock s�l+,; Iouisi�na �Teol. S1�2'l?P.V RU�1. 7, p. 47, 190�'. 4) Thou�h no ro�k salt has b�;en �onndy��-s���.water in abUndance has t�een encolmterec� in !�r� 1] in�* for oil and �as at Sarat�r�a, Nardin Cotant,y; Rip� Nill, Jefferson CAL1Tlt��� anc] Ht�mble, Harris Countv. 5) Sarato?�a, Ri.e� Hill, �nd. Humble are al] mapped bV Duessen as in the Pleistocene area. 2. �eoloa�Vi � 117)1 a. Al�??�' or ne�r the �j1�lf coast of Tex�.s an� at other nlaces in the eastern �art of t�e S+a.te occur domes or �i�me structures like those in I:ot��siana. (See np. 109-112� ((abs+ n. -13-)) b. The �eneral �*eolo�ic cond.itions �lescril�ed lander Iouisian� extend ?r�estward into.Texas, and t-he correr+ theorv o�' th? ori�in of the d omes �r m��mcl s i n I on� s� ana �v; ] 1 p.-oba�l,T be fo�an i to hold �ooc? in Tex�zs, not �n1Tr for the mounds themsel��es, �iat also for the economic m�.nPrql Aroc�uc+s occurrin� in thezn, namelv, sali-, oil, e�9.s, �vpsum, an� stalphtzr. ;�. Tndus+rial nenelop*nent((].77-118)1 a, l�t nnnP of' t,he locali+9es mPnt-i�ned h�s s�]t ener been minec�, b. And so far �s ]-no�r.m no s�r; ol�s �++.emp�s ha�e been ma�e +o oh+�in it bv e�raporation o�' the nA+i�ral br�nes ( i 1171 1 _1�_ USGS B. 669 c. Effnrts hA.�e b��n confir_Pd s�l�l�r to exploit�tion for �as �n� oil, ar_� some o�' them has-P l��en ri�hl�r reatar�l�d(ill7il d� The �rtm,-k c��ne has, hol�rener, a�'��� � f�and �f' infc+rma+ion t� our knowlad�*e oi the Un�er�r�,�nc� for^�at,;�ns ar.�' s+ri,�+ure of t�� �Tulf coast r?omes �:vi.�-hnu+ ,n�h;�•h �t. ,�rntilc� h��*e be�r_ �;.fricult �fl at all possi.?�1� +o cons�;r•urt amT tiveil-su��st-�nti.a+ec� t-he�r�r �s to �;heir ori��n.((�17-11"11 d. `rhe t�me r.maV come w11en 1he s�1t denosits mav be of value. (�11811 e. �i� ready +h� sulnhur de*�nsits at Rr-��,n Fiei �i1ts, �i.raz�ri a Coi�ntv, Tex., �re be�n� z�rorked in the s�r�e manner as +hose at �ulnhur Citzr, C;al.casieu Parish, I:a. C. SALITIL5 OF E�'1,STLRtv T�XA,S ((118-1?li ) 1. Iooa.+ion�(17.8)) a. Th� princip�l salin�G s� f�r des�ri.t�ed in nastPrn Texas are "ranr7 Sali.ne, ?Tan 7anrit ro�anty; P�lestine, Anderson �ounty; Steen Saline an�l n,rooks ��li?�e, Sm�..+,h �ounl-y; and � sal.�ne ?., miles e^st of Rutler, �'reest�n� �'oun�,;T. 2. re�lo�v(�11R11 a. T?��i^lv all�+he sal9res are loT�r, f1.�+- �rPqs +,ha+. oc�tinv c'enre=G� ons wh�.re ?�rine has r�en obl a�red ;��• s;nkinm shallow �r�ells �n�? t+r��re an �n�»s+r�� 1n ez*�.nor�t.P� salt has �r����n up. b. '"haz; are s2zrrn��.nded bv woo�ed h�1�s in wh�_ch wh�te or � �rav 1 i�^estone i s fol�nc? c. The depre�s�ons are usuall�r *��rsh,y �nd mav hol� tira+er dur�n� th� tiR�inter d. �s summer ap��roac?�es, i-Y,e water etra-�orates, l�a�rir� an incrus+ation of salt e. The limest^nes �rP in some �l�ce�^ s��iceoiis an� �n o+ti,eY-:' p�latzc�rii.+ic ].) They anne�r �rom t•.hei.r fos�.�ls +� be +he e�i�i�al.�nt , ��^ f.hc� ^;:�l�y for^na+i.or.(l�te up;���r Gret.aceous� nf alab�m� and TTi_ssiss;i.nni i. The underl�rin� clavs b�]on.� t-� tti?� T��rlor marl, also uz�ner rre+,�ce�us �;. Surrntan��n�* th.ese salir_es on ezrerv si.�lP are strata of T�r{;Z,a,2-V a�e, an� the sal.ines '�11P,TIlSP,I4P,S are therefore i.n the n�+Ure of l'rPt�cenus inliers in the rocks of +YlAt SVSfE',7t1 h. These salines, li'-e thos� in northern Louisiar_a, da not iorm tono�raphic featlares li?re moi�nds or islan�s, but their ori�in is rep�arded as hc��na� +he same as +hat of the c3o�nes i.n I,otai.siana anc3 also farther s�l�th 9n Texas. 3. rranc� Sa19ne((11F-1.20)1 a. �r�nc3 S91i.ne ,:s ;n n�rtheas+Prn 'i'�x�s, in �Tan Zr�nc�+, f'o,�n+z,, on the mai.n linP o" +,he TPxa� � Pae���'i.r �'ailwa�,r rurr_in� ea�t from n.�11as. mhP TPxas Short I�ne n^ilway also en+.ers +he toti�m. b_., The s�l�ne �ts�lf is a s*nqll ��air�e-'Ii.l�P sanc?v pl�i.n, in ��rhich the sand ; s S+rO_r�p'1V �m�re�*nated T,v;+h sa1.t c. It is a��,�+ a mi1.e ] onr� fro-^ east. t,o v.rPst an� arout ha.lf a mi].e v�ide fro� nort-h i-o s�ut;h d. From +re bor�nr�s made +.hn �.nncliasion � s re��hPd t-.ha+, t.he be�s i�n�er7�,*�n� -i+ arP comnarat.�ve]v 1�,rel, thnl�?h in +,hi s t�eneral rea��on the strata. ha�*e been so�newhat disfii��bed.(il1P�� �. ThP surfi�i.al ronks at th�s nl�ce bPlon� to +he mer+i�rv, and in +,h� zrre7.ls from -,��9ch c�u+a are av�.-i.lable the �rAt��e�..:� be�s conta�n�n� the r�ck sali- �re o�rer] ain bti= a*��roxiTna�-,e�.,v I��t� to 1�� feet of Tertiarv beds.((119)) f. Tou�ar�1 +,he southwes+Prn na.-t of the salir_e, beds nf �,uaternarv a�e co�rer the surfac,e. � -18- �. qccor�l�n� to Fenned,y 1/ "the ('retaceous rocks fo�and a+ Crande Sa.line nrnv'_nere, so f�r as lrno�^m, ao�ro�a.ch f,he surf ace, btat a��e co�rered tia*�th OVP.'S' I80 feet of Ter�s�r�r s�nds, clavs, and shalv clavs, an�? are onlv foim� in borin�s of the se�eral wells p>>� do��m for the purpose o�' ohta�_nine� salt. The upner seri�s of the rretaceous form�tion fot�n� in these �uell s apnears to be � ZJZlaP, li�estone m�xed vrith strealts of s�n� �nd. a�rav limestone, havin� a tha.ekness of 42, feet in thP I.one Star well �nd 28 feet i.n the Richardson well, a fetv feet below which t-he salt deposit of 300 feet occurs." 119 Kenredv, ?"7i� 1 iam, Texas reo7 . Siarvey Third Ann. pex�+. 1891, p� 46, 76-�?1, 1892.. h. The sPc+, ons o�' +,he two wel ls just referrer3 to are e�i�*en beloiv: ( f 119) i ( ( abst, n�.�e -1�?A-1 i i. S�x �rel ls h�z�re been d_ril? ed a+ �Trand S31�ne( il?0) ) li 4 at the nlants of B. '"t. Carrin�ton & Co. 2; 2 at the nl�nt of the Grande Salir_e Salt Co. 3) At oresent time one tivell is bein� usec� at e�.�� of the tvro plqnts of the !',arr�na�ton ro. and one ti��ell �t the plant of the rrand Saline �a�t �o. j. The exact +,1�� ckness of the rock salt is not kno.r•m in. all the �^rells, bu+ it is kno�^m tha+, its develonment is on1jT local 1) It pinches out eastwardlY a fe�,�r hiandred feet east of the plant of the C7r�nc� Saline SAlt f'o. 21 TTot e�ren brackish tiva+er is oh' ained here at a,sra�r��.-h a depth as 822 f�et, whereas in most of fhe other p�rts of' ti�is re�ion brackish water is abta�_ned comparati.velv near the surf ace 3) mlP..St; Of the fown of rTr�nc�e Saline, where � well ti�ras sixnk ahout 1,!�00 feet, salt is not enco»nt.ered in depth, and from this directi.on the toTMm drinkinp� �N9+,P.r is oh+�ined a+, 7^�f1�P,r shallovr dept?�s--abor.t 40 feet. 4) T?� sa7t. has been encoun+,ered at amr consi�erable d�.s+ance n�rth or sovth of the totim. �� The salf bed has been de?relope�l onlv for � mil.e, and it is 7'P,DOrtP� tha+, onlv h�lf a m3.le aApears fa�rorab7e for exnloita+ian 4. Pales+ine((120-]211i a. Palest.-ine 5s loca+.eci on a series of a�lauc.onitic san�lv an�l clave�r beds con+,a;n3nt� TertiarV(Cl��.?�ornPl foss�.lsG(l�n)1 � h. ��,fe�i- of +.he totam the 7_an�l slonPs t-o�;vard Trmn'itv.��iver c. 6 mi.l.es southUrest of tr.e +,o,,vn the Saline its�lf is si.�vated d. It is �z flat plain, 1 mile �rri�ie frnm east to tivest, an� ralf a mile from n�rt� to sotath. 1� 1 12,0. Dumble retrPrses th�_s s+atement. Dumble, F. T., Texas rTeol. Sur�rev �ept. 1890, �rol. 2, p. �OF„ 1�91. e. In�rtastai-ions of s�7.t mav be observed ar�i�nd �ts ed�e f. I+s svrface is a dark or l.ead-colored clav, �s at �=ran�e Sali.ne e. Th.e s�l�ne is surrovnded bv a bi_�' ri.n� of hills risin� 60 feet or more abo�re the lo���rlar_d h. In pla�es �n the tops an� slones or the hills therP �re oi�tcrops of �^�hite chalkl.ike foss�.lif'erotas lime�tor_e containin� specl�s of t�l �iaconite 1) The 15me�tone is not seen con.inizonslv all around +he s�l�ne R) �ut o�afcrops in manV places, particial�rlv on the northwestern and. eastern sides 31 Tt is also seen in outcrons on +he so���hern side 4� �3ut to the southeasi- the hills are ?� to �0 fe-i h��her than elswhere anrl i.t � s �ui t;� 1 g_lrPlv +hat +he 1 imes+nne i s �'tP_,r8 concealed un�ler t-he o�TerlvinP clay -1�A- USGS B. 669 (�liQl) I�o�, o�' I�ne S+ar �Ne11, �r�n�' 5�1;� �, jran ?a�'lrlt; �'nl�.nt�*, mex. rR�+c�r; �7. �Y'C1t?�T'vll cLi_m2^s?'tr g`-1''If�ZT C'] �,ZT ??7'n�!m S�'?c� �an�l a.n.r� Rr9�rP,� P� `-i!'�r S�'1AZtT C'1 asr T i p�n i �{-.g � �p�1.r eti,�l.. rl a�r � an� an.r' ���»'-�r 5�.��1,* rlqu gh�lP, `? �n!� ar�' v�a+�r '�'�'..i"� .5"-?Y1f�Y`n('.�r S�A.1P C'n�'Sf9i»�pm nzrri�'PS R].11P. �7T'1f;F'�"(11"�P, P.1�XPr� ��rit'1"1 $�".r(?q�'�S nf' SnY1.f� !3Y1r1 m�^��I �l�^�pSi:C?YIP. �ta'� ��1.7F? {'nrmi_rirr r..1�j.af �G't�C1Gi'f'. I7�r�1 iarhi+e �'3r1(3�Z',t�f-1� a??P,l?'? nf' S!��'i' ;R'?�'P.?"� .'r' n2T' C'.P.YIi" Sa�f (;� r-1 � 17Tn ro�i- s�]t, s+,onned in salt FPrat Tt�i n1r_ r_esc. 2F i2 .� ?n � �n S 6F �� E 4 I o� or r; �h�_rason �re? i, rr�r� Sa] �n- ,`r�n ?�+nd+ r,o�,�+�r, ^'ex.. Soi l, �,r�„rn-i s�-���ar�. �^ar� S�nr?,- �� �,.r /:r�,*nl �,Y7'� rl azr trn� �. (l�r,f 5��� ,`�<'Y�(a 1!;f^,1-E?Y' F;n� Y*Jia� �l �1r �nc��, ^rn��] �i�irbcqnr�� Z•;i-h �r,rr�?-.E9r ('�s�rcF+ �arr�i-P F,?n� Rl1tE?—n'rqir morm-ir�!r' ;t�+n 1,117;<;l�_'h�larl- �lir+� ,rtitl'1 r?�Trii-.F? �n�� �rnl•�n l i-�ac+n.�� N�r�1 mrq�r li••E?gi-nnE S�,nr�zr �hal�r rl s�zr �Sl.�i-.e"1 F:1 ti F- �1 �zr ,-ri };1� rnrri +F; Ch�le? Sk��l F z�•i +.?r, i.r�n vtTr; tF S�nrl�r ghnlq t�ri+h ptr7'lf'G �nnr�gl-C�71r� „r�-Fl-; �trri+n T7nrr� �]ttf� ll^'Pc�-rinn ?7nr�1 f^y'a�r � i•"n�i-(1rP 7 i.ai r1.�-;'�y1(� ��1-.P_.?'n��-� gf-rn+3 nf eq�-F anr7 ]ir,r,c.a-nv,� T'or1- sal t �� 17� Ql�� r1+!�ZT S!1Y7(� nlr']C'jr S''�n��� �s.li'1'1 �nT'el+P.T'� 7pllt' nPT'�P,+.rn-{-.P.ra i 48 � 17 �n � F 1? 14 �r � �1, 18 �n� � � Tlen�-h 26 ;�� 2, % c7 gn R (1 �� �_ � n 7 64. ]7^ 174 3 1F � ^� �6 �� ;zin 'Z F � �� � � C.� _1�_ iTSGS B. 669 5) The fossils from the 1?.mPst�ne ?�.a�-e 1��Pn. c?e+,�rmine� h�r �, T, Hil] as �elon�*�np� t� the �lauconi.t�� bec�s of tl�e TTp�,er Cretaceoias epoch, passihlv representin� t.he t�*^e c�u_r�n�* ��rhich the �i;�lev i�rma+ion was l�i�l �l��m ;n Alabama(�1?.(li) 61 T�e limes+-one cor_t;��ns se�ms of ••e�.�oj�r crt=stal7ine c�zlci+,e (i120-121)1 � 7) It; is siarrounded an� �n m.�r.TT places conered btr loti�rer TPrti.arv claT! ancl ��r river a7li�vilar�((17.1.)) F. Steen S�1ine((1211) Linsdale((sicil &.. S'FPP,71 Sa.] �11P ? c 7t1 T}'�P, T10)^i-narn t'�qt""t nf' �Iilli-�'i �:OUT!'�V� F Tt11�.P..S �ast of a�aats$� and l� mile n�rth of m�rler, on Sa]�n.e �re�k, e. short d,: stance n�r+,r �f' 1,�;he��e it for�s b. ThP sal-ire n�oper is a sm�,11 �ra�rse 1 or Z mile� in lenr�th and fr�m half a m�.le to three-qvarters of a mile in tividi-h c. Tre s�zrface of the saline is co�Pr�� z+��th incrus�-�,tions of salt and i.s comnosPd o_f bl ��k or arav�. sh-black cla,ys d. Iimest�ne olitcrons zn the hil]s surrolanclin� it, and t�is limestone is overlain and surrnunded Y�•r l�ad-colored and lami.r.ated `�'P.7't;13''V CZ�STS e. I ar�e c�uantities of sa.lf v�,rprP ma�e �t tha s salinP �?ur�n� the r�t*il ?"1ar by cl��?�n� shal]ow tivells �nc� e�r�n�ra�in_c the br�ne +.hus obtained ,'r hla�*P � r�n kef.+l es anrl t,nil_e_rs f. It ras l�een renorted t�a+, �s ma.mr as tjvent�� fizrn�ces Zr,rerp rizn at -t-imes, turninp; ovt 12.,�0� sacUs of s�1.t dailv (isic)1 �. I+ took 19� mallons o�' �.v��c�r to ma?�e 1 hushel of' s�lt. � 11 12.1�—�3uci�1 ev, S. B., Texa.s �'reol . anc� _A�r. Sur�eV Fi rst. 9rn. T'Pp+., p. 126, 1�'74 6. Rroolrs S�line((12111 a. Rra�lrs sal ine, i s in th? �oizthwes+Prn p�r� nf Sm� th f'otani-y, �b�t,i- 17 miles soi�+hwes+ ei mvler b. Tt i.s ab�iat 2-1�2 mil�s lon� an� from h9lf to three-�l]FirfP2'S of a m112 VIlC�P c. Its sizrface corls�s+s of hllzP an�? rlack clati*s, �nc� ar�un�' its e�?a�es is se��n, a vellow laminat;ed cla,y d. Iike �teen Saline i_i- is in a. depress�on siarrounded bzr h�.l�s in tiRrh�ch yellow fossili_ferous limesi-�r._e occurs, v.rhich, as alrea�3z� inc��c�tPc�, z�robal�lv is �f T'inl.�v a�e(11tE' TTpT>E�]^ �retaceous) e. rlarzn�^ the Civil ���r se�ren furn�ces, makin� 100 sac�rs n�' s�1 f �1�11y, l�rere ir_ oner�ti on �t t.h� s s�? ine (� si�� ) f. Tt has been estimate�l th�t �On �allons of �,nr�+er Tn!erE� reqla�.red to riake 1 bushel of salt. 2� 2� 1?,15��1e*n, n. 126 ((see fo�tno+;P 1� abore) ` D. OTH�R OCCt?RRr?'C�S OF SAIT((121-12611 1. TTorthti�sPstern mexas( (,121-1 ?4)1 �, Tn +t�.e s�ar�h ior drinkinp� Za�atPr at Spur, ���U�ns �olint�=, Tex., a well has be�n�' � rPcen+ly dr� 11P�? �v S. PR. Swenson �- Sons; ��' T?ewr York, to a total clepth of 4,4PQ feet li Pres�n�P oi miach anh~r�ri+,e and salt 3n the sec+��r led to suv�a�estion bv J. A. TTr��en, of thP TTni.�ersi_+v o£ Texas, +.ha+ +he clex�osi.ts mi�ht can+�in pot�sh s�l+s ?) The ti��e�l had in the mPantime b�en ��s��' bPlovr 1,:�00 feet (�12,1)) :il The reslalts, 1-herPf�re, i(of an�lvsis of w�+..Pr sam�lesl� sePm to indica.te the oresPn�� in +he we�l o�' a potash-be�r-inm 7n�ier, bed, or stra.ti�m �pnroxim�+e7 v 2,, 2�!1 f eoi- hPl�w +he starfa.�e. (� 122.) ) 4) t?�den vTri+es: �"In e�ther d�re�tion n�rth �r s�uth �'rom Spvr +he forrn�tzons lie pract�.cr�lly h�r� z�n+al for at least a hundre�] milPs, and. the notash-bearin� hor;zon, �nrhethPr it be such or not in o�her places, must be at ahotat the same �epth �:; here, ir_ these directions. It seems b. c. -�o- - to the vrriter that thc� p�ener�l. cond5tions indi.c�ted in �the Snur� borinp�, the existence of ar�at salt be�ls and l�ec�s of anhvdrite, to�e+her ��rith the pro�ed potash-beari.nc� stratum, warrant an examination for poi-ash in water f'rom the sam.e horizon in cam� borin� macle in this terr�torv." 1 12?.,,. LT�den, J. A., The deen bor;,ne� a+ Spur: Texas TTniv. Rull. 2�, Sci. ser., pp. �2-89, 1914. 5) The st�eata in the res*ion �i.p +o the west; �?nce the c�enth to t�-i.s horizon wi)1 be �'rea+Pr westward. �nd less eastward((122)i A number o� samx�les from we17s neqr HasUel7 ha�re be�n analyzed anc� �'o��ncl to contai.n �zn unlasUallv 13ra�e qia�n+itv Af' ri1't;r�1-P,� v�rhich i s not believecl to be derived from the surface( (12311 In a later nublication iT�den 1/ �ines the lo�s of sezreral wel]s dril] ed in +he Panhandle of Texas and in thP .re�ian t-o +,he soui-h in ����stern Texas 1) In nearlv al] wells dr. il� ec� salt in impori;a.nt becls vvas diseovered 2) In some o? the beds si�ni�'icqn+ �taant-ities of potas� sa] fs �sere f ound :i) The n�mes an�] locations o�' the well.s are �s follows: Glenario well, Glenario, neaf Sm'+,h Coi�nty Adri.r�n Oil anc' Gas Co. well, near Adrian, Ol�hr�m C'.ount,y Adrian Townsite ('o. well, nea.r Ad.ri�n, Ol�th�n Coiant,y Ro�en ia�ell, Potter Countv I!nillPr ranch well, nan�lal7 �ounty r�cI�ean 'Yell, Crav C,.oi,xntv Frn�r vyells in or near �'hildress, �h-il�ress Coianty Sntar well, Dickens �ount,y PoGt citV we7 1, Garaa Coiint�T Justicebur?' we�.] , r�rz�. 8olmtv Sn<<der well, �currv rounty Sco��i.n we11. , nP�r wes� bo,m�arv of Kent Coi�r_ty TTpl�nd well, iTpton Conntv Rlaena zi� sta well , P?cos Countv neep �rell northwPst of Toyah, Reeves Co»nt,y 1 12�Tt?�c�en, J. A., Potash in +hP Texas Perm;an: mexas TTnin. Bull. 1915, r?o. 17. �. 7r 1-.he rea�i on o�' the Permi an be�'s an�i to a certai_n exten+ i n those of lat.er �eds in northwes+Prn Texas, the �nns+a�t recUrrence of siach �eoa�raphic names as Salt Fork, Salt Creek, ancl Salt B�sin indicates the Uridesnre�� d�_str�l�vtion of sunerficial or under- �*roiand s al ine s e. Ir_ a��3ition to salt lakes anc? spr�n�s, fr�m tvhich salt is obtain- able bv solar evaportation, ex+ensive beds of rock salt occlzr f. D�anv wells in the Permian areas of inexas vield s�lt vrater, some so salt,y �s to render ther� t�nfi.t for honsehold or drinkin� purnoses, hut the:�r have nener been �atil� zPd, so far as is knovm, for sal+, e�. Sa�fil area.s in_ central Texas c�ntain brine wells h, The con�'itions for the denosition of salt seem to have been peculiarlV �'a��}rable durina� th� Permi�an 1) An inclosed sea which exi.sted in the epoch that followed the Penns.:lvanian is supposed to havP reen zrerv shallou for a lon� time 2) T'ec� sa].;ne cl�vs sener�l fePt thick an�1 extendin�* o�rer broad areas in places wbre denos�.teri in it((1231) �� A11 the streams that h�ave theit- ari��n in +,hese c.l�vs �nd s�nc��� ��'�^� es are imprea�natec7 wit?� salt, mamT of i:hem to compl��� sa+iaration.%�12�-1?�11 _?1_ USGS B. 669 4) mhP Salt an�l �ovble rRount�in forks fif Rrazos, Ri?� '°Fich�ta, tand Pea^e r�tTers, and Prqirie nor� anc� S�lt forks or �ed T?�.ver oriv�-ina+e in or pass throl�c�h the "nec� �e�'s" of' t?�P Tri.assi.c and Perm'�n an� arP mc?re or le�s impre�naiPcl ,rr�+.,h s�lt, f,he Salt f'orks of Rr�zns anci �ed rivPrs beznr� conspiclloias examples�(1?4�) ?. '"dPs+ern Texas ( i 124=�?,51 � a. S�lt. Ras-ir_ of Tr�nS-Fe�os ne�*ion ((124-1?5)1 1) Ioca+ion((1?,4)� a� One of thP sal+. l�asi�s of w�s+ern Texas, l�noti^:�n �s ��lt �ias;n, �rhi rh ��s bPen �escr•ihe� b�r p; c�arr�son, 1/ is in the +,r�ns-Pe�os rA�ion, an� thP port�nn s+tadie�3 lies nc�r+h �f +hr TE,'7�=15 k Paci f� c Rai l?vatT, nePr rulberson in Fl P�so !',olint,v, wes1- o_f' �-.he CT��a�'�alupe an�l nelativare mountains ancl exs+- of the Sierra �i�rlo. 2) 3) 4) 1 1?,4, �?ic��ar�son, ]Yl t�'aY1S—�P('�S TPX9S; nn. 67'�-585, l�n�. r. F?,, Sai+., r�zpst�n, �n� net�roleum jT. �. (;P,,nl � �17Y"fr8�r R,l�ll. r�,6�� b� �'he t�a,s�r_, 1�r���� is or_P of t:he promir�n+., derY'i.s-filled i.nter*n�ntare vallezr� b�' +.h�s re��on, t.ren�s 1-o th� n�rth��rest, �nd it-s +,�tal lenmtl� �.s �Lnu� l�t? mi_les, the a.rP�. de^c�ribed b�.r T�ichar��son �ncltarl�nr� 70 miles of this lir.e�r extent ci The area stur?_ied ran�;es from R to 2� miles �.n width and azrera�es 15 mi.l.es, ancl is a ty-�i c�l closed bas�.n di I+ � G co--ered 1�rith unconsol.id�tPd Ylei.stncene "Bash,� der�ved fr�*� ��c� a�j�cen� mountains, an�? i-,?��_s loose materi.al ennce�ls +h� rela�!-�ens bet,z�reen the Pena�s�,=lvanian roc)rs of the Sierra Di�blo on thP tivesfi �nd +he P�rmi.an roc'°s �f th�� �TU��a]une and nel�tirare moun�-��ns on t.he ea�t ��1+ c�enosi.t((12.�-1?.5)1 . , al The deposit of sa.lt �s on the vr�s'f- side of i-h.e basin, ab�u� 1F m,]es Sn�ti;h��rPgt of '�'1 �a�itan Pea?r �n� a litt;le m�re +,har_ 50 mi1Ps north o�' Sran Norn bl It oc�i�niPs � sl�mht- denres�i�r., bein� onP of set*P,r�l "salt la?�es" in +��s narf of the rasin ci The I.a�.rer of salt that covers +?�e surfar.e �i_s said to a+,{;a�n occasiona7ly a th�.ckness of 4 to 6 inches, 1�u�; the measiarem?n+,s •r_a�3e rv nichardson sl�.o�ved onlv 1 inch of comm�rc�.a71v �ra7ua'�le denosit d) The salt i.s �ravisn-tivhi+e, coarsPlu crvs+alline .+.o �r�nu��r, an�7 deli.q�aescent e) ?��inc�bloz^m i-,�izri�?.es oc�asionally co�rer �ts surface f) Purin� �khe �31zst�* d�rv season t}�e sal� bec�mes ��^rnare, i�ut a�'ter a rain, an� esn�c�alltr in loc�1,'+,;_c�S tiarh��-� +?�e siarf�ce salt h�s heen recentl�7 removed, be�.uti.ful ho�ner-shaned crti�stals are formed((1?4i� The e�rotmd-.�rater le�rel lies verv near the siarface in the ree�ion, and test holes ra�idltT fill ��vith ztiater(,(1?�)) '."�hen the surface la�Ter of salt is removed �t is replaced bv brine, whi ch on evRpora+ion forris a ne�r� denosit of salt wzthi.n � f evr , __ , ti�r�ek_ s S� This phenomenon i.ndi�ates an under�rotzd sot�rce of stzp�l�, ��.ther dissemin�+ed G��1t or � concentrat�d denosit v�rith ivh�ch t�ie �roi�nd w�+ers come i_ni;o cor_t-act 6) Ir,n,ensE� qi,,��xt.-�.t,:es or s�lt 'r�ave been hauled a�*rav for .fee�in�; stoc� and for use �.n rl�'-alll�r�ic ooerations at Shafter, 150 miles d5 s+..ent 7) �=�rpslun +'�rms thP floors of i-hese "lakes" and surrounds anr� �anites mzmT of the*n 8) Stror.ti.um m;ne�e,ls �re associ.ated ti�i+,h the p�s,rpsum that surrounds Salt I:al{e, a.nd tra�es of lithiiur_ m�n��al.s h�v� also been flo���. XI. XII. - 22- b. Colorado((1?F)1 l; S�lf is obt��nPcl b�r e�rapor�fion at Co�ora�o, r"itchell Coun1,y, ir_ .+.�e �res+ern x�art of +,he State 2.) "Vherr i-he Penns,yl.vra.n�.an a.ncl �'el~m;an beds are de�eloped in this re�*ion numerous salt sprin�s and �,vells are iound 31 .�t Colorado a bed of r�ck salt was found at a den+h of 85Q feet in drillin�* for watEr, and 140 feet of rock salt �rras nassed throlz�h -i_n f,he next 2F0 feet 4) The tuate.r in several tivells rosP w3.thin ab�>>+ 150 ieet of the surface and coiald not be exh�i�sted bv pvmpin� 51 There has been little or no chan�*e in the c�aracter of the �--�.i;er si.nce the sal+, co-npans bep;an ooe�-a+ions 6) The v�e7is arc� case�? to the first bed of rock sa7t at �?SO feet 7� Fresh ��rater was fo��n� abo�e and bel.ov�r the beds of salt 3. Other I�ocalities((125-1?6)) a. In '�he northwes�j-and west-central �arts of Texas, at �Traham, Youn� rol.znt,y for c�xample, salt has been ohta�ne�? f'ram shallow wells b. The we11s at �'nrdon and other p1 aces i.n Palo Pinto �ount,y, the flo�,�ri.n� 1^.rell nnar ?�Taldr�n, T"eCul�och �'oiznt�,T, s�nd. th�se near San An�elo, Torn Green Count`T, �r;.elr� salfzr tivater. i�125) ) c. Al�n� the coast la�^ons or� sa]t 1�],res have ,yielded �nd can still zri.eld a lar�;e ,yearl„y prodiacfion of salt.((126)) E. BIBLIOCF��PHY((12611 l. Cummins, W. F., Renort on th.e �eolo�* of northwest�rn Texas: Texas Geol. Surve�r Set�ond Ann. ?�ept., 1A90, pp. 444-449, 1R91. 2. Nernc�on, J. N., Texas �eol. Survey Secon�3 Ann. Rept., 1�90, pp. 22,2-2,?4, 1891. Describes salines of Smith Cotmt,y. 3. �ennedy, r�lillia.7n, Texas Geol. S�arvey Second Rept, of Pro�ress, 1P91, pA. 55-69, 1P92. Salt described on na�*es 64-66. nescr�hes Cretaceovs, Tertiary, and ��zaternar�* s+ra+a of eastern Texas, and the contained be�ls of salt, lie�nste, etc. 4. Penrose, R. 9. F., Preliminary report orr +.he Gulf Tertiarv oi mexas: Texas �eol. Svr��e�T F�rst Ann. Rep+., 1889, p. 33, 1890. Pescribes Palests.ne saline. OKLAHOMA.((126-1?9)) 1, ?'he salt, industrv in Olrlahom�. is unimportant and maihl�T loc�l 2. Di�rin� the last few s,rears sal.t has been �roduced on a a[n�ll"scale near Fer�uson, Blaine Countv, in the vres+ern part of the 3ta+.,e, and ne�r Salton and jTinson, Harm.on CoUnty, in the south�res+ern �art. A. SALT PI:AIT?S((126-1?..9)) l. I ocation� (1?,6) ) �C�xa����t� ((�bstracted material belon�*s here as �iven abst.p.22A) ) 2. Cimm�ron �'iz�er Pla�ns(�1271) i i oTn it� e�l �) �. uarmon Count�r P1 ai.ns ( (17.,71) ( ( omitt;ed 1� ) �. Alfalfa CoL��i�,y Pla�r�s�(1?8)1 (fommitted.l� 5. R7.a�ne Counts� Plains��12811 (iomm�tte��l 6. Beck�am ('olantv Plain((128-129)� (iOmmittPd)1 7. Jacl�-son ro�.�nt�r Pla�.ns: ( (129) ) B. BIBIIOGPAPHY( (129)) ( �o�tte�?1) OREGOTJ( (129-1311) 1. rTo s�l+, has been made in Ore�on ?.n recent ye�rs, but J. poss Rro•F.me l� savs in a re�ort on the min�ral resoUrc.es o�' tha State that it ��ra.s ma�e from bri.ne from sprin�s in the ''Till�mette anci Thnpqva ralle�Ts and at other AZaCP,s 2.Accord�ne�, to Brov.me, the